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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727825/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-head-of-the-2nd-instar-pre-molting-larvae-of-the-nm2-mutant-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#1
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Fan Wu, Pingzhen Xu, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Molting is an important physiological process in the larval stage of Bombyx mori and is controlled by various hormones and peptides. The silkworm mutant that exhibits the phenotype of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is incapable of molting in the 2nd instar and dies after seven or more days. The ecdysone titer in the nm2 mutant is lower than that in the wildtype, and the mutant can be rescued by feeding with 20E and cholesterol. The results of positional cloning indicated that structural alteration of BmCPG10 is responsible for the phenotype of the nm2 mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727476/options-for-addressing-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition-supplementation
#2
Steven D Freedman
Patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) have suboptimal secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes and experience a range of clinical symptoms related to the malabsorption of fat. In patients with EPI unable to meet their nutritional requirements, enteral nutrition (EN) support is used to augment nutritional status. In addition to protein and carbohydrate, EN formulas contain fats as a calorie source, as well as vitamins and minerals to help prevent nutritional deficiencies related to malabsorption...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727474/a-primer-on-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-fat-malabsorption-and-fatty-acid-abnormalities
#3
Samer Alkaade, Ashley A Vareedayah
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is characterized by a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in deficits in digestion of all macronutrients, with deficiencies in digestion of fats being the most clinically relevant. The leading cause of EPI is chronic pancreatitis. However, many other causes and conditions may be implicated, including cystic fibrosis, pancreatic duct obstruction, gastric and pancreatic surgery, diabetes mellitus and other conditions. Physical and biochemical causes of EPI include decreased production and secretion of lipase, increased lipase destruction, pancreatic duct obstruction, decreased lipase stimulation and degradation, as well as gastrointestinal motility disorders...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727122/effect-of-increasing-dietary-canola-meal-inclusion-on-lactation-performance-milk-composition-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-lactating-sows
#4
D E Velayudhan, C M Nyachoti
The aim was to determine the effects of increasing dietary canola meal in substitution for soybean meal in lactation sow diets. Forty-five sows with an average parity of 1.8 (SD = 0.83) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 15) consisting of a corn-based control diet and 2 diets with 15% and 30% canola meal formulated by replacing soybean meal with canola meal. Diets were formulated to be similar in standardized ileal digestible AA content and NE value and to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for lactating sows...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727102/effects-of-lipid-form-and-source-on-digestibility-of-fat-and-fatty-acids-in-growing-pigs
#5
Z C Li, Y B Su, X H Bi, Q Y Wang, J Wang, J B Zhao, L Liu, F L Wang, D F Li, C H Lai
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of source (corn DDGS, rice bran, or soybean) or form of oil (extracted or intact) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) and fatty acids. The study determined and compared the ATTD or TTTD of AEE and fatty acids in extracted corn oil, rice oil, and soybean oil with intact oil in corn DDGS, full-fat rice bran, and full-fat soybean. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 47...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727100/gestating-sows-have-greater-digestibility-of-energy-in-full-fat-rice-bran-and-defatted-rice-bran-than-growing-gilts-regardless-of-level-of-feed-intake
#6
G A Casas, H H Stein
The first objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and nutrients in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) determined in gestating sows is greater if feed is provided at 1.5 × the ME required for maintenance than at 3.5 × the ME requirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and nutrients and the concentrations of DE and ME in FFRB and DFRB is not different between growing gilts and gestating sows if both groups of animals are fed 3...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727091/endogenous-fat-loss-and-true-total-tract-digestibility-of-poultry-fat-in-adult-dogs
#7
F R Marx, L Trevizan, F M O B Saad, K G Lisenko, J S Reis, A M Kessler
Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727082/comparison-of-amino-acid-digestibility-in-full-fat-soybean-two-soybean-meals-and-peanut-flour-between-broiler-chickens-and-growing-pigs
#8
C S Park, A Helmbrecht, J K Htoo, O Adeola
The aim of this study was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in full-fat soybean (FFSB), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 430 g/kg CP (SBM-43), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 470 g/kg CP (SBM-47), and peanut flour (PNF) fed to broiler chickens and pigs and to compare the digestibility of CP and AA between broiler chickens and pigs. Four diets were prepared to contain FFSB, SBM-43, SBM-47, and PNF as the sole source of N...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727078/flaxseed-meal-and-oat-hulls-supplementation-modulates-growth-performance-blood-lipids-intestinal-fermentation-bile-acids-and-neutral-sterols-in-growing-pigs-fed-corn-soybean-meal-based-diets
#9
S P Ndou, E Kiarie, S J Thandapilly, M C Walsh, N Ames, C M Nyachoti
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727065/effects-of-feeding-camelina-cake-to-weaned-pigs-on-safety-growth-performance-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-pork
#10
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil contributes dietary energy (fat) in addition to protein (AA) and may provide an opportunity to enrich the n-3 fatty acid content of pork. Information regarding safety, growth performance, and efficacy of feeding camelina cake to pigs is limited. We therefore evaluated the effects of camelina cake inclusion in pig nursery diets. In total, 192 pigs (9.4 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 48 pens, 2 heavy and 2 light pigs per pen. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-based diets including camelina cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18%; variety Celine) replacing soybean meal for 4 wk...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727033/the-effect-of-age-and-carbohydrate-and-protein-sources-on-digestibility-fecal-microbiota-fermentation-products-fecal-iga-and-immunological-blood-parameters-in-dogs
#11
A P J Maria, L Ayane, T C Putarov, B A Loureiro, B P Neto, M F Casagrande, M O S Gomes, M B A Glória, A C Carciofi
The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727030/apparent-and-true-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-fat-in-canola-press-cake-or-canola-oil-and-effects-of-increasing-dietary-fat-on-amino-acid-and-energy-digestibility-in-growing-pigs
#12
X Zhou, E Beltranena, R T Zijlstra
Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725450/various-levels-of-copra-meal-supplementation-with-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-growth-performance-blood-profile-nutrient-digestibility-pork-quality-and-economical-analysis-in-growing-finishing-pigs
#13
H J Kim, S O Nam, J H Jeong, L H Fang, H B Yoo, S H Yoo, J S Hong, S W Son, S H Ha, Y Y Kim
BACKGROUND: To reduce use of main feed ingredient like corn, soy bean meal (SBM) and wheat, alternative ingredients has been studied like copra meal (CM). Production amount of CM which has been high makes CM to be an alternative feed stuff. However, low digestibility on AA and low energy content by high fiber content can be an obstacle for using CM. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of CM supplementation with β-mannanase on growth performance, blood profile, nutrient digestibility, pork quality and economic analysis in growing-finishing pigs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724470/effect-of-glycerol-supplementation-during-early-lactation-on-milk-yield-milk-composition-nutrient-digestibility-and-blood-metabolites-of-dairy-buffaloes
#14
A M Saleem, A I Zanouny, A M Singar
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of glycerol in the diet on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility and some blood metabolites of dairy buffaloes in early lactation. A total of 24 buffaloes were blocked by average milk yield, parity and BW and then randomly assigned to three treatments: control without glycerol (CON); low glycerol (LG): control plus glycerol at 150 ml/day per buffalo; and high glycerol (HG): control plus glycerol at 300 ml/day per buffalo. The experimental period lasted for 60 days...
July 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722797/highly-selective-enrichment-of-phosphopeptides-by-on-chip-indium-oxide-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles-coupled-with-maldi-tof-ms
#15
Dandan Jiang, Naizhong Song, Xiqian Li, Jiutong Ma, Qiong Jia
Selective and efficient preconcentration is indispensable for low concentration of phosphopeptides in phosphorylated protein-related samples prior to MS-based analysis. Herein, an on-chip system coupled magnetic SPE with MALDI-TOF MS was designed. A metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) material, indium oxide, was coated on the surface of Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to prepare the adsorbent, spatially confined with an applied magnetic field. The adsorbent exhibited high selectivity for phosphopeptides in tryptic digests of the mixture of β-casein and BSA (1:1000) and the mixture of β-casein, BSA, and ovalbumin (1:100:100)...
July 19, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712043/effects-of-fibre-digestibility-and-level-of-roughage-on-performance-and-rumen-fermentation-of-finishing-beef-cattle
#16
Dannylo Oliveira Sousa, Bruno de Sousa Mesquita, Alexandre Vaz Pires, Miguel Henrique de Almeida Santana, Luis Felipe Prada Silva
The objective was to evaluate effects of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility and level of fresh sugarcane on intake, body fatness, carcass characteristics, and rumen kinetics and fermentation of beef cattle. Forty-eight Nellore young bulls were used in a complete randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDF digestibility (NDFD) were used...
July 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711219/effect-of-feeding-three-lysine-to-energy-diets-on-growth-body-composition-and-age-at-puberty-in-replacement-gilts
#17
J A Calderón Díaz, J L Vallet, R D Boyd, C A Lents, T J Prince, A E DeDecker, C E Phillips, G Foxcroft, K J Stalder
This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White×Landrace gilts (n=641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, g SID lysine:Mcal ME); diets were not isocaloric. Gilts received three grower, finisher diet combinations: low (0.68% lysine grower, 0.52% lysine finisher), medium (0.79% lysine grower, 0.60% lysine finisher) or high (0...
June 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708615/treatment-of-poultry-slaughterhouse-wastewater-using-a-static-granular-bed-reactor-sgbr-coupled-with-ultrafiltration-uf-membrane-system
#18
M Basitere, Z Rinquest, M Njoya, M S Sheldon, S K O Ntwampe
The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#19
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703953/the-effect-of-temperature-on-in-vitro-digestibility-fat-globular-size-and-free-fatty-acid-bio-availability-in-milk-fat
#20
Michał Smoczyński
BACKGROUND: The rate at which a particular fat is digested has an effect on its bioavailability and on the lipid profile of the blood. Milk fat is a very complex mixture of triacylglycerols, resulting in a very wide melting range (from –40 to +40°C). Because temperature has a pronounced effect on the physicochemical state of milk fat (i.e. crystallisation of different fat fractions), this study analysed the bioavailability of milk fat at different temperatures. METHODS: A simplified model simulating digestion in the intestine at various temperatures was used...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
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