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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727476/options-for-addressing-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-in-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition-supplementation
#1
Steven D Freedman
Patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) have suboptimal secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes and experience a range of clinical symptoms related to the malabsorption of fat. In patients with EPI unable to meet their nutritional requirements, enteral nutrition (EN) support is used to augment nutritional status. In addition to protein and carbohydrate, EN formulas contain fats as a calorie source, as well as vitamins and minerals to help prevent nutritional deficiencies related to malabsorption...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727091/endogenous-fat-loss-and-true-total-tract-digestibility-of-poultry-fat-in-adult-dogs
#2
F R Marx, L Trevizan, F M O B Saad, K G Lisenko, J S Reis, A M Kessler
Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727033/the-effect-of-age-and-carbohydrate-and-protein-sources-on-digestibility-fecal-microbiota-fermentation-products-fecal-iga-and-immunological-blood-parameters-in-dogs
#3
A P J Maria, L Ayane, T C Putarov, B A Loureiro, B P Neto, M F Casagrande, M O S Gomes, M B A Glória, A C Carciofi
The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726218/process-optimization-of-biogas-energy-production-from-cow-dung-with-alkali-pre-treated-coffee-pulp
#4
T Selvankumar, C Sudhakar, M Govindaraju, K Selvam, V Aroulmoji, N Sivakumar, M Govarthanan
Biogas production from cow dung with co-substrate agricultural waste is one of the most demanding technologies for generating energy in a sustainable approach considering eco-friendly. In the present study, coffee pulp (CP) was pre-treated with 1% NaOH and combined with various proportions of cow dung (CD) to explore its biogas producing potentiality. The optimization of the process was studied using Response surface methodology. Statistics based on 3-D plots were generated to evaluate the changes in the response surface and to understand the relationship between the biogas yield and other parameters...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724470/effect-of-glycerol-supplementation-during-early-lactation-on-milk-yield-milk-composition-nutrient-digestibility-and-blood-metabolites-of-dairy-buffaloes
#5
A M Saleem, A I Zanouny, A M Singar
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of glycerol in the diet on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility and some blood metabolites of dairy buffaloes in early lactation. A total of 24 buffaloes were blocked by average milk yield, parity and BW and then randomly assigned to three treatments: control without glycerol (CON); low glycerol (LG): control plus glycerol at 150 ml/day per buffalo; and high glycerol (HG): control plus glycerol at 300 ml/day per buffalo. The experimental period lasted for 60 days...
July 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724255/effects-of-organic-composition-on-the-anaerobic-biodegradability-of-food-waste
#6
Yangyang Li, Yiying Jin, Aiduan Borrion, Hailong Li, Jinhui Li
This work investigated the influence of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids on the anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) and the relationship between the parameters characterising digestion. Increasing the concentrations of proteins and lipids, and decreasing carbohydrate content in FW, led to high buffering capacity, reduction of proteins (52.7-65.0%) and lipids (57.4-88.2%), and methane production (385-627 mLCH4/g volatile solid), while achieving a short retention time. There were no significant correlations between the reduction of organics, hydrolysis rate constant (0...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722406/possible-molecular-mechanisms-by-which-an-essential-oil-blend-from-star-anise-rosemary-thyme-and-oregano-and-saponins-increase-the-performance-and-ileal-protein-digestibility-of-growing-broilers
#7
Henry Reyer, Jürgen Zentek, Klaus Männer, Ibrahim M I Youssef, Tobias Aumüller, Julian Weghuber, Klaus Wimmers, Andreas Müller
Phytogenic feed additives represent a potential alternative to antibiotics with attributed health and growth promoting effects. Chickens supplemented with an essential oil blend, a Quillaja saponin blend or a combination of both phytogenic preparations showed a comprehensively and significantly improved apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids compared to control birds. Accordingly, holistic transcriptomic analyses of jejunum and liver samples indicated alterations of macromolecule transporters and processing pathways likely culminating in an increased uptake and metabolizing of carbohydrates and fatty acids...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720961/valorizing-guava-psidium-guajava-l-seeds-through-germination-induced-carbohydrate-changes
#8
Cheng Xian Ling, Ying Ping Chang
Guava seeds are produced as a waste product by the guava processing industry. Their high carbohydrate contents may suit the carbohydrate needs of the feed sector but their high dietary fiber content limits their feed value. The feed values of fruit seeds can be improved through germination, which involves the mobilization of nutrients through seed enzymes and alters the seed carbohydrate composition. The changes of selected carbohydrates in guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds brought by germination to those in red bean (Vigna angularis) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709070/ethanol-production-in-a-simultaneous-saccharification-and-fermentation-process-with-interconnected-reactors-employing-hydrodynamic-cavitation-pretreated-sugarcane-bagasse-as-raw-material
#9
Ruly Terán Hilares, João Vitor Ienny, Paulo Franco Marcelino, Muhammad Ajaz Ahmed, Felipe A F Antunes, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Júlio César Dos Santos
In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB) pretreated with alkali assisted hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was investigated for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bioethanol production in interconnected column reactors using immobilized Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124. Initially, HC was employed for the evaluation of the reagent used in alkaline pretreatment. Alkalis (NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3, Ca(OH)2) and NaOH recycled black liquor (successive batches) were used and their pretreatment effectiveness was assessed considering the solid composition and its enzymatic digestibility...
July 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704184/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-water-extractable-polysaccharides-from-leaves-of-plantago-major-l
#10
Paolina K Lukova, Diana P Karcheva-Bahchevanska, Veselin P Bivolarski, Rumen D Mladenov, Ilia N Iliev, Mariana M Nikolova
BACKGROUND: Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701697/peptidomics-of-an-in-vitro-digested-%C3%AE-gal-carrying-protein-revealed-ige-reactive-peptides
#11
D Apostolovic, M Krstic, J Mihailovic, M Starkhammar, T Cirkovic Velickovic, C Hamsten, M van Hage
The mammalian carbohydrate galactose-α1,3-galactose (α-Gal) causes a novel form of food allergy, red meat allergy, where patients experience severe allergic reactions several hours after red meat consumption. Here we explored gastric digestion of α-Gal glycoproteins using an in vitro model. Bovine thyroglobulin (BTG), a typical α-Gal carrying glycoprotein, was digested with pepsin. The resulting peptides were characterised by SDS PAGE, immunoblot and ImmunoCAP using sera from 20 red meat allergic patients...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689140/effects-of-dilute-acid-pretreatment-conditions-on-filtration-performance-of-corn-stover-hydrolyzate
#12
David A Sievers, Erik M Kuhn, Melvin P Tucker, James D McMillan
The reaction conditions used during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass control the carbohydrate digestion yield and also hydrolyzate properties. Depending on the conversion route of interest, solid-liquid separation (SLS) may be required to split the hemicellulose-rich liquor from the cellulose-rich insoluble solids, and slurry properties are important for SLS. Corn stover was pretreated at different reaction conditions and the slurries were assessed for conversion yield and filtration performance...
June 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688324/growing-chlorella-vulgaris-on-thermophilic-anaerobic-digestion-swine-manure-for-nutrient-removal-and-biomass-production
#13
Xiang-Yuan Deng, Kun Gao, Ren-Chuan Zhang, Min Addy, Qian Lu, Hong-Yan Ren, Paul Chen, Yu-Huan Liu, Roger Ruan
Liquid swine manure was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion, ammonia stripping and centrifugation in order to increase the available carbon sources and decrease the ammonia concentration and turbidity. Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714) was grown on minimally diluted (2×, 3× and 4×) autoclaved and non-autoclaved pretreated anaerobic digestion swine manure (PADSM) in a batch-culture system for 7days. Results showed that C. vulgaris (UTEX 2714) grew best on 3× PADSM media, and effectively removed NH4(+)-N, TN, TP and COD by 98...
June 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686965/chemical-constituents-and-pharmacological-actions-of-carob-pods-and-leaves-ceratonia-siliqua-l-on-the-gastrointestinal-tract-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Bruno Eto, Jamel El-Benna, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L., is a medicinal plant used in Tunisian traditional medicine for the treatment of the gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders. In this respect, a relatively large number of scientific publications on the carob tree have been published in recent years. Therefore, the present review was aimed to analyze the traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Ceratonia siliqua on the GI tract. Indeed, previous investigations on the carob pods and leaves have revealed the presence of a number of compounds including high amounts of carbohydrates, dietary fibers, minerals, polyphenols, flavonoids and low amounts of protein and lipids...
July 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683738/anti-diabetic-activity-of-aerial-parts-of-sarcopoterium-spinosum
#15
Uriel Elyasiyan, Adi Nudel, Nir Skalka, Konstantin Rozenberg, Elyashiv Drori, Rachela Oppenheimer, Zohar Kerem, Tovit Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: Sarcopoterium spinosum (S. spinosum) is used by Bedouin medicinal practitioners for the treatment of diabetes. While the anti-diabetic activity of S. spinosum root extract was validated in previous studies, the activity of aerial parts of the same plants has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to clarify the glucose lowering properties of the aerial parts of the shrub. METHODS: Anti-diabetic properties were evaluated by measuring the activity of carbohydrate digesting enzymes, glucose uptake into 3 T3-L1 adipocytes, and insulin secretion...
July 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683386/efficient-conversion-of-hubrid-pennisetum-to-glucose-by-oxygen-aqueous-alkaline-ionic-liquid-media-pretreatment-under-benign-conditions
#16
Shengdan Wang, Jiachuan Chen, Guihua Yang, Wenhua Gao, Kefu Chen
To enhance the cellulose digestibility of energy grass hybrid Pennisetum (P. americanum×P. purpureum, HP) with low energy-consumption and high efficiency, a novel combinatorial pretreatment of oxygen-aqueous alkaline ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac) media (OEA) was developed in this work. The combinatorial pretreatment was performed under the relatively low temperature (120°C), short retention time (30min), and 12bar oxygen pressure. The combinatorial pretreatment of OEA was demonstrated effectively for pretreatment of hybrid Pennisetum, which evidenced by the removal of lignin, degradation of carbohydrate, and porosity property of the regenerated biomass...
June 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671623/plant-lectins-as-medical-tools-against-digestive-system-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Laura Elena Estrada-Martínez, Ulisses Moreno-Celis, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, Roberto Augusto Ferriz-Martínez, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Teresa García-Gasca
Digestive system cancers-those of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon-rectum, liver, and pancreas-are highly related to genetics and lifestyle. Most are considered highly mortal due to the frequency of late diagnosis, usually in advanced stages, caused by the absence of symptoms or masked by other pathologies. Different tools are being investigated in the search of a more precise diagnosis and treatment. Plant lectins have been studied because of their ability to recognize and bind to carbohydrates, exerting a variety of biological activities on animal cells, including anticancer activities...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669141/development-of-a-new-lactic-acid-bacterial-inoculant-for-fresh-rice-straw-silage
#18
Jong Geun Kim, Jun Sang Ham, Yu Wei Li, Hyung Soo Park, Chul-Sung Huh, Byung-Chul Park
OBJECTIVE: Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. METHODS: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821) were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis...
July 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667113/a-human-gut-commensal-ferments-cranberry-carbohydrates-to-produce-formate
#19
Ezgi Özcan, Jiadong Sun, David C Rowley, David A Sela
Commensal bifidobacteria colonize the human gastrointestinal tract and catabolize glycans that are impervious to host digestion. Accordingly, Bifidobacterium longum typically secrete acetate and lactate as fermentative endproducts. This study tested the hypothesis that B. longum utilize cranberry-derived xyloglucans in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, the B. longum strain that efficiently utilizes cranberry xyloglucans secrete 2.0-2.5 moles acetate:lactate. The 1.5 ratio theoretical yield obtained in hexose fermentations shifts during xyloglucan metabolism...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660452/bamboo-shoots-as-a-nutritive-boon-for-northeast-india-an-overview
#20
Anusriti Basumatary, Sushil Kumar Middha, Talambedu Usha, Amit Kumar Basumatary, Birendra Kumar Brahma, Arvind Kumar Goyal
With about 136 species, India is one among the richest countries in bamboo resources that help mankind in more than 1500 diverse ways. Although the utilization of juvenile shoots of bamboo in tribal diet of Northeast India is a very old observable fact, its numerous health benefits and potentiality remains uncharted. Apart from being delicious, the bamboo shoots are also rich in minerals and nutrient components such as carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and are low in fat and sugar which could be helpful in mitigating the problem of malnutrition...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
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