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Tomonori Sato, Yoshiaki Ito, Takashi Nagasawa
Sarcopenia is a condition of the loss of muscle mass that is associated with aging and that increases the risk for bedridden state, thereby warranting studies of interventions that attenuate sarcopenia. Here the effects of 2-month dietary L-lysine (Lys) supplementation (1.5-3.0 %) on myofibrillar protein degradation and major proteolytic systems were investigated in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). At 36 weeks of age, skeletal muscle and lean body mass was reduced in SAMP8 when compared with control senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1)...
October 17, 2016: Biogerontology
Luiz H P Silva, Pedro V R Paulino, Gutierrez J F Assis, Debora E F Assis, Mauricio M Estrada, Matheus C Silva, Jaqueline C Silva, Taiane S Martins, Sebastião C Valadares Filho, Mário F Paulino, Mario L Chizzotti
This study evaluated the effects of growth rate during post-weaning growing phase on carcass traits and beef quality. Thirty-four Nellore young bulls were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: LOW, MEDIUM or HIGH growth rate during post-weaning growing phase followed by high growth rate in the finishing phase. The growth rate affected (P<0.05) all carcass traits evaluated at the end of post-weaning growing phase, except ultimate pH. Carcass dressing was greatest (P<0.05) for the HIGH growth rate group in both phases...
October 12, 2016: Meat Science
W Kyle Mitchell, Bethan E Phillips, Daniel J Wilkinson, John P Williams, Debbie Rankin, Jonathan N Lund, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Postprandial limb blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion reduce with aging. Here we tested the impact of providing bolus essential amino acids (EAA) in the presence and absence of the nitric oxide precursor, l-Arginine (ARG), upon skeletal muscle blood flow and anabolism in older men. Healthy young (YOUNG: 19.7 ± 0.5 y, N = 8) and older men (OLD, 70 ± 0.8 y, N = 8) received 15 g EAA or (older only) 15 g EAA +3 g ARG (OLD-ARG, 69.2 ± 1.2 y, N = 8). We quantified responses in muscle protein synthesis (MPS; incorporation of (13)C phenylalanine into myofibrillar proteins), leg and muscle microvascular blood flow (Doppler/contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)) and insulin/EAA in response to EEA ± ARG...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Gina L O'Grady, Heather A Best, Tamar E Sztal, Vanessa Schartner, Myriam Sanjuan-Vazquez, Sandra Donkervoort, Osorio Abath Neto, Roger Bryan Sutton, Biljana Ilkovski, Norma Beatriz Romero, Tanya Stojkovic, Jahannaz Dastgir, Leigh B Waddell, Anne Boland, Ying Hu, Caitlin Williams, Avnika A Ruparelia, Thierry Maisonobe, Anthony J Peduto, Stephen W Reddel, Monkol Lek, Taru Tukiainen, Beryl B Cummings, Himanshu Joshi, Juliette Nectoux, Susan Brammah, Jean-François Deleuze, Viola Oorschot Ing, Georg Ramm, Didem Ardicli, Kristen J Nowak, Beril Talim, Haluk Topaloglu, Nigel G Laing, Kathryn N North, Daniel G MacArthur, Sylvie Friant, Nigel F Clarke, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Carsten G Bönnemann, Jocelyn Laporte, Sandra T Cooper
This study establishes PYROXD1 variants as a cause of early-onset myopathy and uses biospecimens and cell lines, yeast, and zebrafish models to elucidate the fundamental role of PYROXD1 in skeletal muscle. Exome sequencing identified recessive variants in PYROXD1 in nine probands from five families. Affected individuals presented in infancy or childhood with slowly progressive proximal and distal weakness, facial weakness, nasal speech, swallowing difficulties, and normal to moderately elevated creatine kinase...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
W Chumngoen, C F Chen, H Y Chen, F J Tan
1. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native (TNC) chicken pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. 2. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. 3. Meat from broilers and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics...
October 17, 2016: British Poultry Science
Annalisa Bonifacio, Gerda M Sanvee, Karin Brecht, Denise V Kratschmar, Alex Odermatt, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Statins are generally well tolerated, but treatment with these drugs may be associated with myopathy. The mechanisms of statin-associated myopathy are not completely understood. Statins inhibit AKT phosphorylation by an unclear mechanism, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) activates the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway and promotes muscle growth. The aims of the study were to investigate mechanisms of impaired AKT phosphorylation by simvastatin and to assess effects of IGF-1 on simvastatin-induced myotoxicity in C2C12 myotubes...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Zheng Li, Xin Li, Xing Gao, Qingwu W Shen, Manting Du, Dequan Zhang
Myofibrillar proteins degradation contributes to meat tenderisation during post-mortem ageing. Protein phosphorylation has been revealed to be associated with meat tenderness in recent years. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of myofibrillar proteins phosphorylation on the degradation susceptibility by μ-calpain. Myofibrillar proteins were first incubated with protein kinase A (PKA) or alkaline phosphatase (AP) to increase or decrease the phosphorylation level, following μ-calpain hydrolysis...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mingcong Fan, Ting Hu, Siming Zhao, Shanbai Xiong, Jing Xie, Qilin Huang
The changes in fish myofibrillar protein/cassava starch composites in the starch fraction range from 0 to 1, with their total content maintained at 60mg/mL, were investigated in terms of textural properties, rheological behaviours, morphology, spatial distribution and protein molecular structure. The results revealed that the starch fraction of 0.5 was a critical point for the conversion of the protein matrix to starch matrix and conversion of the gel from elastic to weak. Moreover, the protein-starch synergistic effect on the storage modulus was strongest at fractions of 0...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hae In Yong, Haelim Lee, Sanghoo Park, Jooyoung Park, Wonho Choe, Samooel Jung, Cheorun Jo
The aims of the present study were to examine the use of a flexible thin-layer plasma system in inactivating bacteria and mold on beef jerky in a commercial package and to evaluate the physicochemical changes of the jerky. After plasma treatment for 10min, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Aspergillus flavus populations on the beef jerky were reduced by approximately 2 to 3Log CFU/g. No significant changes in metmyoglobin content, shear force, and myofibrillar fragmentation index were found in the plasma-treated beef jerky...
September 30, 2016: Meat Science
Janaina Barros Luz, Kaliandra Souza Alves, Rafael Mezzomo, Ernestina Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Daiany Íris Gomes, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Josiane Costa Silva, Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate...
October 6, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Damian Conrad Frank, Geert Geesink, Tharcilla I R C Alvarenga, Rod Polkinghorne, Janet Stark, Michael Lee, Robyn Warner
Lamb steaks from semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles were allocated to three different packaging treatments - Darfresh® vacuum skin packaging (VSP), Darfresh® Bloom packaging (80% O2:20% CO2; Hi-Ox-DB) or high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (80% O2:20% CO2; Hi-Ox-MAP) - and stored in simulated retail display for 5 or 10days and then subjected to consumer sensory and chemical analyses. Hi-Ox-MAP and Hi-Ox-DB samples had lower tenderness, flavor, juiciness and overall liking scores and higher TBARS values, compared to VSP...
September 23, 2016: Meat Science
Hemakumar M Reddy, Kyung-Ah Cho, Monkol Lek, Elicia Estrella, Elise Valkanas, Michael D Jones, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Basil T Darras, Anthony A Amato, Hart Gw Lidov, Catherine A Brownstein, David M Margulies, Timothy W Yu, Mustafa A Salih, Louis M Kunkel, Daniel G MacArthur, Peter B Kang
The current study characterizes a cohort of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) in the United States using whole-exome sequencing. Fifty-five families affected by LGMD were recruited using an institutionally approved protocol. Exome sequencing was performed on probands and selected parental samples. Pathogenic mutations and cosegregation patterns were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-two families (40%) had novel and previously reported pathogenic mutations, primarily in LGMD genes, and also in genes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, myofibrillar myopathy, inclusion body myopathy and Pompe disease...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
R H Wang, R R Liang, H Lin, L X Zhu, Y M Zhang, Y W Mao, P C Dong, L B Niu, M H Zhang, X Luo
This study investigated the effects of acute heat stress and slaughter processing on poultry meat quality and carbohydrate metabolism. Broilers (200) were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving heat stress (HS; 36°C for one h), compared to a non-stressed control (C). At slaughter, each group was further divided into 2 groups for slaughter processing (L = laboratory; F = commercial factory). L group breasts were removed immediately after bleeding without carcass scalding or defeathering, and stored at 4°C...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
Ziye Zhang, Yuling Yang, Peng Zhou, Xing Zhang, Jingyu Wang
The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-500MPa) on conformation and gelation properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) were investigated. As pressure increased (0.1-500MPa), α-helix and β-sheet changed into random coil and β-turn, proteins unfolded to expose interior hydrophobic and sulfhydryl groups, therefore surface hydrophobicity and formation of disulfide bonds were strengthened. At 200MPa, protein solubility and gel hardness reached their maximum value, particle size had minimum value, and gel microstructure was dense and uniform...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Gap-Don Kim, Jin-Kyu Seo, Hyeon-Woong Yum, Jin-Yeon Jeong, Han-Sul Yang
The purpose of this study was to find discrimination markers for four major meat species such as beef, pork, chicken and duck. Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins isolated from each meat type were analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and some proteins were identified through LC-MS/MS analysis. We confirmed that troponin I (TnI), enolase 3, l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) could be useful markers for discrimination of mammals from poultry due to their different electrophoretic mobility...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jorn Trommelen, Andrew M Holwerda, Imre W K Kouw, Henning Langer, Shona L Halson, Ian Rollo, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that protein ingestion prior to sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Whether prior exercise further augments the muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether resistance-type exercise performed in the evening increases the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion. METHODS: Twenty four healthy young men were randomly assigned to ingest 30 g intrinsically L-[1-C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-C]-leucine labeled casein protein before going to sleep with (PRO+EX: n=12) or without (PRO: n=12) prior resistance-type exercise performed in the evening...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
J Palmio, B Udd
Distal myopathies and myofibrillar myopathies are both rare subcategories of muscle diseases. Myofibrillar myopathies are genetically heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by distinctive histopathology of abnormal protein aggregations and myofibrillar disintegration. All genes causing myofibrillar myopathy encode proteins that either reside in or associate with the Z-disc. Distal myopathies are also genetically heterogeneous muscular dystrophies in which muscle weakness presents distally in the feet and/or hands...
October 2016: Revue Neurologique
Cruz Elena Enriquez-Valencia, Guilherme Luis Pereira, Jessica Moraes Malheiros, Josineudson Augusto I I de Vasconcelos Silva, Lúcia Galvão Albuquerque, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Luis Artur Loyola Chardulo, Rogério Abdallah Curi
The objective of this study was to estimate allele frequencies of the g.98535683A>G:BTAU7 SNP in the CAST gene in different genetic groups of beef cattle produced in Brazil (Nellore and their crosses with Bos taurus), and to evaluate associations between this polymorphism and meat traits. Five hundred animals from six different genetic groups were genotyped and phenotyped for shear force (SF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), rib eye area, backfat thickness, and total lipids. Alleles A and G of the SNP were detected in all genetic groups and the frequency of A was higher than G...
September 10, 2016: Meat Science
R M Delles, A D True, T Ao, K A Dawson, Y L Xiong
1. The influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and physicochemical properties of chicken broiler breast and thigh meat stored was studied in either an oxygen-enriched (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) or an air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) packaging system during retail display at 2-4 °C for up to 14 and 7 d, respectively. 2. Broilers were fed on a diet with either a low-oxidised (peroxide value 23 meq O2/kg) or high-oxidised (peroxide value 121 meq O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae/selenium-based antioxidant with organic minerals, for 42 d...
September 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
D Avila-Smirnow, L Gueneau, S Batonnet-Pichon, F Delort, H-M Bécane, K Claeys, M Beuvin, B Goudeau, J-P Jais, I Nelson, P Richard, R Ben Yaou, N B Romero, K Wahbi, S Mathis, T Voit, D Furst, P van der Ven, R Gil, P Vicart, M Fardeau, G Bonne, A Behin
Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are mostly adult-onset diseases characterized by progressive morphological alterations of the muscle fibers beginning in the Z-disk and the presence of protein aggregates in the sarcoplasm. They are mostly caused by mutations in different genes that encode Z-disk proteins, including DES, CRYAB, LDB3, MYOT, FLNC and BAG3. A large family of French origin, presenting an autosomal dominant pattern, characterized by cardiac arrhythmia associated to late-onset muscle weakness, was evaluated to clarify clinical, morphological and genetic diagnosis...
October 2016: Revue Neurologique
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