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Carbohydrate digestion

Leonardo J Magnoni, Ep Eding, Isabelle Leguen, Patrick Prunet, Inge Geurden, Rodrigo O A Ozório, Johan W Schrama
Oxygen limitation and dietary imbalances are key aspects influencing feed intake (FI) and growth performance in cultured fish. This study investigated the combined effects of hypoxia and dietary electrolyte balance on the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line. Fish were fed ad libitum two experimental diets: electrolyte-balanced or -imbalanced diets (DEB 200 or 700 mEq kg-1 , respectively) and exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (7.9 or 4...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dongling Teng, Keyan Wu, Yunyun Sun, Min Zhang, Dan Wang, Jian Wu, Tao Yin, Weijuan Gong, Yanbing Ding, Weiming Xiao, Guotao Lu, Weiqin Li
Background and study aims: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199) has been identified as a tumor marker for pancreatic cancer but also increases in benign lesions of the digestive system. However, literature associated with the relationship between CA199 and acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. This study aimed to focus on serum CA199 level measurements in AP patients and the associated clinical significance. Materials and methods: From January 2006 to December 2015, 1,609 consecutive patients with AP were admitted to our department and included in the study...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Huiying Ma, Keke Zhang, Qing Jiang, Diya Dai, Hongli Li, Wentao Bi, David Da Yong Chen
Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nevena Kardum, Maria Glibetic
Regular and optimal intake of polyphenols associates with numerous health-promoting effects. Bioavailability and activity of polyphenols depend on foods' structure and interactions with other food constituents, especially proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Polyphenols-proteins interactions can result in various biological effects, such as sense of astringency. So far, polyphenols interactions with food lipids have not been of special importance, except in case of plant oils. Polyphenols-carbohydrates interactions can influence the organoleptic properties, while interactions with dietary fibers are particularly significant...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Mehmet Özbek, Emel Ergün, Feyzullah Beyaz, Levent Ergün, Nuh Y Ld R M, Özge Özgenç, Füsun Erhan
The object of this study was to describe the prenatal development and histochemical properties of mucins in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. To determine changes in the mucin profile, the sections were stained with specific histochemical stains for carbohydrates. While neutral and mixed mucins were observed in the superficial epithelial cells of the abomasal pyloric region, acidic mucins were detected in the secretory ducts and corpus of the glands. Acidic mucins consisted predominantly of sialomucins. In the duodenal villi, the number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins increased toward the end of gestation, whereas Brunner's glands contained acidic mucins until the 95th day of gestation and both acidic and neutral mucins thereafter...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Shuichiro Sugawara, Ichiro Hirai, Toshihiro Watanabe, Koji Tezuka, Wataru Kimura
The patient was a 70-year-old woman in whom examination revealed a high level of carbohydrate antigen 19-9. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a multilocular cystic lesion compressing the gallbladder. CT indicated the presence of a multilocular cystic tumor (67 × 68 × 72 mm) in contact with the right hepatic lobe. Intraoperative findings indicated that the cyst diameter was 8.5 × 6.0 cm, and the cyst was continuous with the gallbladder. The gallbladder was resected along with the cyst...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Claudia Vetrani, Francesco Sestili, Marilena Vitale, Ermelinda Botticella, Rosalba Giacco, Ettore Griffo, Giuseppina Costabile, Paola Cipriano, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Angela A Rivellese, Domenico Lafiandra, Gabriele Riccardi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The amylose-amylopectin ratio influences starch properties. A higher amylose content is associated with slower starch digestion thus reducing the postprandial plasma glucose response and improving the overall postprandial metabolism. So far, limited evidence is available on the metabolic effect of wheat-based foods rich in amylose. This randomised controlled study investigated the acute metabolic effects of amylose-rich wheat-based rusks in overweight subjects focusing on potential mechanisms...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kanokwan Kongphitee, Kritapon Sommart, Thamrongsak Phonbumrung, Thidarat Gunha, Tomoyuki Suzuki
Objective: This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Methods: Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Edoardo Capuano, Teresa Oliviero, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition...
April 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Marcelo Leite Conde Elaiuy, Aiduan Li Borrion, Davide Poggio, Julia Anna Stegemann, Edson Aparecido Abdul Nour
In this paper, we demonstrate in a clear procedure the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to model a large-scale covered in-ground anaerobic reactor (Cigar), processing sugarcane vinasse from a biorefinery in Brazil. The biochemical make-up (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) of the substrate was analysed based on the food industry standards. Two distinct subsets of data, based on the sugarcane harvest season for bioethanol and sugar production in 2012 and 2014, were used to direct and cross validate the model, respectively...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Xuebo Zheng, Zhiman Yang, Xiaohui Xu, Xiaoshuang Shi, Meng Dai, Rongbo Guo
The aim of this work was to explore the potential application of biochar from distillers' grains anaerobic digestion residue pyrolyzed at 700 °C (ADR-DG700 ) to ammonium (NH4 + ) adsorption from aqueous solution, as well as its effect on NH4 + leaching from an Ultisol. The adsorption kinetic of NH4 + on the ADR-DG700 could be described by an Elovich model (R2  = 0.995), and the combined Langmuir-Freundlich model (R2  = 0.997) fitted the isotherm data better than the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Temkin models with a maximum adsorption of 11...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dujuan Dong, Yang Zhang, Vlastimil Smykal, Lin Ling, Alexander S Raikhel
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector for many dangerous human viral diseases. Carbohydrate metabolism (CM) is essential for supplying the energy necessary for host seeking, blood digestion and rapid egg development of this vector insect. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and the ecdysone receptor (EcR) are important regulators of CM, coordinating it with female reproductive events. We report here that the NR4A nuclear receptor AHR38 plays a critical role in mediating these actions of 20E and EcR...
March 8, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sydney Moser, Ingrid Aragon, Amber Furrer, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, Byung-Hoo Lee, Judy George, Bruce R Hamaker, Richard Mattes, Mario G Ferruzzi
Beneficial effects of some phenolic compounds in modulation of carbohydrate digestion and glycemic response have been reported, however effects of phenolics from processed potato products on these endpoints are not well known. The aims of this study were to characterize phenolic profiles of fresh potatoes (purple, red, or white fleshed; 2 varieties each) and chips, and to examine the potential for potato phenolic extracts (PPE) to modulate starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems. Following in vitro assessment, a pilot clinical study (n=11) assessed differences in glycemic response and gastric emptying between chips from pigmented and white potatoes...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition Research
Jennifer M Monk, Wenqing Wu, Laurel H McGillis, Hannah R Wellings, Amber L Hutchinson, Danyelle M Liddle, Daniela Graf, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
The potential for a chickpea supplemented diet (rich in fermentable non-digestible carbohydrates and phenolic compounds) to modify the colonic microenvironment and attenuate the severity of acute colonic inflammation was investigated. C57Bl/6 male mice were fed a control basal diet (BD) or BD supplemented with 20% cooked chickpea flour for 3 weeks prior to acute colitis onset induced by 7-day exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 2% w/v in drinking water) and colon and serum levels of inflammatory mediators were assessed...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Wei Huang, Zhiqiang Cheng, Shaonan Lei, Lanying Liu, Xin Lv, Lihua Chen, Miaohong Wu, Chao Wang, Baoyu Tian, Yongkang Song
The intestinal tract, which harbours tremendous numbers of bacteria, plays a pivotal role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to determine the community composition and complexity of the intestinal microbiota in cultivated European eels during three stages of their lifecycle, after which the metabolic potentials of their intestinal microbial communities were assessed. The results demonstrated that European eel intestinal microbiota were dominated by bacteria in the phyla Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria...
March 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
L F Ferraretto, W I Silva Filho, T Fernandes, D H Kim, H Sultana
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rehydrating and ensiling dry ground corn (DGC) with varying concentrations of wet brewers grain (WBG) on fermentation profile and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD; 7-h incubations on dried and 4-mm ground samples). Samples of DGC and WBG were weighed separately and mixed into 100% WBG (WBG); mixture of DGC and WBG targeting 60 (RC60), 65 (RC65), or 70% (RC70) of dry matter (DM); and DGC rehydrated with distilled water targeting for 70% of DM (REH)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R D X Ribeiro, G G P Carvalho, T M Silva, J B Costa, L R Bezerra, G B Cambuí, A M Barbosa, R L Oliveira
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of crude glycerin of up to 21% of dry matter (DM) in the diets of lambs will not compromise variables related to animal production or health. Forty-four uncastrated Santa Inês crossbreed lambs with an average age of five months and a BW average of 23.9 ± 0.34 kg (mean ± SD) were distributed into four treatment groups (11 replicates per group) including 0%, 7%, 14%, or 21% crude glycerin on a DM basis. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the diets promoted a quadratic increase in DM (P = 0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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