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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898972/intake-digestibility-performance-and-nitrogen-metabolism-of-feedlot-finished-young-bulls-fed-diets-containing-peanut-cake
#2
B R Correia, G G P de Carvalho, R L Oliveira, A J V Pires, O L Ribeiro, R R Silva, A G Leão, P A Oliveira
This aim of this study was to evaluate the use of peanut cake as a dietary substitute for soybean meal and to determine the effects on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and N metabolism in feedlot-finished young bulls. Thirty-two young Nellore bulls with an average initial BW of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design and individually housed in stalls. The young bulls were fed Tifton 85 hay and 4 concentrate mixes containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake replacing soybean meal...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898849/effects-of-feed-intake-and-dietary-nutrient-density-on-apparent-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-nutrients-and-gross-energy-for-growing-pigs
#3
J B Liu, Z Q Liu, L Chen, H F Zhang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed intake (FI) and dietary nutrient concentration on the determination of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and GE for growing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs (40.7 ± 1.3 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to 6 treatment groups in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 diets (a low-nutrient-density [LND] diet or a normal-nutrient-density [NND] diet) and 3 FI levels (3, 4 or 5% of BW per day)...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895853/expression-of-liver-alpha-amylase-in-obese-mouse-hepatocytes
#4
Zohreh Afsartala, Sanaz Savabkar, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Vahideh Assadollahi, Shima Tanha, Khosro Bijangi, Mohammadreza Gholami
AIM: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the relation between the expression of liver alpha-amylase and obesity. BACKGROUND: Alpha-amylase catalyses the hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides and has three main subtypes, including: salivary, pancreatic, and hepatic. Hepatic alpha-amylase is involved in glycogen metabolism, and has a role in obesity and its management. In this study, we aimed to analyze the expression of liver alpha-amylase in overweight and obese mouse...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888663/effect-of-structural-carbohydrates-and-lignin-content-on-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-paper-and-paper-board-materials-by-anaerobic-granular-sludge
#5
Jorge Gonzalez-Estrella, Caitlin M Asato, Amber C Jerke, James J Stone, Patrick C Gilcrease
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic materials is commonly limited by the hydrolysis step. Unlike unprocessed lignocellulosic materials, paper and paper board (PPB) are processed for their fabrication. Such modifications may affect their methane yields and methane production rates. Previous studies have investigated the correlation between lignin and biomethane yields of unprocessed lignocellulosic materials; nevertheless, there is limited knowledge regarding the relationship between the AD kinetic parameters and composition of PPB...
November 26, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885443/roles-of-the-haustorium-and-endosperm-during-the-development-of-seedlings-of-acrocomia-aculeata-arecaceae-dynamics-of-reserve-mobilization-and-accumulation
#6
Hellen Cássia Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Denise Maria Trombert Oliveira
The mobilization of palm seed reserves is a complex process because of the abundance and diversity of stored compounds and results from the development of a highly specialized haustorium. This work focused on the important Neotropical oleaginous palm Acrocomia aculeata, with the aim of defining phases of seedling development associated with mobilization of reserves and elucidating the role of haustorium and endosperm in this process. Standard methods were performed, including biometric, anatomical, and histochemical analyses, as well as the evaluation of the activities of the enzymes endo-β-mannanase and lipase, throughout the reserve mobilization in seeds during germination and in seedlings...
November 24, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875657/characterization-of-macrophage-activating-polysaccharide-isolated-from-fermented-brown-rice
#7
Dae-Young Lee, Myoung-Sook Shin, Kwang-Soon Shin
Brown rice has nutritional benefits due to its abundant nutrients and high dietary fiber content. However, it is often consumed in a fermented form for improved chewy texture and digestibility. In this study, a polysaccharide, FBR-4a, was isolated from fermented brown rice and its chemical composition was analyzed. In addition, its immune-stimulating activity was determined using RAW264.7 cells. FBR-4a is a carbohydrate and consists of nine types of monosaccharides, including galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, xylose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870021/temperature-dependence-of-predation-stress-and-the-nutritional-ecology-of-a-generalist-herbivore
#8
Oswald J Schmitz, Adam E Rosenblatt, Meredith Smylie
Prey at risk of predation may experience stress and respond physiologically by altering their metabolic rates. Theory predicts that such physiological changes should alter prey nutrient demands from N-rich to C-rich macronutrients and shift the balance between maintenance and growth/reproduction. Theory further suggests that for ectotherms, temperature stands to exacerbate this stress. Yet, the interactive effects of predation stress and temperature stress on diet, metabolism, and survival of ectotherms are not well known...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862852/transgenic-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-targeted-for-reduced-recalcitrance-to-bioconversion-a-two-year-comparative-analysis-of-field-grown-lines-modified-for-target-gene-or-genetic-element-expression
#9
Alexandru Dumitrache, Jace Natzke, Miguel Rodriguez, Kelsey L Yee, Olivia A Thompson, Charleson R Poovaiah, Hui Shen, Mitra Mazarei, Holly L Baxter, Chunxiang Fu, Zeng-Yu Wang, Ajaya K Biswal, Guifen Li, Yuhong Tang, C Neal Stewart, Richard A Dixon, Richard S Nelson, Debra Mohnen, Jonathan Mielenz, Steven D Brown, Brian H Davison
Transgenic Panicum virgatum L. silencing (KD) or over-expressing (OE) specific genes or a small RNA (GAUT4-KD, miRNA156-OE, MYB4-OE, COMT-KD and FPGS-KD) were grown in the field and aerial tissue analyzed for biofuel production traits. Clones representing independent transgenic lines were established and senesced tissue sampled after year one and two growth cycles. Biomass was analyzed for wall sugars, recalcitrance to enzymatic digestibility, and biofuel production using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF)...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860093/phylogenetic-and-functional-characterization-of-the-distal-intestinal-microbiome-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-from-both-farm-and-aquarium-settings
#10
Philip P Lyons, James F Turnbull, Karl A Dawson, Mags Crumlish
AIMS: This study focused on comparing the phylogenetic composition and functional potential of the intestinal microbiome of rainbow trout sourced from both farm and aquarium settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of distal intestinal contents were collected from fish and subjected to high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, to accurately determine the composition of the intestinal microbiome. The predominant phyla identified from both groups were Tenericutes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetae and Bacteroidetes...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859698/inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signal-pathway-dismissed-the-stimulation-of-glucose-on-goose-liver-cell-growth
#11
S Wei, C Han, F He, Q Song, B Kang, H Liu, L Li, H Xu, X Zeng
In the formation of goose fatty liver induced by a high-carbohydrate diet, it is characterized by the quick cell growth of liver. The carbohydrate is mostly digested and absorbed in the small intestine by the form of glucose. Recent studies have suggested a crucial role for PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in regulating cell proliferation, and then we speculate that PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway may mediate glucose-induced liver cell proliferation. Goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and incubated in either no addition as a control or glucose or PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors or cotreatment with glucose and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858027/%C3%AE-galactosides-present-in-lupin-flour-affect-several-metabolic-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#12
María I Palacio, Adriana R Weisstaub, Ángela Zuleta, Analía I Etcheverría, Guillermo D Manrique
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of α-galactosides present in a lupin diet on metabolic parameters in growing Wistar rats. Lupin (Lupinus albus) is a rich source of non-digestible carbohydrates called α-galactosides whose beneficial health effects have been widely reported. For our investigation, twenty male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets: control (C) and lupin flour (L) for a 60-day period. The fermentation of these α-galactosides was monitored by measuring the following indicators: changes in the dynamic lactobacilli and enterobacteriaceae population, cecal content pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), Ca and P absorption, and serum lipid (triglycerides and cholesterol) contents...
November 18, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852749/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-replicative-and-non-replicative-forms-reveals-important-insights-into-chromatin-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#13
Teresa Cristina Leandro de Jesus, Simone Guedes Calderano, Francisca Nathalia de Luna Vitorino, Ricardo Pariona Llanos, Mariana de Camargo Lopes, Christiane Bezerra de Araújo, Otavio Henrique Thiemann, Marcelo da Silva Reis, Maria Carolina Elias, Julia Pinheiro Chagas da Cunha
Chromatin associated proteins are key regulators of many important processes in the cell. Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoa flagellate that causes Chagas disease, alternates between replicative and non-replicative forms accompanied by a shift on global transcription levels and by changes in its chromatin architecture. Here, we investigated the T. cruzi chromatin proteome using three different protocols and compared it between replicative (epimastigote) and non-replicative (trypomastigote) forms by high-resolution mass spectrometry...
November 16, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842727/minimization-of-diauxic-growth-lag-phase-for-high-efficiency-biogas-production
#14
Min Jee Kim, Sang Hun Kim
The objective of this study was to develop a minimization method of a diauxic growth lag-phase for the biogas production from agricultural by-products (ABPs). Specifically, the effects of proximate composition on the biogas production and degradation rates of the ABPs were investigated, and a new method based on proximate composition combinations was developed to minimize the diauxic growth lag-phase. Experiments were performed using biogas potential tests at a substrate loading of 2.5 g VS/L and feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816468/fast-characterization-of-solid-organic-waste-content-with-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-anaerobic-digestion
#15
Cyrille Charnier, Eric Latrille, Julie Jimenez, Margaux Lemoine, Jean-Claude Boulet, Jérémie Miroux, Jean-Philippe Steyer
The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand...
November 2, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814716/the-inhibitory-activity-of-herbal-medicines-on-the-keys-enzymes-and-steps-related-to-carbohydrate-and-lipid-digestion
#16
Weerachat Sompong, Nuttapat Muangngam, Artitaya Kongpatpharnich, Chadakarn Manacharoenlarp, Chanatkarn Amorworasin, Tanyawan Suantawee, Thavaree Thilavech, Sirichai Adisakwattana
BACKGROUND: Obesity and overweight are consistently associated with metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Herbal medicines have been currently suggested as an alternative source of potentially useful antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro inhibitory effects of eleven herbal medicines on carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and the key steps of lipid digestion including the inhibition of micelle formation and the ability to bind bile acid...
November 4, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811623/analysis-of-the-duodenal-microbiome-in-autistic-individuals-association-with-carbohydrate-digestion
#17
Rafail I Kushak, Harland S Winter, Timothy M Buie, Stephen B Cox, Caleb D Phillips, Naomi L Ward
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that symptoms of maldigestion or malabsorption in autistic individuals are related to changes in the indigenous microbiota. Analysis of colonic bacteria has revealed microbial dysbiosis in children with autism; however, characteristics of the duodenal microbiome are not well described. In this study the microbiome of the duodenal mucosa of subjects with autism was evaluated for dysbiosis, bacteria overgrowth and microbiota associated with carbohydrate digestion...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810878/prebiotic-potential-of-l-sorbose-and-xylitol-in-promoting-the-growth-and-metabolic-activity-of-specific-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-human-fecal-culture
#18
Tadashi Sato, Shiro Kusuhara, Wakae Yokoi, Masahiko Ito, Kouji Miyazaki
Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or Anaerostipes caccae, or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809945/effect-of-whey-protein-and-a-free-amino-acid-mixture-simulating-whey-protein-on-measures-of-satiety-in-normal-weight-women
#19
Sylvia M S Chungchunlam, Sharon J Henare, Siva Ganesh, Paul J Moughan
Dietary protein is considered more satiating than carbohydrate, and whey protein is more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to direct effects of the unique mixture of proteins in whey, due to the effects of peptides released upon digestion and/or its amino acid composition. The objective of the present study was to compare the satiating effects of intact whey protein isolate (WPI) or a free amino acid mixture (AAM) simulating the amino acid composition of the WPI...
November 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807538/co-digestion-of-sugar-beet-silage-increases-biogas-yield-from-fibrous-substrates
#20
Sharif Ahmed, Daniel Einfalt, Marian Kazda
This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1). While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance...
2016: BioMed Research International
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