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Carbohydrate digestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783049/thermopuncture-for-the-diagnosis-monitoring-and-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Valery Muzhikov, Elena Vershinina, Ruslan Muzhikov, Kirill Nikitin
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a socially significant disease that affects millions of patients. There were an estimated 366 million people with this disease in 2011, and, according to the forecast, approximately 552 million will be affected by this disease in 2030. It is well known that the primary diagnosis and treatment of a patient with this disease are quite expensive. What should be done to make it possible for a patient to monitor his own state and provide treatment in his own home using telemedicine? To solve this problem, an alternative concept for the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment at the basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with mathematical methods of data processing has been used...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774049/bioreactor-microbial-ecosystems-with-differentiated-methanogenic-phenol-biodegradation-and-competitive-metabolic-pathways-unraveled-with-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#2
Feng Ju, Yubo Wang, Tong Zhang
Background: Methanogenic biodegradation of aromatic compounds depends on syntrophic metabolism. However, metabolic enzymes and pathways of uncultured microorganisms and their ecological interactions with methanogenic consortia are unknown because of their resistance to isolation and limited genomic information. Results: Genome-resolved metagenomics approaches were used to reconstruct and dissect 23 prokaryotic genomes from 37 and 20 °C methanogenic phenol-degrading reactors...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771345/sucrose-metabolism-alters-lactobacillus-plantarum-survival-and-interactions-with-the-microbiota-in-the-digestive-tract
#3
Xiaochen Yin, Dustin D Heeney, Yanin Tab Srisengfa, Shin-Yu Chen, Carolyn M Slupsky, Maria L Marco
We investigated whether sucrose metabolism by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum influences the intestinal survival and microbial responses to this organism when administered to mice fed a sucrose-rich, Western diet. A L. plantarum mutant unable to metabolize sucrose was constructed by deleting scrB, coding for beta-fructofuranosidase, in a rifampicin-resistant strain of L. plantarum NCIMB8826. The ScrB deficient mutant survived in 8-fold higher numbers compared to the wild-type strain when measured 24 h after administration on two consecutive days...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765221/surgical-treatment-of-an-esophageal-bronchogenic-cyst-with-massive-upper-digestive-tract-hematoma-without-esophagectomy-a-case-report-and-the-review-of-the-literature
#4
Yuanjun Cheng, Donglai Chen, Li Shi, Wentao Yang, Yonghua Sang, Shanzhou Duan, Yongbing Chen
Esophageal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. Here we report a case of massive upper digestive tract hematoma and bronchogenic cyst mimicking aortic dissection that was safely removed without esophagectomy. A 30-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a mediastinal cystic tumor located in the submucosa of the distal esophagus. His chief complaints were dysphagia > 1 week and severe persistent upper abdominal pain mimicking aortic dissection with constant vomiting for 1 day after gastroscopy examination...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#5
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762383/starch-tolerance-and-the-short-bowel
#6
Jan de Laffolie, Hassan Y Naim, Silvia Rudloff, Klaus-Peter Zimmer
Short bowel syndrome with intestinal failure is a rare disease with a massive impairment in quality of life, requiring a multidisciplinary team approach to medical, surgical, and nutritional therapy. Current pharmacological and surgical therapeutic options are limited; an important cornerstone is enteral and parenteral nutrition. The changed physiology of carbohydrate digestion plays a major role in the adaptation process and can be a target for specific enteral nutrition interventions. An important prognostic factor is the preservation of at least portions of the colon in continuity with small bowel...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762375/starch-consumption-patterns-in-infants-and-young-children
#7
Erin Quann, Ryan Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The introduction of starch into an infant's diet is an important milestone in the feeding journey. Intestinal maturity and the presence of digestive enzymes are necessary for the physiologic breakdown of starch and other complementary foods. However, little is known about the consumption patterns of starch containing foods during complementary feeding. METHOD: The 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) is a cross-sectional 24-hour dietary intake survey of a nationally representative sample of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers from birth to 48 months of age...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762371/posttranslational-processing-and-function-of-mucosal-maltases
#8
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
The final step of carbohydrate digestion in the intestine is performed by 2 major α-glucosidases of the intestinal mucosa, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase. Both of these enzymes are type II membrane glycoproteins, which share a significant level of homology in gene and protein structures and yet have differences in the posttranslational processing, substrate specificity and functional capacity. Insufficient activity of these disaccharidases particularly SI as a result of genetic mutations or secondary intestinal pathologies is associated with carbohydrate maldigestion and gastrointestinal intolerances...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762368/maltase-has-most-versatile-%C3%AE-hydrolytic-activity-among-the-mucosal-%C3%AE-glucosidases-of-the-small-intestine
#9
Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker
Complete digestion of the glycemic carbohydrates to glucose takes place through the combined action of the 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase) in the small intestine. Maltase digests α-1,2- and α-1,3-disaccharides better than the other α-glucosidases, and has, as well, the capability to effectively hydrolyze α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages that form the major backbone of a starch molecule. This broad hydrolytic activity on α-linkages makes it an enzyme that has the most versatile α-hydrolytic activity among the 4mucosal α-glucosidases...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761557/effects-of-dietary-yeast-cell-wall-on-faecal-bacteria-and-fermentation-products-in-adult-cats
#10
J P F Santos, A A Aquino, M B A Glória, M J Avila-Campos, P M Oba, K de M Santos, T H A Vendramini, A C Carciofi, A R Junior, M A Brunetto
This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of spray-dried yeast cell wall (YCW) in diets for healthy adult cats on apparent nutrient digestibility and on bacterial composition and fermentation products in the stool. Fourteen cats with an average weight of 4.40 ± 1.05 kg and an average age of 6.2 ± 0.54 years were used and assigned to treatments in an unbalanced randomized block design (by experimental period) with two blocks and three or four cats per diet in each block. Treatments included: control (0% YCW), 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758009/a-review-on-the-weight-loss-effects-of-oxidized-tea-polyphenols
#11
REVIEW
Dylan O'Neill Rothenberg, Caibi Zhou, Lingyun Zhang
The mechanistic systems in the body through which tea causes weight loss are complex and multi-dimensional. Additionally, the bioactive components in tea such as catechins, caffeine, and products of tea polyphenol oxidation vary greatly from one major tea type to the next. Green tea has been the primary subject of consideration for investigation into the preventative health effects of tea because it contains the highest levels of phenolic compounds and retains the highest antioxidant capabilities of any major tea type...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756574/dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function
#12
Jianfei Zhao, Xiaoya Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Michael A Brown, Shiyan Qiao
Dietary protein and its metabolites, amino acids are essential nutrients for human and animals. Accumulated researches revealed that the gut microbiota mediate the crosstalk between protein metabolism and host immune response. Gut microbes are involved in the digestion, absorption, metabolism and transformation process of dietary protein in the gastrointestinal tract. Amino acids can be metabolized into numerous microbial metabolites, and these metabolites participate in various physiological functions related to host health and diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745914/weight-loss-in-a-young-patient-with-type-2-diabetes-challenges-of-diabetes-management-using-online-program-of-good-nutrition-case-report
#13
V Krylov
A 31-year-old male with a history of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypercholesterolemia came to our clinic for medical weight-loss management. According to his initial anthropometric measurements (weight - 193 kg, height - 181 cm, and body mass index (BMI) - 58 kg/m2) patient had morbid obesity. In order to educate our patient about good nutrition, physical activity and the need of sun exposure we used an online system based on the video lessons, full of humor, pictures, and cartoons. Even one month of watching the short educational movies was sufficient for the patient to form the habits of healthy eating, including restriction of fat and digestible carbohydrates and increase in daily consumption of low-fat dairy products, slow carbohydrates, protein and fiber...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745030/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-n-aryl-%C3%AF-benzoazol-2-yl-sulfanylalkanamides-as-dual-inhibitors-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b
#14
Mei-Yan Wang, Xian-Chao Cheng, Xiu-Bo Chen, Yu Li, Lan-Lan Zang, Yu-Qing Duan, Ming-Zhu Chen, Peng Yu, Hua Sun, Run-Ling Wang
α-Glucosidase is known to catalyze the digestion of carbohydrates and release free glucose into the digestive tract. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is engaged in the dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and regulation of insulin sensitivity. Therefore, dual antagonists by targeting both α-glucosidase and PTP1B may be potential candidates for type 2 diabetes therapy. In this work, three series of novel N-aryl-ω-(benzoazol-2-yl)-sulfanylalkanamides were synthesized and assayed for their α-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibitory activities, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742352/bioconversion-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-to-fermentable-sugars-by-immobilized-magnetic-cellulolytic-enzyme-cocktails
#15
Karthik Periyasamy, Laishram Santhalembi, Gerard Mortha, Marc Aurousseau, Agnes Boyer, Sivanesan Subramanian
Enzyme cocktails of reusable, highly-stable cellulolytic enzymes play an inevitable role in bioconversion of biomass to biofuels economically. Cellulase, xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase bound silica-amine functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (ISN-CLEAs) were prepared and used as the biocatalyst for the depolymerization of cellulosic biomass into monomeric sugar in the present study. The Fe3 O4 -NPs and Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -NH2 -NPs and ISN-CLEAs had an average hydrodynamic size of 82.2 nm, 86.4 nm and 976...
May 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734773/efficient-anaerobic-digestion-of-microalgae-biomass-proteins-as-a-key-macromolecule
#16
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Magdalena, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernandez
Biogas generation is the least complex technology to transform microalgae biomass into bioenergy. Since hydrolysis has been pointed out as the rate limiting stage of anaerobic digestion, the main challenge for an efficient biogas production is the optimization of cell wall disruption/hydrolysis. Among all tested pretreatments, enzymatic treatments were demonstrated not only very effective in disruption/hydrolysis but they also revealed the impact of microalgae macromolecular composition in the anaerobic process...
May 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733960/effects-of-dietary-glucose-and-starch-levels-on-the-growth-apparent-digestibility-and-skin-associated-mucosal-non-specific-immune-parameters-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#17
Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li, Kenneth Prudence Abasubong, Chao Xu, Hua-Juan Shi, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang
A 10-week feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of different types and levels of carbohydrates in growth performance, apparent digestibility coefficients and skin-associated mucosal non-specific immune parameters in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish were randomly fed four diets containing two carbohydrates (glucose and starch) diets and two carbohydrates levels (330 and 440 g kg-1 ). High carbohydrate levels remarkably increased the weight gain rate (WGR), apparent digestibility of dry matters, protein and carbohydrates, body crud protein content, plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), and skin-associated mucosal levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM), HDL cholesterol, lysozyme (LZM), advanced the transcriptions of mucin 2 (Muc2), mucin 5b (Muc5b) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma levels of IgM, skin-associated mucosal levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and β-Defensins, and the transcriptions of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60)...
May 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723808/determine-effect-of-pressure-heating-on-carbohydrate-related-molecular-structures-in-association-with-carbohydrate-metabolic-profiles-of-cool-climate-chickpeas-using-globar-spectroscopy
#18
Baoli Sun, M Mostafizar Rahman, Bunyamin Tar'an, Peiqiang Yu
Grain has been heat-processed to alter rumen degradation characteristics and improve nutrient availabilities for ruminants. However, limited study was found on internal structure changes induced by processing on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to use advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy to: (1) determine the processing induced carbohydrate (CHO) structure changes on a molecular basis, (2) investigate the effect of pressure heating on changes of CHO chemical profiles, CHO subfractions in cool-climate CDC Chickpea varieties, and (3) to reveal the association between carbohydrates related molecular spectra with carbohydrate metabolic profiles...
April 21, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716943/hepatic-glucose-metabolic-responses-to-digestible-dietary-carbohydrates-in-two-isogenic-lines-of-rainbow-trout
#19
X Song, L Marandel, M Dupont-Nivet, E Quillet, I Geurden, S Panserat
Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) was recognized as typical "glucose-intolerant" fish and poor dietary carbohydrate user. Our first objective was to test the effect of dietary carbohydrates itself (without modification of dietary protein intake) on hepatic glucose gene expression (taking into account of the paralogs. The second aim was to research if two isogenic trout lines had different responds to carbohydrate intake, showing one with a better use dietary carbohydrates. Thus, we used two isogenic lines of rainbow trout (named A32h and AB1h) fed with either high carbohydrate diet or low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704757/metagenomic-binning-reveals-the-functional-roles-of-core-abundant-microorganisms-in-twelve-full-scale-biogas-plants
#20
Stefano Campanaro, Laura Treu, Panagiotis G Kougias, Gang Luo, Irini Angelidaki
The aim of this work was to elucidate the microbial ecology in twelve mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale biogas plants using a genome-centric metagenomic approach. In this study both biogas plants treating manure and those treating sludge from waste water treatment plants were considered. The identification of 132 Metagenome-Assembled Genomes (MAGs) and analysis of their abundance profile in different samples allowed the identification of the most abundant core members of the anaerobic digestion microbiome...
April 20, 2018: Water Research
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