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Carbohydrate digestion

Alejandra I Martinez-Gonzalez, Ángel G Díaz-Sánchez, Laura A de la Rosa, Claudia L Vargas-Requena, Ismael Bustos-Jaimes, And Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla
The digestive enzymes-polyphenolic compounds (PCs) interactions behind the inhibition of these enzymes have not been completely studied. The existing studies have mainly analyzed polyphenolic extracts and reported inhibition percentages of catalytic activities determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Recently, pure PCs and new methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism have been applied to describe these interactions. The present review focuses on PCs structural characteristics behind the inhibition of digestive enzymes, and progress of the used methods...
April 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marcin Taciak, Marcin Barszcz, Ewa Święch, Anna Tuśnio, Ilona Bachanek
The study aimed at determining the effect of protein type and indigestible carbohydrates on the concentration of microbial metabolites in the large intestine of pigs. The experiment involved 36 pigs (15 kg initial body weight) divided into six groups, fed cereal-based diets with highly digestible casein (CAS) or potato protein concentrate (PPC) of lower ileal digestibility. Each diet was supplemented with cellulose, raw potato starch or pectin. After 2 weeks of feeding, pigs were sacrificed and samples of caecal and ascending, transverse and descending colon digesta were collected for analyses of microbial metabolites...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
J C Vidal-Quist, F Ortego, S Rombauts, P Castañera, P Hernández-Crespo
Products manufactured from mass-cultured house dust mites, currently commercialized for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy, are heterogeneous in terms of allergen composition and thus present concerns to regulatory authorities. The most abundant species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae), produces 19 allergenic proteins. Many of these are putatively involved in mite digestive physiology and metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mite-rearing media on allergen production...
April 21, 2017: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Yonglin Gao, Yunzhi Wang, Yanshen Li, Rui Han, Chunmei Li, Lin Xiao, Susan Cho, Yukui Ma, Chao Fang, Albert W Lee
In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted...
April 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
S Baumgartner, B J M van de Heijning, D Acton, R P Mensink
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control)...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Bart Lagerwaard, Seamus Kelly, Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is modulated by diet and there is convincing evidence of reduced risk with higher non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) consumption. Resistant starch (RS), a NDC, positively modulates the expression of oncogenic microRNAs, suggesting that this could be a mechanism through which NDCs protect against CRC. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two NDCs, RS and polydextrose (PD), on microRNA expression in the macroscopically-normal human rectal epithelium using samples from the DISC Study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Mélissa Robb, Joanne K Hobbs, Alisdair B Boraston
Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is a method in which a fluorophore is covalently attached to the reducing end of carbohydrates, thereby allowing visualization following high-resolution separation by electrophoresis. This method can be used for carbohydrate profiling and sequencing, as well as for the determination of the specificity of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Here, we describe and demonstrate the use of FACE to separate and visualize the glycans released following digestion of oligosaccharides by glycoside hydrolases (GHs) using two examples: (1) the digestion of chitobiose by the streptococcal β-hexosaminidase GH20C, and (2) the digestion of glycogen by the GH13 member SpuA...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ajay Badhan, Yuxi Wang, Tim A McAllister
Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Acebes et al., Front Plant Sci 5:303, 2014; Badhan et al., Biotechnol Biofuels 7:1-15, 2014; Badhan et al., BioMed Res Int 2015: 562952, 2015; Roach et al., Plant Physiol 156:1351-1363, 2011). The infrared spectrum generates a fingerprint of a sample with absorption peaks corresponding to the frequency of vibrations between the bonds of the atoms making up the material. Here, we describe a method focused on the use of FTIR in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the composition of the plant cell wall...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Richard McLean, G Douglas Inglis, Steven C Mosimann, Richard R E Uwiera, D Wade Abbott
Investigating the subcellular location of secreted proteins is valuable for illuminating their biological function. Although several bioinformatics programs currently exist to predict the destination of a trafficked protein using its signal peptide sequence, these programs have limited accuracy and often require experimental validation. Here, we present a systematic method to fractionate gram-negative cells and characterize the subcellular localization of secreted carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). This method involves four parallel approaches that reveal the relative abundance of protein within the cytoplasm, periplasm, outer membrane, and extracellular environment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaorong Lin, Xiong Gao, Zhongzheng Chen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wei Luo, Xiaofei Li, Bin Li
Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhaoyang Yuan, Yangbing Wen
Aiming for the complete utilization of bamboo biomass, an integrated process which combines ethanol production with the recovery of silica and lignin was proposed. To reduce chemical charge required for the fractionation of silica and lignin from bamboo and improve the digestibility of the obtained substrate, a sequentially two-stage pretreatment process of autohydrolysis and alkaline extraction was carried out. From the view of enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and recovery of silica and lignin, a two-stage treatment of autohydrolysis at 180°C for 90min followed by alkaline extraction at 100°C with 6% NaOH (based on pretreated chips) for 120min was optimized...
April 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Maycoll Stiven Romero-Güiza, Radziah Wahid, Verónica Hernández, Henrik Møller, Belén Fernández
Lignocellulosic biomasses such as wheat straw are widely used as a feedstock for biogas production. However, these biomasses are mainly composed of a compact fibre structure and therefore, it is recommended to treat them prior to its usage for biogas production in order to improve their bioavailability. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in terms of performance stability, methane yield and economic feasibility, two different scenarios: a mesophilic codigestion of wheat straw and animal manure with or without a low-energy demand alkaline pre-treatment (0...
April 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Joana Gangoiti, Lisa Lamothe, Sander Sebastiaan van Leeuwen, Christina Vafiadi, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Previously we have reported that the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum NCIMB 8003 uses the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GtfD to convert maltodextrins and starch into a reuteran-like polymer consisting of (α1→4) glucan chains connected by alternating (α1→4)/(α1→6) linkages and (α1→4,6) branching points. This enzyme constituted the single evidence for this reaction and product specificity in the GH70 family, mostly containing glucansucrases encoded by lactic acid bacteria (http://www.CAZy...
2017: PloS One
C Giromini, M Ottoboni, M Tretola, D Marchis, D Gottardo, V Caprarulo, A Baldi, L Pinotti
Ex-food or former food products (FFPs) have been proposed as one of the categories with great promise as alternative feed ingredients. FFPs' nutritional potential is not yet fully exploited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a nutritional evaluation of selected FFPs. In particular, six samples of mixed FFPs, all based on bakery products, were analysed for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, starch and ash. Nitrogen-free extractives and non-structural carbohydrate were also determined...
April 11, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Maria Gabriella Gabrielli, Daniele Tomassoni
PURPOSE: The protective function of the intestinal mucosa largely depends on carbohydrate moieties that as a part of glycoproteins and glycolipids form the epithelial glycocalyx or are secreted as mucins. Modifications of their expression can be induced by an altered intestinal microenvironment and have been associated with inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer. Given the influence of dietary factors on the gut ecosystem, here we have investigated whether a long term feeding on a starch-rich diet can modulate the glucidic profile in the colonic mucosa of rats...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
Ian Rowland, Glenn Gibson, Almut Heinken, Karen Scott, Jonathan Swann, Ines Thiele, Kieran Tuohy
The diverse microbial community that inhabits the human gut has an extensive metabolic repertoire that is distinct from, but complements the activity of mammalian enzymes in the liver and gut mucosa and includes functions essential for host digestion. As such, the gut microbiota is a key factor in shaping the biochemical profile of the diet and, therefore, its impact on host health and disease. The important role that the gut microbiota appears to play in human metabolism and health has stimulated research into the identification of specific microorganisms involved in different processes, and the elucidation of metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with metabolism of dietary components and some host-generated substances...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
A meta-analysis based on an individual-cow data set was conducted to investigate the effects of between-cow variation and related animal variables on predicted CH4 emissions from dairy cows. Data were taken from 40 change-over studies consisting of a total of 637 cow/period observations. Animal production and rumen fermentation characteristics were measured for 154 diets in 40 studies; diet digestibility was measured for 135 diets in 34 studies, and ruminal digestion kinetics was measured for 56 diets in 15 studies...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
K E Hales, A P Foote, T M Brown-Brandl, H C Freetly
The use of an added lipid is common in high-concentrate finishing diets. The objective of our experiment was to determine if feeding increasing concentrations of added dietary corn oil would decrease enteric methane production, increase the ME:DE ratio, and improve recovered energy (RE) in finishing beef steers. Four treatments were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square ( = 8; initial BW = 397 kg ± 3.8). Data were analyzed using a Mixed model with the fixed effects of period and dietary treatment and random effects of square and steer within square...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
L G Silva, P D B Benedeti, E M Paula, F Malekjahani, P M Amaral, L D S Mariz, T Shenkoru, A P Faciola
Cheatgrass (CG; ), an introduced winter annual grass, is an aggressive invader of the sagebrush community in the Western United States. Because of its greater flammability, mature CG constitutes a fire hazard leading to repeated wildfires. One fuel-reduction strategy is livestock grazing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of urea, molasses, or a combination of urea and molasses supplementation of a CG-based diet on digestibility, microbial fermentation, bacterial protein synthesis, and nutrient flow using a dual-flow continuous culture system...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Dongyao Li, Haiqin Chen, Bingyong Mao, Qin Yang, Jianxin Zhao, Zhennan Gu, Hao Zhang, Yong Q Chen, Wei Chen
As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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