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Fat digestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340236/diet-density-during-the-first-week-of-life-effects-on-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-characteristics-of-broiler-chickens
#1
D M Lamot, D Sapkota, P J A Wijtten, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
This study aimed to determine effects of diet density on growth performance, energy balance, and nitrogen balance characteristics of broiler chickens during the first wk of life. Effects of diet density were studied using a dose-response design consisting of 5 dietary fat levels (3.5, 7.0, 10.5, 14.0, and 17.5%). The relative difference in dietary energy level was used to increase amino acid levels, mineral levels, and the premix inclusion level at the same ratio. Chickens were housed in open-circuit climate respiration chambers from d 0 to 7 after hatch...
March 11, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339711/interactions-of-full-fat-canola-seed-oat-hulls-as-an-insoluble-fiber-source-and-pellet-temperature-for-nutrient-utilization-and-growth-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#2
R Barekatain, R A Swick, M Toghyani, C T de Koning
The effectiveness of the addition of oat hulls (OH) as an insoluble fiber for improving nutrient digestibility and performance of birds fed diets containing full-fat canola seed (CS) was studied. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to assess the main effects of canola source (CS vs canola meal plus oil as control), OH (0 or 3%), pellet temperature (75 and 90°C) and their interactions. A total of 576 male day-old Ross 308 chickens were assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times (12 birds per replicate)...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336180/an-important-intestinal-transporter-that-regulates-the-enterohepatic-circulation-of-bile-acids-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-the-apical-sodium-dependent-bile-acid-transporter-slc10a2-asbt
#3
Ling Xiao, Guoyu Pan
The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs) is governed by specific transporters expressed in the liver and the intestine and plays a critical role in the digestion of fats and oils. During this process, the majority of the BAs secreted from the liver is reabsorbed in intestinal epithelial cells via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT/SLC10A2) and then transported into the portal vein. Previous studies revealed that regulation of the ASBT involves BAs and cholesterol. In addition, abnormal ASBT expression and function might lead to some diseases associated with disorders in the enterohepatic circulation of BAs and cholesterol homeostasis, such as diarrhoea and gallstones...
March 20, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335094/growth-and-physiological-responses-of-broiler-chickens-to-diets-containing-raw-full-fat-soybean-meal-and-supplemented-with-a-high-impact-microbial-protease
#4
Mammo Mengesha Erdaw, Shubiao Wu, Paul A Iji, Rider A Perez-Maldonado
Objective: This study was to evaluate the change and function of the pancreas, and small intestine in relation to growth performance of broilers on diets supplemented with raw soybean meal (RSBM) and protease. Samples of test ingredients and diets, after mixing and prior to being used were also assessed on contents of anti-nutritional factors. Methods: A 3 x 3 factorial study was used, with three levels of RSBM (commercial SBM was replaced by RSBM at 0, 10 or 20%) and protease (0...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#5
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318583/effects-of-feeding-hull-less-barley-on-production-performance-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#6
Y Yang, G Ferreira, C L Teets, B A Corl, W E Thomason, C A Griffey
The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314428/nanostructuring-biomaterials-with-specific-activities-towards-digestive-enzymes-for-controlled-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-lipophilic-bioactive-molecules
#7
REVIEW
Paul Joyce, Catherine P Whitby, Clive A Prestidge
This review describes the development of novel lipid-based biomaterials that modulate fat digestion for the enhanced uptake of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive compounds (e.g. drugs and vitamins). Specific focus is directed towards analysing how key material characteristics affect the biological function of digestive lipases and manipulate lipolytic digestion. The mechanism of lipase action is a complex, interfacial process, whereby hydrolysis can be controlled by the ability for lipase to access and adsorb to the lipid-in-water interface...
November 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304022/altering-the-level-of-calcium-changes-the-physical-properties-and-digestibility-of-casein-based-emulsion-gels
#8
Irene McIntyre, Michael O Sullivan, Dolores O Riordan
Casein-based emulsion gels prepared with different types of lipid (i.e. milk fat or rapeseed oil) were formulated with high (774 mg Ca per 100 g) or low (357 mg Ca per 100 g) calcium levels by blending acid and rennet casein. Their physicochemical characteristics (i.e. composition, texture, microstructure & water mobility) and in vitro digestibility were compared to conventionally formulated high-calcium (723 mg Ca per 100 g) emulsion gels made from rennet casein with calcium chelating salts (CCS). CCS-free, high-calcium emulsion gels were significantly (p ≤ 0...
March 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299866/effects-of-moringa-oleifera-silage-on-milk-yield-nutrient-digestibility-and-serum-biochemical-indexes-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#9
B Zeng, J J Sun, T Chen, B L Sun, Q He, X Y Chen, Y L Zhang, Q Y Xi
This study investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) as a partial substitute of alfalfa hay on milk yield, nutrient apparent digestibility and serum biochemical indexes of dairy cows. MO was harvested at 120 days post-seeding. Fresh MO was cut, mixed with chopped oat hay (425:575 on a DM basis), ensiled and stored for 60 days. Sixty healthy Holstein dairy cows were allocated to one of three groups: NM (no MO or control), LM (low MO; 25% alfalfa hay and 50% maize silage were replaced by MO silage) or HM (high MO; 50% alfalfa hay and 100% maize silage were replaced by MO silage)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290291/influence-of-dairy-matrices-on-nutrient-release-in-a-simulated-gastrointestinal-environment
#10
Sophie Lamothe, Nathalie Rémillard, Julie Tremblay, Michel Britten
The objective of this study was to compare the kinetics of the release of nutrients (peptides and fatty acids) from different dairy matrices (milks, yogurts, and cheeses) in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Prior to processing, different heat and homogenization treatments were applied to milks, and different drainage pH levels were used to control calcium concentration in cheeses. The dairy matrices were then subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein hydrolysis, and fat hydrolysis were analyzed during the gastric and intestinal digestion phases...
February 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284695/effects-of-rumen-undegradable-protein-supplementation-on-productive-performance-and-indicators-of-protein-and-energy-metabolism-in-holstein-fresh-cows
#11
H Amanlou, T Amirabadi Farahani, N Eslamian Farsuni
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding increased dietary crude protein (CP) on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism during 21 d postpartum. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced by previous lactation milk yield, body condition score (BCS) at calving, and parity and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from calving until 21 d postpartum. Dietary treatments were 16.0% CP with 5.0% rumen undegradable protein (RUP) based on dry matter (DM) (16CP), 18...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284063/soybean-polar-lipids-differently-impact-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-the-endotoxin-transporters-lbp-and-scd14-in-flaxseed-vs-palm-oil-rich-diets
#12
Manon Lecomte, Leslie Couëdelo, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Emmanuelle Loizon, Pascale Plaisancié, Annie Durand, Alain Géloën, Florent Joffre, Carole Vaysse, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Fabienne Laugerette
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are nutritional pathologies, characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state. Endotoxins are now well recognized as an important factor implicated in the onset and maintain of this inflammatory state during fat digestion in high-fat diet. As a preventive strategy, lipid formulation could be optimized to limit these phenomena, notably regarding fatty acid profile and PL emulsifier content. Little is known about soybean polar lipid (SPL) consumption associated to oils rich in saturated FA vs...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274456/physicochemical-and-functional-properties-of-protein-extracts-from-torreya-grandis-seeds
#13
Mei Yu, Maomao Zeng, Fang Qin, Zhiyong He, Jie Chen
Proteins extracted from Torreya grandis seeds were investigated for their physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed protein extracts from two cultivars of T. grandis, Shengzhou I (SZPI) and Dazinaiyou (DNPI), had similar protein contents and appropriate amino acid balances with about 41% of the essential amino acid. The molecular weights of seed protein fractions were mostly about 31-37kDa and 20-21kDa. SZPI and DNPI had similar denaturation temperature of around 93.7°C while free sulfhydryl group and disulfide bond contents were found to differ slightly...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265505/key-bacterial-families-clostridiaceae-erysipelotrichaceae-and-bacteroidaceae-are-related-to-the-digestion-of-protein-and-energy-in-dogs
#14
Emma N Bermingham, Paul Maclean, David G Thomas, Nicholas J Cave, Wayne Young
BACKGROUND: Much of the recent research in companion animal nutrition has focussed on understanding the role of diet on faecal microbiota composition. To date, diet-induced changes in faecal microbiota observed in humans and rodents have been extrapolated to pets in spite of their very different dietary and metabolic requirements. This lack of direct evidence means that the mechanisms by which microbiota influences health in dogs are poorly understood. We hypothesised that changes in faecal microbiota correlate with physiological parameters including apparent macronutrient digestibility...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261997/the-strategies-of-behavior-energetic-and-thermogenesis-of-striped-hamsters-in-response-to-food-deprivation
#15
Jing Wen, Song Tan, Qinggang Qiao, Lulu Shi, Yixin Huang, Zhijun Zhao
The life history of many animals includes periods of food shortage. Two behavioral strategies are involved in small mammals in response to food shortage: an increase in activity behavior, representing the increased foraging or migratory behavior, and a decrease in activity level, serving as a mechanism for conserving energy. However, it is uncertain whether animals adopt both strategies in response to food shortage, and whether hormone and neuroendocrine mechamisms are involved in both strategies. In the present study, the changes of behavior and metabolic rate were examined in food-deprived striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis)...
March 6, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261164/impact-of-westernized-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-children-on-leyte-island
#16
Jiro Nakayama, Azusa Yamamoto, Ladie A Palermo-Conde, Kanako Higashi, Kenji Sonomoto, Julie Tan, Yuan-Kun Lee
Urbanization has changed life styles of the children in some towns and cities on Leyte island in the Philippines. To evaluate the impact of modernization in dietary habits on gut microbiota, we compared fecal microbiota of 7 to 9-year-old children from rural Baybay city (n = 24) and urban Ormoc city (n = 19), and assessed the correlation between bacterial composition and diet. A dietary survey indicated that Ormoc children consumed fast food frequently and more meat and confectionary than Baybay children, suggesting modernization/westernization of dietary habits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259537/an-alternative-parameter-to-characterize-biogas-materials-available-carbon-nitrogen-ratio
#17
Ming Wang, Wenzhe Li, Pengfei Li, Shuiping Yan, Yanlin Zhang
Available carbon-nitrogen ratio (AC/N) was proposed as an alternative parameter for evaluating the potential of biogas materials in this paper. In the calculation of AC/N ratio, only the carbon that could be effectively utilized in anaerobic digestion (AD) process is included. Compared with total C/N, AC/N is particularly more suitable for the characterization of biogas materials rich in recalcitrant components. Nine common biogas materials were selected and a series of semi-continuous tests for up to 110days were carried out to investigate the source of available carbon and the relationship between AC/N and the stability of AD process...
March 1, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259403/evaluation-of-the-national-research-council-2001-dairy-model-and-derivation-of-new-prediction-equations-1-digestibility-of-fiber-fat-protein-and-nonfiber-carbohydrate
#18
R R White, Y Roman-Garcia, J L Firkins, M J VandeHaar, L E Armentano, W P Weiss, T McGill, R Garnett, M D Hanigan
Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty acid (FA), crude protein (CP), and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimated by the NRC (2001) dairy model. Mean biases suggested that the NRC (2001) lactating cow model overestimated true FA and CP digestibility by 26 and 7%, respectively, and under-predicted NDF digestibility by 16%...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259401/replacing-alfalfa-silage-with-tannin-containing-birdsfoot-trefoil-silage-in-total-mixed-rations-for-lactating-dairy-cows
#19
G A Broderick, J H Grabber, R E Muck, U C Hymes-Fecht
Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249764/dgat1-and-dgat2-regulate-enterocyte-triacylglycerol-distribution-and-alter-proteins-associated-with-cytoplasmic-lipid-droplets-in-response-to-dietary-fat
#20
Yu-Han Hung, Alicia L Carreiro, Kimberly K Buhman
Enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, mediate efficient absorption of dietary fat (triacylglycerol, TAG). The digestive products of dietary fat are taken up by enterocytes, re-esterified into TAG, and packaged on chylomicrons (CMs) for secretion into blood or temporarily stored within cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). Altered enterocyte TAG distribution impacts susceptibility to high fat diet associated diseases, but molecular mechanisms directing TAG toward these fates are unclear. Two enzymes, acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) and Dgat2, catalyze the final, committed step of TAG synthesis within enterocytes...
February 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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