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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#1
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212301/the-phytocomplex-from-fucus-vesiculosus-and-ascophyllum-nodosum-controls-postprandial-plasma-glucose-levels-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-in-a-mouse-model-of-nash
#2
Daniela Gabbia, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Sara Bogialli, Valentina Caputi, Laura Albertoni, Ilaria Marsilio, Nicola Paccagnella, Maria Carrara, Maria Cecilia Giron, Sara De Martin
Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
February 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201934/feeding-value-of-field-beans-vicia-faba-l-var-minor-with-and-without-enzyme-containing-tannase-pectinase-and-xylanase-activities-for-broilers
#3
Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Alexander Mackay Mackenzie, Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183169/effects-of-wheat-supplementation-levels-on-growth-performance-blood-profiles-nutrient-digestibility-and-pork-quality-in-growing-finishing-pigs
#4
Taehee Han, J S Hong, L H Fang, S H Do, B O Kim, Y Y Kim
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc), with an average 27.75 ± 1.319 kg body weight (BW), were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block (RCB) design...
February 1, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179423/xanthine-dehydrogenase-1-silencing-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes-promotes-a-blood-feeding-induced-adulticidal-activity
#5
Jun Isoe, Natthida Petchampai, Yurika E Isoe, Katrina Co, Stacy Mazzalupo, Patricia Y Scaraffia
Aedesaegypti has 2 genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). We analyzed XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR in tissues from sugar- and blood-fed females. Differential XDH1 and XDH2 gene expression was observed in tissues dissected throughout a time course. We next exposed females to blood meals supplemented with allopurinol, a well-characterized XDH inhibitor. We also tested the effects of injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against XDH1, XDH2, or both. Disruption of XDH by allopurinol or XDH1 by RNA interference significantly affected mosquito survival, causing a disruption in blood digestion, excretion, oviposition, and reproduction...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177384/effects-of-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-and-added-fat-fed-immediately-before-slaughter-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-finishing-pigs
#6
K F Coble, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth
The addition of dietary fat has been shown to increase HCW and carcass yield in pigs fed low-fiber corn-soy diets; however, data on added fat in high-fiber, low-energy diets is less available. Therefore, the potential for dietary fat to ameliorate the negative effect high-fiber diets have on carcass yield during the last 3 wk before slaughter is of high importance. This experiment was conducted to determine the interactive effects of 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 5% added fat fed before slaughter on growth performance and carcass characteristics...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177375/production-composition-fatty-acid-profile-and-sensory-analysis-of-goat-milk-in-goats-fed-buriti-oil
#7
J S Morais, L R Bezerra, A M A Silva, M J Araújo, R L Oliveira, R L Edvan, J N C Torreão, D P D Lanna
This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177348/nutrient-digestibility-and-milk-production-responses-to-increasing-levels-of-palmitic-acid-supplementation-vary-in-cows-receiving-diets-with-or-without-whole-cottonseed
#8
J E Rico, J de Souza, M S Allen, A L Lock
Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161724/resistant-maltodextrin-or-fructooligosaccharides-promotes-glp-1-production-in-male-rats-fed-a-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-diet-and-partially-reduces-energy-intake-and-adiposity
#9
Tohru Hira, Ryoya Suto, Yuka Kishimoto, Sumiko Kanahori, Hiroshi Hara
PURPOSE: Increasing secretion and production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by continuous ingestion of certain food components has been expected to prevent glucose intolerance and obesity. In this study, we examined whether a physiological dose (5% weight in diet) of digestion-resistant maltodextrin (RMD) has a GLP-1-promoting effect in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet. METHODS: Rats were fed a control diet or the HFS (30% fat, 40% sucrose wt/wt) diet supplemented with 5% RMD or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) for 8 weeks or for 8 days in separated experiments...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161181/effects-of-bacterial-direct-fed-microbials-on-ruminal-characteristics-methane-emission-and-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-cows-fed-high-or-low-starch-diets
#10
C Philippeau, A Lettat, C Martin, M Silberberg, D P Morgavi, A Ferlay, C Berger, P Nozière
This study investigated the effects of bacterial direct-fed microbials (DFM) on ruminal fermentation and microbial characteristics, methane (CH4) emission, diet digestibility, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in dairy cows fed diets formulated to induce different ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles. Eight ruminally cannulated dairy cows were divided into 2 groups based on parity, days in milk, milk production, and body weight. Cows in each group were fed either a high-starch (38%, HS) or a low-starch (2%, LS) diet in a 55:45 forage-to-concentrate ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161179/methane-production-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics-nutrient-digestibility-nitrogen-excretion-and-milk-production-of-dairy-cows-fed-conventional-or-brown-midrib-corn-silage
#11
F Hassanat, R Gervais, C Benchaar
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161162/invited-review-anti-adhesive-properties-of-bovine-oligosaccharides-and-bovine-milk-fat-globule-membrane-associated-glycoconjugates-against-bacterial-food-enteropathogens
#12
T Douëllou, M C Montel, D Thevenot Sergentet
The prevalence of the main raw milk and raw milk-derived dairy product enteropathogens (Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Salmonella) is higher than the number of epidemiological cases related to ingesting these foodstuffs. Bovine milk oligosaccharides and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM)-linked glycoconjugates interact with foodborne enteropathogens to inhibit their adhesion to intestinal cells and tissues. This review examines the main mechanisms and strategies used by enteropathogens to adhere to their target, details the anti-adhesive properties of MFGM against enteropathogens and enterotoxins, assesses the integrity of bacteria-MFGM complexes during dairy product manufacture and digestion, and discusses the potential for using these macromolecules and glycoconjugates in foods for public health...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159287/adaption-of-an-in-vitro-digestion-method-to-screen-carotenoid-liberation-and-in-vitro-accessibility-from-differently-processed-spinach-preparations
#13
Jane N Eriksen, Amy Y Luu, Lars O Dragsted, Eva Arrigoni
Dark green leafy vegetables are primary food sources for lutein and β-carotene, however these bioactives have low bioavailability. The effects of mechanical and thermal processing as well as fat addition and fat type on lutein and β-carotene liberation and in vitro accessibility from spinach were investigated. Lutein liberation and in vitro accessibility were three-fold higher from spinach puree compared to whole leaves. Results for β-carotene liberation were similar, whereas that of β-carotene accessibility was only about two-fold...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155801/bacterial-bile-salt-hydrolase-an-intestinal-microbiome-target-for-enhanced-animal-health
#14
Wenjing Geng, Jun Lin
To effectively mitigate antimicrobial resistance in the agricultural ecosystem, there is an increasing pressure to reduce and eliminate the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion and disease prevention in food animals. However, limiting antibiotic use could compromise animal production efficiency and health. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Increasing evidence has shown that the growth-promoting effect of AGPs was highly correlated with the reduced activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacterial enzyme that has a negative impact on host fat digestion and energy harvest; consistent with this finding, the population of Lactobacillus species, the major intestinal BSH-producer, was significantly reduced in response to AGP use...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153453/bile-acids-and-their-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Martinot, Lauriane Sèdes, Marine Baptissart, Jean-Marc Lobaccaro, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Primary bile acids are synthetized from cholesterol within the liver and then transformed by the bacteria in the intestine to secondary bile acids. In addition to their involvement in digestion and fat solubilization, bile acids also act as signaling molecules. Several receptors are sensors of bile acids. Among these receptors, this review focuses on the nuclear receptor FXRα and the G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5. This review briefly presents the potential links between bile acids and cancers that are discussed in more details in the other articles of this special issue of Molecular Aspects of Medicine focused on "Bile acids, roles in integrative physiology and physiopathology"...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135903/coagulation-and-rheological-behaviors-of-soy-milk-colloidal-dispersions
#16
Tomoyuki Fujii
Coagulation and rheological behaviors of soy milk are reviewed from the viewpoint of colloidal dispersion system. From the results of relative viscosity in the range of small oil body volume fractions, oil bodies containing oleosin behave as rigid spheres. The Krieger-Dougherty equation was found to describe relative viscosities well under high oil body volume fraction. These results indicate that oil bodies in soy milk behave as though suspended matter. Cross-linking between colloid particles occurs when the coagulant is added, and bulky clusters are formed...
January 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131585/milk-production-and-nutrient-digestibility-responses-to-increasing-levels-of-stearic-acid-supplementation-of-dairy-cows
#17
J P Boerman, J de Souza, A L Lock
The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131569/histidine-deficiency-has-a-negative-effect-on-lactational-performance-of-dairy-cows
#18
F Giallongo, M T Harper, J Oh, C Parys, I Shinzato, A N Hristov
A 10-wk randomized complete block design experiment with 24 Holstein cows was conducted to investigate the long-term effects of feeding a His-deficient diet on lactational performance of dairy cows. Cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 2 treatments: (1) His-adequate diet [HAD; providing +166 g/d over metabolizable protein (MP) requirements, according to the National Research Council (2001) and digestible His (dHis) supply of 68 g/d, or 2.5% of MP requirements] and (2) His-deficient diet (HDD; +37 g/d over MP requirements and dHis supply of 49 g/d, or 1...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124731/digestion-and-metabolism-of-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-nellore-bulls
#19
Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha, Renata Helena Branco, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Fábio Morato Monteiro, Enilson Geraldo Ribeiro
Understanding the reasons why animals of similar performances have different feed requirements is important to increase profits for cattle producers and to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. This study was carried out aiming to identify the associations between residual feed intake (RFI) and animal performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites related to energy balance of young Nellore bulls during the finishing period. Animals previously classified as low (n = 13) and high RFI (n = 12), with average initial body weight of 398 kg and age of 503 days were used...
January 26, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115978/high-fat-diet-modifies-the-association-of-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-polymorphism-with-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-an-asian-indian-population
#20
K A Ayyappa, I Shatwan, D Bodhini, L R Bramwell, K Ramya, V Sudha, R M Anjana, J A Lovegrove, V Mohan, V Radha, K S Vimaleswaran
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) have been shown to influence metabolism related to lipid phenotypes. Dietary factors have been shown to modify the association between LPL SNPs and lipids; however, to date, there are no studies in South Asians. Hence, we tested for the association of four common LPL SNPs with plasma lipids and examined the interactions between the SNPs and dietary factors on lipids in 1,845 Asian Indians. METHODS: The analysis was performed in 788 Type 2 diabetes cases and 1,057 controls randomly chosen from the cross-sectional Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
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