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Fat digestion

Rodrigo S B Gavira, Marina R Sartori, Manuel N Gontero-Fourcade, Bruna F Gomes, Augusto S Abe, Denis V Andrade
Tegu lizards ( Salvator merianae ) aestivate for up to 5 months during Brazil's winter, when they retreat to burrows and halt most activities. Dormant tegus reduce their gastrointestinal (GI) mass, which allows a substantial energy economy. This strategy however, implies that the first post-dormancy digestion would be more costly than subsequent feeding episodes due to GI atrophy. To address this, we determined the postprandial metabolic response (SDA) of the first (M1), second (M2) and several (RM) feeding episodes after tegus' dormancy...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Edoardo Capuano, Teresa Oliviero, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Lifeng Zhu, Qi Wu, Cao Deng, Mengjie Zhang, Chenglin Zhang, Hua Chen, Guoqing Lu, Fuwen Wei
Carnivorous members of the Carnivora reside at the apex of food chains and consume meat-only diets, rich in purine, fats and protein. Here, we aimed to identify potential adaptive evolutionary signatures compatible with high purine and fat metabolism based on analysis of host genomes and symbiotic gut microbial metagenomes. We found that the gut microbiomes of carnivorous Carnivora (e.g. Felidae, Canidae) clustered in the same clade, and other clades comprised omnivorous and herbivorous Carnivora (e.g. badgers, bears and pandas)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Xue Li, Jun Cao, Xinpeng Bai, Zefang Jiang, Xuanri Shen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which upon microencapsulation, can be used as a source of high quality lipids in infant formula. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the microencapsulation condition of HMFS as a functional product. The microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of microencapsulated HMFS was investigated with respect to four variables including concentration of soy lecithin (A), ratio of demineralized whey powder to malt dextrin (B), HFMS concentration (C), and homogenizing pressure (D)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
M Miyaji, K Nonaka
We evaluated the effects of different methods of conserving the total mixed ration (TMR) and processing hulled rice (Oryza sativa L.) on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and nitrogen utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (126 ± 19 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The experimental diets used fresh TMR and ensiled TMR containing either dry-rolled (DR) hulled rice or steam-flaked (SF) hulled rice...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M T Harper, A Melgar, J Oh, K Nedelkov, G Sanchez, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Katarzyna Grzelak-Błaszczyk, Joanna Milala, Monika Kosmala, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Michał Sójka, Andrzej Czarnecki, Robert Klewicki, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Bartosz Fotschki, Adam Jurgoński
The effects on fermentation processes in the digestive tract, the biochemical parameters and antioxidant capacity of blood in rats fed high-fat diets with quercetin (Q) and quercetin with quercetin monoglycosides (Q+MQ) preparations obtained from onion waste were evaluated. Four groups of eight animals were fed for 4 weeks with a control diet (C), a high-fat diet (HF) and high-fat diets with 0.15% addition of Q and Q+MQ preparations. HF caused an increase in alanine transaminase (ALT), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) and the atherogenic index AII vs...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Christopher G Guglielmo
Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, E Roelfsema, C M Westermann, O Dansen, M Jacobs, J-Y Lee, E A Spronck, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Qian Zhang, Hongyue Yu, Xinhua Xiao, Ling Hu, Fengjiao Xin, Xiaobing Yu
Background & Aims: Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats...
2018: PeerJ
Habib Mosbah, Hassiba Chahdoura, Jannet Kammoun, Malek Besbes Hlila, Hanen Louati, Saoussen Hammami, Guido Flamini, Lotfi Achour, Boulbaba Selmi
BACKGROUND: α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention...
March 5, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Takahiro Ueda, Airo Tategaki, Kazuya Hamada, Hideyuki Kishida, Kazunori Hosoe, Hideyuki Morikawa, Kaku Nakagawa
The biological effects of heat-killed Pediococcus acidilactici R037 (R037) were evaluated when orally administered in mice and rats. Oral R037 administration at a daily dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg for 3 wk dose-dependently reduced fasting and non-fasting serum triglyceride concentrations in KK-Ay /TaJcl mice, a model of type II diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Serum levels of free fatty acids in the 100 mg/kg group tended to decrease (not statistically significant), and total cholesterol levels remained unchanged...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Wen-Ling Kuo, Shir-Hwa Ueng, Chun-Hsing Wu, Li-Yu Lee, Yun-Shien Lee, Ming-Chin Yu, Shin-Cheh Chen, Chi-Chang Yu, Chi-Neu Tsai
The research of carcinogenetic mechanisms of breast cancer in different ethnic backgrounds is an interesting field, as clinical features of breast cancers vary among races. High premenopausal incidence is distinctive in East-Asian breast cancer. However, human cell lines derived from Asian primary breast tumor are rare. To provide alternative cell line models with a relevant genetic background, we aimed to establish breast cancer cell lines from Taiwanese patients of Han-Chinese ethnicity. Fresh tissue from mammary tumors were digested into organoids, plated and grown in basal serum-free medium of human mammary epithelial cells (HuMEC) with supplements...
February 26, 2018: Human Cell
Hong-Sen Bi, Chen Zhang, Fang-Fei Nie, Bo-Lin Pan, E Xiao
Background: Fat grafting technologies are popularly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Due to its size limitation, it is hard to directly inject untreated fat tissue into the dermal layer. Nanofat, which was introduced by Tonnard, solves this problem by mechanically emulsifying fat tissue. However, the viability of the cells was greatly destroyed. In this study, we reported a new method by "gently" digesting the fat tissue to produce viable adipocytes, progenitors, and stromal stem cells using collagenase I digestion and centrifugation...
March 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Keerati Wanchai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Wannipa Tunapong, Titikorn Chunchai, Parameth Thiennimitr, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Siriporn Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
Obesity is health issue worldwide, which can lead to kidney dysfunction. Prebiotics are non-digestible foods that have beneficial effects on health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on renal function, renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) and the mechanisms involved. High-fat diet was provided for 12 weeks in male Wistar rats. After that, the rats were divided into normal diet (ND); normal diet treated with XOS (NDX); high-fat diet (HF) and high-fat diet treated with XOS (HFX)...
April 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Xiao-Li Zhou, Bei-Bei Yan, Ying Xiao, Yi-Ming Zhou, Tai-Yi Liu
As one of low-digestible proteins, tartary buckwheat protein (BWP) revealed a cholesterol-lowering activity. The relationship between the prevention of BWP on dyslipidemia and changes in the numbers of gut microbiota was investigated. The male C57BL/6 mice were separately fed with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD) with casein, and HFD with BWP extract for 6 weeks. Quantitative PCR assay was applied to quantify the microbiota composition in feces. The levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in the mice fed on HFD with BWP were significantly lower than those on HFD with casein...
February 23, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yoshiko Toyoda, Karel-Bart Celie, Jonathan T Xu, Justin S Buro, Julia Jin, Alexandra J Lin, Kristy A Brown, Jason A Spector
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a known risk factor for the development and prognosis of breast cancer. Adipocytes have been identified as a source of exogenous lipids in other cancer types and may similarly provide energy to fuel malignant survival and growth in breast cancer. This relationship is of particular relevance to plastic surgery, because many reconstructions after oncologic mastectomy achieve optimal aesthetics and durability using adjunctive autologous fat transfer (AFT). Despite the increasing ubiquity and promise of AFT, many unanswered questions remain, including safety in the setting of breast cancer...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Tarek A Morsy, Ahmed E Kholif, Osama H Matloup, Amgad Abu Elella, Uchenna Y Anele, Joel S Caton
The experiments reported in this Research Paper aimed to study the effects of mustard and cumin seeds inclusion on feed utilisation, milk production, composition, and profile of milk fatty acids in lactating Damascus goats. The study was a completely randomised design with repeated measurements in time using fifteen goats (6 ± 2 d of lactation) divided into 3 treatments (5 goats per treatment). Goats were offered a control diet of berseem clover and concentrates (1 : 1 dry matter (DM) basis) or the control diet supplemented with either 10 g/d of dried mustard seeds (mustard treatment) or 10 g/d of cumin seeds (cumin treatment) for 12 weeks...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
G J Kolling, S C B Stivanin, A M Gabbi, F S Machado, A L Ferreira, M M Campos, T R Tomich, C S Cunha, S W Dill, L G R Pereira, V Fischer
Plant extracts have been proposed as substitutes for chemical feed additives due to their potential as rumen fermentation modifiers and because of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, possibly reducing methane emissions. This study aimed to evaluate the use of oregano (OR), green tea extracts (GT), and their association as feed additives on the performance and methane emissions from dairy between 28 and 87 d of lactation. Thirty-two lactating dairy cows, blocked into 2 genetic groups: 16 Holstein cows and 16 crossbred Holstein-Gir, with 522...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Alexandra G M Caron, Colette R Thomas, Kathryn L E Berry, Cherie A Motti, Ellen Ariel, Jon E Brodie
Ocean contamination by plastics is a global issue. Although ingestion of plastic debris by sea turtles has been widely documented, contamination by microplastics (<5mm) is poorly known and likely to be under-reported. We developed a microplastic extraction protocol for examining green turtle (Chelonia mydas) chyme, which is multifarious in nature, by modifying and combining pre-established methods used to separate microplastics from organic matter and sediments. This protocol consists of visual inspection, nitric acid digestion, emulsification of residual fat, density separation, and chemical identification by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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