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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530606/effects-of-chemical-composition-and-baking-on-in-vitro-digestibility-of-proteins-in-breads-made-from-selected-gluten-containing-and-gluten-free-flours
#1
Tong Wu, Cheryl Taylor, Thomas Nebl, Ken Ng, Louise E Bennett
Breads prepared from cereal grains are a dietary staple, providing a significant proportion of daily energy, but not necessarily of dietary protein. However, good digestibility of proteins in bread is important to avoid potential immunogenic effects of undigested peptides, including for those gluten-intolerant. Four gluten-containing (white wheat, wholemeal wheat, spelt and rye) and four gluten-free (chick pea, lupin, buckwheat, amaranth) flours were used to make yeast-leavened breads standardized for protein...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527804/nutritive-value-and-fermentation-characteristics-of-alfalfa-mixed-grass-forage-wrapped-with-minimal-stretch-film-layers-and-stored-for-different-lengths-of-time
#2
W K Coblentz, R K Ogden, M S Akins, E A Chow
A key aspect of managing baled silages is to quickly achieve and then rigorously maintain anaerobic conditions within the silage mass. The concept of inserting an O2-limiting barrier (OB) into plastic commercial silage wraps has been evaluated previously, yielding mixed or inconclusive results. Our objective for this study was to maximize the challenge to a commercial polyethylene bale wrap, or the identical wrap containing an OB, by using minimal plastic (4 layers), and then extending storage periods as long as 357 d...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525986/the-lspc3-41i-restriction-modification-system-is-the-major-determinant-for-genetic-manipulations-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-c3-41
#3
Pan Fu, Yong Ge, Yiming Wu, Ni Zhao, Zhiming Yuan, Xiaomin Hu
BACKGROUND: Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been widely used in integrated mosquito control program and it is one of the minority bacterial species unable to metabolize carbohydrates. In consideration of the high genetic conservation at genomic level and difficulty of genetic horizontal transfer, it is hypothesized that effective restriction-modification (R-M) systems existed in mosquitocidal L. sphaericus. RESULTS: In this study, six type II R-M systems including LspC3-41I were predicted in L...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525595/gut-transcriptome-analysis-shows-different-food-utilization-efficiency-by-the-grasshopper-oedaleous-asiaticus-orthoptera-acrididae
#4
Xunbing Huang, Mark Richard McNeill, Jingchuan Ma, Xinghu Qin, Xiongbing Tu, Guangchun Cao, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Zehua Zhang
Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512014/expressional-divergence-of-insect-gox-genes-from-specialist-to-generalist-glucose-oxidase
#5
Lihong Yang, Xiongya Wang, Sufen Bai, Xin Li, Shaohua Gu, Chen-Zhu Wang, Xianchun Li
Insect herbivores often secrete glucose oxidase (GOX) onto plants to counteract plant defenses and potential pathogens. Whether generalist herbivores always have significantly higher GOX activities than their specialist counterparts at any comparable stage or conditions and how this is realized remain unknown. To address these two general questions, we subjected larvae of a pair of sister species differed mainly in host range, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and its specialist counterpart Helicoverpa assulta, to the same sets of stage, protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio, allelochemical or host plant treatments for simultaneous analyses of GOX transcripts and activities in their labial glands...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501729/mulberry-leaf-extract-decreases-digestion-and-absorption-of-starch-in-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#6
Jan Józefczuk, Klaudia Malikowska, Aleksandra Glapa, Barbara Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Jan Krzysztof Nowak, Joanna Bajerska, Aleksandra Lisowska, Jarosław Walkowiak
PURPOSE: Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf tea has recently received much attention as a dietary supplement due to the wide range of putative health benefits, such as antidiabetic effects. Nevertheless, data evaluating its influence on carbohydrate metabolism in humans are scarce. The present study aims to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf extract supplementation on starch digestion and absorption in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised of 25 healthy subjects, aged 19-27 years...
May 11, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495873/intestinal-digestive-enzyme-modulation-in-house-sparrow-nestlings-occurs-within-24-hours-of-a-change-in-diet-composition
#7
Katherine H Rott, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Nestling house sparrows near fledging age (12 days) were previously found to reversibly modulate the activity of their intestinal digestive enzymes in response to changes in diet composition. However, it is not known how quickly nestlings can adjust to new diets with different substrate compositions, nor is it known how early in life nestlings can modulate their enzyme activity in response to changes in diet. In the current study, 3-day-old nestlings were captured from the wild and fed and switched among contrasting diets - one high in protein and low in carbohydrate and another higher in carbohydrate and with lower but adequate protein - in order to determine (1) how quickly house sparrow nestlings could adjust to changes in diet composition, (2) how early in life nestlings could modulate their digestive enzyme activity in response to these changes, and (3) which digestive enzymes could be modulated in house sparrow nestlings earlier in life...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493980/characterization-of-the-juvenile-green-turtle-chelonia-mydas-microbiome-throughout-an-ontogenetic-shift-from-pelagic-to-neritic-habitats
#8
James T Price, Frank V Paladino, Margaret M Lamont, Blair E Witherington, Scott T Bates, Tanya Soule
The gut microbiome of herbivorous animals consists of organisms that efficiently digest the structural carbohydrates of ingested plant material. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) provide an interesting model of change in these microbial communities because they undergo a pronounced shift from a surface-pelagic distribution and omnivorous diet to a neritic distribution and herbivorous diet. As an alternative to direct sampling of the gut, we investigated the cloacal microbiomes of juvenile green turtles before and after recruitment to neritic waters to observe any changes in their microbial community structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490674/physical-form-of-dietary-fat-alters-postprandial-substrate-utilization-and-glycemic-response-in-healthy-chinese-men
#9
Sze-Yen Tan, Elaine Peh, Evelyn Lau, Alejandro G Marangoni, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Background: Dietary fats elicit various physiological responses, with the physical form of fat reported to alter fat digestion and absorption.Objectives: The primary aims were to compare the effects of dietary fat in 2 physical forms (liquid and oleogel) and 2 degrees of saturation (saturated and polyunsaturated) on postprandial energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation, glycemia, and appetite.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Sixteen normal-weight, healthy Chinese men completed the study [mean ± SD age: 28 ± 6 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484425/protein-digestion-derived-peptides-and-the-peripheral-regulation-of-food-intake
#10
REVIEW
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut-brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479861/effects-of-dietary-carbohydrate-on-weight-gain-and-gonad-production-in-small-sea-urchins-lytechinus-variegatus
#11
Anna M Taylor, Laura E Heflin, Mickie L Powell, Addison L Lawrence, Stephen A Watts
In experiment 1, juvenile sea urchins (n = 80, 0.088 ± 0.001 g wet weight and 5.72 ± 0.04 mm diameter) were held individually and fed ad libitum one of three semi-purified formulated diets (n = 16 individuals treatment(-1)). In the diets, protein was held constant (310g kg(-1) dry, as fed) and carbohydrate level varied (190, 260, or 380 g kg(-1) dry, as fed). Wet weights were measured every 2 weeks. Total wet weight gain was inversely proportional to dietary carbohydrate level and energy content of the respective diet...
April 2017: Aquaculture Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473812/a-metagenomics-investigation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-saudi-sheep
#12
Saad Al-Masaudi, Abdessamad El Kaoutari, Elodie Drula, Hussein Al-Mehdar, Elrashdy M Redwan, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat
The digestive microbiota of humans and of a wide range of animals has recently become amenable to in-depth studies due to the emergence of DNA-based metagenomic techniques that do not require cultivation of gut microbes. These techniques are now commonly used to explore the feces of humans and animals under the assumption that such samples are faithful proxies for the intestinal microbiota. Sheep (Ovis aries) are ruminant animals particularly adapted to life in arid regions and in particular Najdi, Noaimi (Awassi), and Harrei (Harri) breeds that are raised in Saudi Arabia for milk and/or meat production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464099/endogenous-phosphorus-losses-in-growing-finishing-pigs-and-gestating-sows
#13
P Bikker, C M C van der Peet-Schwering, W J J Gerrits, V Sips, C Walvoort, H van Laar
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet composition, feeding level (FL), and BW on endogenous phosphorous losses (EPL) using growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 48 GF pigs (initial BW 90.5 kg) and 48 just-weaned sows (initial BW 195 kg), both individually housed, were allotted to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were animal type (GF pigs or sows), diet composition (a semipurified starch (STA), inulin (INU), or lignocellulose (CEL) based low-P diet), and FL (2...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464092/reducing-mineral-usage-in-feedlot-diets-for-nellore-cattle-ii-impacts-of-calcium-phosphorus-copper-manganese-and-zinc-contents-on-intake-performance-and-liver-and-bone-status
#14
L F Prados, D F T Sathler, B C Silva, D Zanetti, S C Valadares Filho, H M Alhadas, E Detmann, S A Santos, L D S Mariz, M L Chizzotti
Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-])...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462743/effect-of-replacing-ground-corn-and-soybean-meal-with-licuri-cake-on-the-performance-digestibility-nitrogen-metabolism-and-ingestive-behavior-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#15
A C Ferreira, J F Vieira, A M Barbosa, T M Silva, L R Bezerra, N G Nascimento, J E de Freitas, S M P L Jaeger, P de A Oliveira, R L Oliveira
Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design...
May 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460919/effect-of-lactulose-derived-oligosaccharides-on-intestinal-microbiota-during-the-shift-between-media-with-different-energy-contents
#16
Elvira Barroso, Antonia Montilla, Nieves Corzo, Carmen Peláez, M Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, Teresa Requena
The microbiological and metabolic changes of an overweight-associated colonic microbiota after reducing in vitro the carbohydrate supply and its supplementation with oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (OsLu) were evaluated using a dynamic simulator of the gastrointestinal tract. The differentiation and stability of the microbial communities within each colon compartment were reached after two weeks of feeding the system with a high energy (HE) medium based on fructose and readily fermentable starches. The effect of reducing the energy content (low-energy medium, LE) and the supplementation with OsLu caused minor variations in bacterial counts, except for Enterobacteriaceae...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457549/effect-of-different-levels-of-rapidly-degradable-carbohydrates-calculated-by-a-simple-rumen-model-on-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#17
J Doorenbos, J Martín-Tereso, J Dijkstra, H van Laar
Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456412/association-of-aqueous-hydrogen-concentration-with-methane-production-in-continuous-cultures-modulated-to-vary-ph-and-solids-passage-rate
#18
B A Wenner, J de Souza, F Batistel, T J Hackmann, Z Yu, J L Firkins
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of altering pH and solids passage rate (kp) on concentration of aqueous H2 [H2(aq)], CH4 production, volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, and fiber digestibility in a continuous culture fermentation system. The present study was conducted as a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement in a Latin square design using continuous culture fermentors (n = 4). Our continuous culture system was converted to a closed system to measure CH4 and H2 emission while measuring H2(aq) concentration and VFA production for complete stoichiometric assessment of fermentation pattern...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451855/performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-lambs-fed-diets-with-increasing-levels-of-mimosa-tenuiflora-willd-hay-replacing-buffel-grass-hay
#19
Paulo André Vidal Bandeira, José Morais Pereira Filho, Aderbal Marcos de Azevêdo Silva, Marcílio Fontes Cezar, Olaf Andreas Bakke, Uilma Laurentino Silva, Jucileide Barbosa Borburema, Leilson Rocha Bezerra
This study evaluated the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) hay replacing Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Twenty-eight Santa Inês male lambs with an average body weight (BW) of 20.3 ± 1.49 kg(mean ± SD) were allocated in individual stalls and distributed in a completely random design with four treatments (0, 20, 40, and 60 g/100 g total DM M. tenuiflora hay replacing Buffel grass hay in diet) with seven replications. M...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445585/c-type-starches-and-their-derivatives-structure-and-function
#20
REVIEW
Zebin Guo, Xiangze Jia, Beibei Zhao, Shaoxiao Zeng, Jianbo Xiao, Baodong Zheng
The C-type starches are widely distributed in seeds or rhizomes of various legumes, medicinal plants, and crops. These carbohydrate polymers directly affect the application of starchy plant resources. The structural and crystal properties of starches are crucial parameters of starch granules, which significantly influence their physicochemical and mechanical properties. The unique crystal structure consisting of both A- and B-type polymorphs endows C-type starches with specific crystal adjustability. Furthermore, large proportions of resistant starches and slowly digestible starches are C-type starches, which contribute to benign glycemic response and proliferation of gut microflora...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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