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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#1
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630704/the-effects-of-a-post-exercise-carbohydrate-and-protein-supplement-on-repeat-performance-serum-chemistry-insulin-and-glucagon-in-competitive-weight-pulling-dogs
#2
Christopher W Frye, Gretchen M VanDeventer, Gina K Dinallo, Jennifer A Poplarski, Sabine Mann, Ella Pittman, Brian M Zanghi, Joseph J Wakshlag
The physiological demands of weight-pulling dogs have yet to be investigated. Two groups of competitive weight-pulling dogs both underwent two identical pull series 3 h apart. The control group (n 8) was compared with a group fed a rapidly digestible carbohydrate and protein supplement after the first pull series (n 9). Blood was drawn before and after each pull series as well as at 15 and 30 min after the first pull series finished. Biochemistry values remained unremarkable throughout the study in both groups regardless of supplementation or exercise over time...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629103/lignocentric-analysis-of-a-carbohydrate-producing-lignocellulosic-biorefinery-process
#3
Robert H Narron, Qiang Han, Sunkyu Park, Hou-Min Chang, Hasan Jameel
A biologically-based lignocellulosic biorefinery process for obtaining carbohydrates from raw biomass was investigated across six diverse biomasses (three hardwoods & three nonwoods) for the purpose of decoding lignin's influence on sugar production. Acknowledging that lignin could positively alter the economics of an entire process if valorized appropriately, we sought to correlate the chemical properties of lignin within the process to the traditional metrics associated with carbohydrate production-cellulolytic digestibility and total sugar recovery...
June 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#4
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621445/nutritional-and-functional-bioactivity-value-of-selected-azorean-macroalgae-ulva-compressa-ulva-rigida-gelidium-microdon-and-pterocladiella-capillacea
#5
Lisete Paiva, Elisabete Lima, Ana Isabel Neto, Massimo Marcone, José Baptista
This study presents information on the biochemical composition (dry weight basis), nutritional aspects, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of selected macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea) from Azores. Moisture content was very high (83.2% to 90.0% of fresh weight). Total dietary fiber (33.7% to 41.0%) that presented a good balance of both soluble and insoluble fibers (15.5% to 19.2% and 18.2% to 21.8%, respectively) was the most abundant component in these macroalgae...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613945/correlation-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-data-on-food-digestion-what-can-we-predict-with-static-in-vitro-digestion-models
#6
T Bohn, F Carriere, L Day, A Deglaire, L Egger, D Freitas, M Golding, S Le Feunteun, A Macierzanka, O Menard, B Miralles, A Moscovici, R Portmann, I Recio, D Rémond, V Santé-Lhoutelier, T J Wooster, U Lesmes, A R Mackie, D Dupont
During the last decade, there has been a growing interest in understanding food's digestive fate in order to strengthen the possible effects of food on human health. Ideally, food digestion should be studied in vivo on humans but this is not always ethically and financially possible. Therefore, simple in vitro digestion models mimicking the gastrointestinal tract have been proposed as alternatives to in vivo experiments. Thus, it is no surprise that these models are increasingly used by the scientific community, although their various limitations to fully mirror the complexity of the digestive tract...
June 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611790/saccharification-performances-of-miscanthus-at-the-pilot-and-miniaturized-assay-scales-genotype-and-year-variabilities-according-to-the-biomass-composition
#7
Nassim Belmokhtar, Stéphanie Arnoult, Brigitte Chabbert, Jean-Paul Charpentier, Maryse Brancourt-Hulmel
HIGHLIGHTS Biomass production and cell wall composition are differentially impacted by harvesting year and genotypes, influencing then cellulose conversion in miniaturized assay.Using a high-throughput miniaturized and semi-automated method for performing the pretreatment and saccharification steps at laboratory scale allows for the assessment of these factors on the biomass potential for producing bioethanol before moving to the industrial scale. The large genetic diversity of the perennial grass miscanthus makes it suitable for producing cellulosic ethanol in biorefineries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605609/effects-of-macro-and-micro-nutrients-on-exercise-induced-hepcidin-response-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes
#8
Dylan Timothy Dahlquist, Trent Stellingwerff, Brad Pendleton Dieter, Donald C McKenzie, Michael S Koehle
Iron deficiency (ID) has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by up-regulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micro- nutrients on blunting exercise induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of post-exercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the post-exercise hepcidin response. Ten highly-trained male cyclists (age: 26...
June 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603839/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-in-broiler-diets
#9
J Pandi, P Glatz, R Forder, B Komolong, K Chousalkar
Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603556/could-miscanthus-replace-maize-as-the-preferred-substrate-for-anaerobic-digestion-in-the-united-kingdom-future-breeding-strategies
#10
Sarah J Purdy, Anne L Maddison, Christopher P Nunn, Ana Winters, Emma Timms-Taravella, Charlotte M Jones, John C Clifton-Brown, Iain S Donnison, Joe A Gallagher
Fodder maize is the most commonly used crop for biogas production owing to its high yields, high concentrations of starch and good digestibility. However, environmental concerns and possible future conflict with land for food production may limit its long-term use. The bioenergy grass, Miscanthus, is a high-yielding perennial that can grow on marginal land and, with 'greener' environmental credentials, may offer an alternative. To compete with maize, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and digestibility may need to be improved...
June 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601647/metalloproteomic-and-differential-expression-in-plasma-in-a-rat-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#11
Camila Pereira Braga, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Aline de Lima Leite, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, which in the chronic stage is associated with abnormalities in lipids, protein and, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. New strategies for prevention and treatment are needed, as type 1 diabetes affects life quality and survival, and involves high-cost treatment. Proteomic and metalloproteomic studies can elucidate the functional and physiological aspects of biomolecules. In the present study, differential proteomics was used to identify potential biomarkers of diabetes in rat plasma associated with copper, selenium, zinc, and magnesium fractionation in control and diabetic rats, as well as diabetic rats treated with insulin...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600943/investigating-hydrothermal-pretreatment-of-food-waste-for-two-stage-fermentative-hydrogen-and-methane-co-production
#12
Lingkan Ding, Jun Cheng, Dan Qiao, Liangchen Yue, Yu-You Li, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
The growing amount of food waste (FW) in China poses great pressure on the environment. Complex solid organics limit the hydrolysis of FW, hence impairing anaerobic digestion. This study employed hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) to facilitate the solubilization of FW. When HTP temperature increased from 100 to 200°C, soluble carbohydrate content first increased to a peak at 140°C and then decreased, whereas total carbohydrate content was negatively correlated with increasing temperature due to the enhanced degradation and Maillard reactions...
May 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595798/mineral-content-of-smooth-scallop-flexopecten-glaber-caught-canakkale-turkey-and-evaluation-in-terms-of-food-safety
#13
Nermin Berik, Ekrem Cem Çankırılıgil, Güzin Gül
In this research, one of the most promising scallop species, smooth scallop (Flexopecten glaber) was studied. According to our findings, smooth scallop has beneficial micro and macro minerals, fat and carbohydrate just before the spawning. While the ratios protein, ash and water decreased from autumn to summer, ratio of crude fat increased till reproduction season in late spring and decreased in summer (P<0.05). In digestive glands, aluminum, bromine, cadmium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were detected more compared to adductor muscles (P<0...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594851/serum-n-glycome-characterization-and-anti-carbohydrate-antibody-profiling-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#14
Shih-Yun Guu, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Su-Chieh Chang, Rei-Jing Wang, Ling-Yi Hung, Po-Jan Fang, Wei-Chien Tang, Peiwen Yu, Chuan-Fa Chang
Glycosylation is a protein post translational modification which plays important role in protein function, stabilization, trafficking, and turnover. Alteration of protein glycosylation is a common phenomenon during tumor progression, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, as well as metastasis. Hence, aberrant glycan structures and the induced corresponding anti-carbohydrate antibodies are potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this study, serum N-glycomes and anti-carbohydrate antibodies from normal populations and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592491/exploiting-fine-scale-genetic-and-physiological-variation-of-closely-related-microbes-to-reveal-unknown-enzyme-functions
#15
Ahmet H Badur, Matthew J Plutz, Geethika Yalamanchili, Sujit Sadashiv Jagtap, Thomas Schweder, Frank Unfried, Stephanie Markert, Martin F Polz, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Christopher V Rao
Polysaccharide degradation by marine microbes represents one of the largest and most rapid heterotrophic transformations of organic matter in the environment. Microbes employ systems of complementary carbohydrate-specific enzymes to deconstruct algal or plant polysaccharides (glycans) into monosaccharides. Because of the high diversity of glycan substrates, the functions of these enzymes are often difficult to establish. One solution to this problem may lie within naturally occurring microdiversity: varying numbers of enzymes - due to gene loss, duplication, or transfer - among closely related environmental microbes create metabolic differences akin to those generated by knockout strains engineered in the laboratory used to establish the functions of unknown genes...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589996/implications-of-the-maillard-reaction-on-bovine-alpha-lactalbumin-and-its-proteolysis-during-in-vitro-infant-digestion
#16
Yousef Joubran, Alice Moscovici, Reto Portmann, Uri Lesmes
This study investigated the functionality and digestibility of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of alpha-lactalbumin (α-la), a major whey protein and component of infant formulas. The impact of different carbohydrates (glucose, galactose or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and heating duration was studied. SDS-PAGE, UV and color measurements monitored reaction extent, which varied between carbohydrates whereby galactose reacted more readily than glucose. Surface hydrophobicity and antioxidant capacity were found to be significantly (p < 0...
June 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588563/insight-into-potential-probiotic-markers-predicted-in-lactobacillus-pentosus-mp-10-genome-sequence
#17
Hikmate Abriouel, Beatriz Pérez Montoro, Carlos S Casimiro-Soriguer, Antonio J Pérez Pulido, Charles W Knapp, Natacha Caballero Gómez, Sonia Castillo-Gutiérrez, María D Estudillo-Martínez, Antonio Gálvez, Nabil Benomar
Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 is a potential probiotic lactic acid bacterium originally isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives. The entire genome sequence was annotated to in silico analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of L. pentosus MP-10 to the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT), such as carbohydrate metabolism (related with prebiotic utilization) and the proteins involved in bacteria-host interactions. We predicted an arsenal of genes coding for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes to modify oligo- and polysaccharides, such as glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and isomerases, and other enzymes involved in complex carbohydrate metabolism especially starch, raffinose, and levan...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588231/genome-wide-association-study-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-identifies-novel-genetic-loci-linked-to-glucose-metabolism
#18
Man Li, Nisa M Maruthur, Stephanie J Loomis, Maik Pietzner, Kari E North, Hao Mei, Alanna C Morrison, Nele Friedrich, James S Pankow, Matthias Nauck, Eric Boerwinkle, Alexander Teumer, Elizabeth Selvin, Anna Köttgen
1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) is a biomarker of hyperglycemic excursions associated with diabetic complications. Because of its structural similarity to glucose, genetic studies of 1,5-AG can deliver complementary insights into glucose metabolism. We conducted genome-wide association studies of serum 1,5-AG concentrations in 7,550 European ancestry (EA) and 2,030 African American participants (AA) free of diagnosed diabetes from the ARIC Study. Seven loci in/near EFNA1/SLC50A1, MCM6/LCT, SI, MGAM, MGAM2, SLC5A10, and SLC5A1 showed genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) among EA participants, five of which were novel...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588026/discovery-and-characterization-of-family-39-glycoside-hydrolases-from-rumen-anaerobic-fungi-with-polyspecific-activity-on-rare-arabinosyl-substrates
#19
Darryl R Jones, Muhammed Salah Uddin, Robert J Gruninger, Thi Thanh My Pham, Dallas Thomas, Alisdair B Boraston, Jonathan Briggs, Benjamin Pluvinage, Tim A McAllister, Robert J Forster, Adrian Tsang, L Brent Selinger, D Wade Abbott
Enzyme activities that improve digestion of recalcitrant plant cell wall polysaccharides may offer solutions for sustainable industries. To this end, anaerobic fungi in the rumen have been identified as a promising source of novel carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) that modify plant cell wall polysaccharides and other complex glycans. Many CAZymes share insufficient sequence identity to characterized proteins from other microbial ecosystems to infer their function; thus presenting challenges to their identification...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587911/impact-of-feed-carbohydrates-and-nitrogen-source-on-the-production-of-soluble-microbial-products-smps-in-anaerobic-digestion
#20
Chencheng Le, David C Stuckey
Six stirred fill-and-draw batch reactors with a range of carbohydrate feeds (glucose, fructose and sucrose), and nitrogen sources (NH4Cl, urea) at various concentrations were used to investigate the effect of feed composition on the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during anaerobic digestion (AD). To gain greater insights into the SMPs produced, the composition of various fractions was analyzed, while the low molecular weight (MW) SMPs generated with different feeds and nutrients were collected and chemically analyzed using GC-MS...
May 30, 2017: Water Research
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