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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078649/acidogenic-digestion-of-pre-pulping-extracts-for-production-of-fuels-and-bioproducts-via-carboxylate-platform-processing
#1
Rakhi Baddam, G Peter van Walsum
Hemicellulose extracted from wood prior to processing the wood into paper or composite materials can be a resource for the production of biofuels or bioproducts. Mixed microbial cultures are capable of converting biomass into mixed carboxylic acids, which can be purified as products or converted to biofuels or other biochemicals. Mixed cultures are robust conversion systems and do not require added enzymes to hydrolyze biomass to sugars. We produced mixed carboxylic acids using mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation of raw, unconditioned green liquor and hot water hardwood extracts, as well as baseline sugar solutions...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074953/gastrointestinal-interactions-absorption-splanchnic-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-orally-ingested-phenolic-compounds
#2
REVIEW
J Abraham Domínguez-Avila, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Gustavo R Velderrain-Rodríguez, C-Y Oliver Chen, Norma Julieta Salazar-López, Maribel Robles-Sánchez, Gustavo A González-Aguilar
The positive health effects of phenolic compounds (PCs) have been extensively reported in the literature. An understanding of their bioaccessibility and bioavailability is essential for the elucidation of their health benefits. Before reaching circulation and exerting bioactions in target tissues, numerous interactions take place before and during digestion with either the plant or host's macromolecules that directly impact the organism and modulate their own bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present work is focused on the gastrointestinal (GI) interactions that are relevant to the absorption and metabolism of PCs and how these interactions impact their pharmacokinetic profiles...
January 11, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069422/identification-of-ecdysteroid-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-the-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#3
Baojian Zhu, Lin Tang, Yingying Yu, Huimin Yu, Lei Wang, Cen Qian, Guoqing Wei, Chaoliang Liu
The hepatopancreas of crustaceans plays an important role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, digestion of food, and biogenesis. In this study, the hepatopancreas transcriptome from the red crayfish Procambarus clarkii was characterized for the first time using high-throughput sequencing, producing approximately 41.4 million reads were obtained. After de novo assembly, 57,363 unigenes with an average length of 725 bp were identified, Gene Ontology analysis categorized 22,580 as being involved in biological processes, among which metabolic process and cellular process groups were the most highly enriched...
January 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061743/shotgun-proteomics-of-the-barley-seed-proteome
#4
Ramamurthy Mahalingam
BACKGROUND: Barley seed proteins are of prime importance to the brewing industry, human and animal nutrition and in plant breeding for cultivar identification. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from seeds, total protein from a two-rowed (Conrad) and a six-rowed (Lacey) barley cultivar were precipitated in acetone, digested in-solution, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The raw mass spectra data searched against Uniprot's Barley database using in-house Mascot search engine identified 1168 unique proteins...
January 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054966/postprandial-glycemic-and-insulinemic-responses-to-common-breakfast-beverages-consumed-with-a-standard-meal-in-adults-who-are-overweight-and-obese
#5
Jia Li, Elsa Janle, Wayne W Campbell
Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1) common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ), and low-fat milk (LFM)); and (2) fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m², age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs) consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053059/parsing-the-life-shortening-effects-of-dietary-protein-effects-of-individual-amino-acids
#6
Sara Arganda, Sofia Bouchebti, Sepideh Bazazi, Sophie Le Hesran, Camille Puga, Gérard Latil, Stephen J Simpson, Audrey Dussutour
High-protein diets shorten lifespan in many organisms. Is it because protein digestion is energetically costly or because the final products (the amino acids) are harmful? To answer this question while circumventing the life-history trade-off between reproduction and longevity, we fed sterile ant workers on diets based on whole proteins or free amino acids. We found that (i) free amino acids shortened lifespan even more than proteins; (ii) the higher the amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, the shorter ants lived and the lower their lipid reserves; (iii) for the same amino acid-to-carbohydrate ratio, ants eating free amino acids had more lipid reserves than those eating whole proteins; and (iv) on whole protein diets, ants seem to regulate food intake by prioritizing sugar, while on free amino acid diets, they seem to prioritize amino acids...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046142/nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-and-prediction-of-nitrogen-excretion-in-sheep-offered-fresh-perennial-ryegrass
#7
Y G Zhao, A W Gordon, N E O'Connell, T Yan
Nitrogen excretion from sheep production systems is an important source of nitrate, ammonia, and nitrous oxide responsible for groundwater pollution and global warming. The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization efficiency and develop prediction equations for manure N, feces N, and urine N outputs in sheep. Data used were collected from 82 sheep offered fresh perennial ryegrass () as the sole diet in 6 metabolism experiments (data from non-grass-only diets were not used). Sheep were from breeds of Highlander, Texel, Scottish Blackface, and Swaledale at the age of 5 to 18 mo and weighing from 24...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043868/evaluation-of-anaerobic-digestates-from-different-feedstocks-as-growth-media-for-tetradesmus-obliquus-botryococcus-braunii-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-and-arthrospira-maxima
#8
Marina Massa, Silvia Buono, Antonio Luca Langellotti, Luigi Castaldo, Anna Martello, Antonello Paduano, Raffaele Sacchi, Vincenzo Fogliano
In this paper, two freshwater microalgae (Tetradesmus obliquus and Botryococcus braunii), a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and a photosynthetic cyanobacterium (Arthrospira maxima) were investigated for their ability to grow on liquid digestates (LDs). Three LDs were obtained from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes: zootechnical (ZW LD), vegetable biomass (VW LD) and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MW LD). All the strains showed the same growth performance on VW LD as on the respective standard media (SM), while ZW LD was efficient only for growth of T...
December 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040651/effect-of-anaerobic-digestion-on-sequential-pyrolysis-kinetics-of-organic-solid-wastes-using-thermogravimetric-analysis-and-distributed-activation-energy-model
#9
Xiaowei Li, Qingqing Mei, Xiaohu Dai, Guoji Ding
Thermogravimetric analysis, Gaussian-fit-peak model (GFPM), and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) were firstly used to explore the effect of anaerobic digestion on sequential pyrolysis kinetic of four organic solid wastes (OSW). Results showed that the OSW weight loss mainly occurred in the second pyrolysis stage relating to organic matter decomposition. Compared with raw substrate, the weight loss of corresponding digestate was lower in the range of 180-550°C, but was higher in 550-900°C. GFPM analysis revealed that organic components volatized at peak temperatures of 188-263, 373-401 and 420-462°C had a faster degradation rate than those at 274-327°C during anaerobic digestion...
December 18, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032398/cultivation-and-characterisation-of-the-surface-markers-and-carbohydrate-profile-of-human-corneal-endothelial-cells
#10
Richárd Nagymihály, Zoltán Veréb, Réka Albert, Laura Sidney, Harminder Dua, Andrew Hopkinson, Goran Petrovski
BACKGROUND: To characterise human corneal endothelial cell (HCEnC) cultures generated by the peel-and-digest method based on their surface protein/carbohydrate expression pattern. METHODS: QPCR was used to compare expression of Vimentin, CD90, Cytokeratin-19, ZO-1, Claudin 14 in cultured HCEnC and cell line B4G12 versus stromal cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to assess surface protein distribution of cultured and uncultured HCEnC. Distribution of surface proteins/ carbohydrates was visualised by immunofluorescent and lectin staining...
December 29, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025252/various-sulfated-carbohydrate-tumor-marker-candidates-identified-by-focused-glycomic-analyses
#11
Miki Tanaka-Okamoto, Mikio Mukai, Hidenori Takahashi, Yoshiyuki Fujiwara, Masayuki Ohue, Yasuhide Miyamoto
Glycomic analysis focused on sulfated O-glycans was performed to identify novel serum carbohydrate tumor markers. Sulfated glycans were enriched by α-neuraminidase digestion of pyridylaminated glycans prepared from sera, followed by anion exchange chromatography. Sulfated O-glycan profiles were constructed by two types of high performance liquid chromatography separation. Comparison of the profiles from 20 healthy controls with those of 11 gastric and 9 pancreatic cancer patients identified 14 marker candidates...
December 26, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012374/macroalgae-culture-to-treat-anaerobic-digestion-piggery-effluent-adpe
#12
Emeka Godfrey Nwoba, Navid Reza Moheimani, Benjamin Ewa Ubi, James Chukwuma Ogbonna, Ashiwin Vadiveloo, John R Pluske, John Marinus Huisman
Environmental consequences of high productivity piggeries are significant and can result in negative environmental impacts, hence bioremediation techniques (in particular using macroalgae) are therefore of great interest. Here, the growth potential of several freshwater macroalgae in anaerobic digestion piggery effluent (ADPE), their nutrient removal rates and biochemical composition of the biomass were investigated under outdoor climatic conditions. A consortium of two macroalgae, Rhizoclonium sp. and Ulothrix sp...
December 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011688/cyantraniliprole-at-sublethal-dosages-negatively-affects-the-development-reproduction-and-nutrient-utilization-of-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#13
Chunmei Xu, Jinfeng Ding, Yunhe Zhao, Jian Luo, Wei Mu, Zhengqun Zhang
To better understand the application prospect of cyantraniliprole against the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, a diet-incorporation bioassay was adopted to determine the toxicity of cyantraniliprole against the fourth instar of O. furnacalis Moreover, other experiments were conducted to examine effects of sublethal levels of cyantraniliprole on larval development, nutrient utilization, and reproduction. In this study, cyantraniliprole showed a high toxicity to fourth-instar larvae of O. furnacalis at dosages of 0...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011297/effect-of-entodinium-caudatum-on-starch-intake-and-glycogen-formation-by-eudiplodinium-maggii-in-the-rumen-and-reticulum
#14
Grzegorz Bełżecki, Neil R McEwan, Barbara Kowalik, Tadeusz Michałowski, Renata Miltko
This study aimed to quantify the engulfed starch and reserve α-glucans (glycogen) in the cells of the ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii, as well the α-glucans in defaunated and selectively faunated sheep. The content of starch inside the cell of ciliates varied from 21 to 183mg/g protozoal DM relative to the rumen fauna composition whereas, the glycogen fluctuated between 17 and 126mg/g dry matter (DM) of this ciliate species. Establishment of the population Entodinium caudatum in the rumen of sheep already faunated with E...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007348/home-use-of-a-bihormonal-bionic-pancreas-versus-insulin-pump-therapy-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-a-multicentre-randomised-crossover-trial
#15
Firas H El-Khatib, Courtney Balliro, Mallory A Hillard, Kendra L Magyar, Laya Ekhlaspour, Manasi Sinha, Debbie Mondesir, Aryan Esmaeili, Celia Hartigan, Michael J Thompson, Samir Malkani, J Paul Lock, David M Harlan, Paula Clinton, Eliana Frank, Darrell M Wilson, Daniel DeSalvo, Lisa Norlander, Trang Ly, Bruce A Buckingham, Jamie Diner, Milana Dezube, Laura A Young, April Goley, M Sue Kirkman, John B Buse, Hui Zheng, Rajendranath R Selagamsetty, Edward R Damiano, Steven J Russell
BACKGROUND: The safety and effectiveness of a continuous, day-and-night automated glycaemic control system using insulin and glucagon has not been shown in a free-living, home-use setting. We aimed to assess whether bihormonal bionic pancreas initialised only with body mass can safely reduce mean glycaemia and hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes who were living at home and participating in their normal daily routines without restrictions on diet or physical activity. METHODS: We did a random-order crossover study in volunteers at least 18 years old who had type 1 diabetes and lived within a 30 min drive of four sites in the USA...
December 20, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002936/evaluation-of-the-nutritional-value-of-locally-produced-forage-in-korea-using-chemical-analysis-and-in-vitro-ruminal-fermentation
#16
Kwang Seok Ki, Su Bum Park, Dong Hyun Lim, Seongwon Seo
The use of locally produced forage (LPF) in cattle production has economic and environmental advantages over imported forage. The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional value of LPF commonly used in Korea. Differences in ruminal fermentation characteristics were also examined for the LPF species commonly produced from two major production regions: Chungcheong and Jeolla. Ten LPF (five from each of the two regions) and six of the most widely used imported forages originating from North America were obtained at least three times throughout a year...
November 24, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002030/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-aegle-marmelos-l-corr-is-partly-mediated-by-increased-insulin-secretion-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-and-retardation-of-glucose-absorption
#17
Prawej Ansari, Nadia Afroz, Shahnaz Jalil, Sohel Bin Azad, Md Gazi Mustakim, Sabbir Anwar, S M Nazmul Haque, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Ramisha Rifat Tony, J M A Hannan
BACKGROUND: Aegle marmelos (commonly known as Bael, golden apple) was formerly described to have anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study aimed to explore the possible effects, in depth, of A. marmelos extracts on carbohydrate absorption, glucose utilization, and α-amylase inhibition and insulin content in pancreases of type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: This research begins with fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to evaluate the primary anti-hyperglycemic effect in chemically induced type 2 diabetic rats...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000689/comparison-of-flax-linum-usitatissimum-and-salba-chia-salvia-hispanica-l-seeds-on-postprandial-glycemia-and-satiety-in-healthy-individuals-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#18
V Vuksan, L Choleva, E Jovanovski, A L Jenkins, F Au-Yeung, A G Dias, H V T Ho, A Zurbau, L Duvnjak
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994477/acarbose-promotes-remission-of-both-early-and-late-dumping-syndromes-in-post-bariatric-patients
#19
Flavio A Cadegiani, Osvalmir Sá Silva
OBJECTIVE: Acarbose is a glucosidase inhibitor that slows carbohydrate digestion. It could thus be effective to promote remission of dumping syndrome (DS). Previous studies associating acarbose and late dumping, although not early dumping, have been reported. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of acarbose in dumping syndrome prevention and treatment and in resistive exercises resistance in bariatric subjects. METHODS: Bariatric patients with DS and complete adherence to diet plan and resistive exercises were included (n=25)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988289/the-impact-of-n-glycosylation-on-conformation-and-stability-of-immunoglobulin-y-from-egg-yolk
#20
Long Sheng, Zhenjiao He, Jiahui Chen, Yaofa Liu, Meihu Ma, Zhaoxia Cai
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody, and its applications in industry are very broad. To provide insight into the effects of N-glycosylation on IgY, its conformation and stability were studied. In this research, IgY was extracted from egg yolk and then digested by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase. SDS-PAGE and infrared absorption spectrum showed that carbohydrates were distinctly reduced after enzymolysis. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that the IgY molecule became more flexible and disordered after removal of N-glycan...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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