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Carbohydrate digestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806407/low-fermentable-oligosaccharides-disaccharides-monosaccharides-and-polyols-fodmap-diet-improves-symptoms-in-adults-suffering-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs-compared-to-standard-ibs-diet-a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-studies
#1
Péter Varjú, Nelli Farkas, Péter Hegyi, András Garami, Imre Szabó, Anita Illés, Margit Solymár, Áron Vincze, Márta Balaskó, Gabriella Pár, Judit Bajor, Ákos Szűcs, Orsolya Huszár, Dániel Pécsi, József Czimmer
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional digestive tract disorders, e.g. functional bloating, carbohydrate maldigestion and intolerances, are very common disorders frequently causing significant symptoms that challenge health care systems. A low Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet is one of the possible therapeutic approaches for decreasing abdominal symptoms and improving quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to meta-analyze data on the therapeutic effect of a low-FODMAP diet on symptoms of IBS and quality of life and compare its effectiveness to a regular, standard IBS diet with high FODMAP content, using a common scoring system, the IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799777/functional-and-therapeutic-potential-of-inulin-a-comprehensive-review
#2
Waqas Ahmed, Summer Rashid
Inulin as a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers is diversely found in nature primarily as storage carbohydrates in plants. Besides, inulin is believed to induce certain techno-functional and associated properties in food systems. Inulin owing to its foam forming ability has been successfully used as fat replacer in quite a wide range of products as dairy and baked products. Furthermore, it is known to impart certain nutritional and therapeutic benefits that extend apart to improve health and reduce the risk of many lifestyle related diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798698/%C3%AE-catenin-knockdown-affects-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Daniele Vergara, Eleonora Stanca, Flora Guerra, Paola Priore, Antonio Gaballo, Julien Franck, Pasquale Simeone, Marco Trerotola, Stefania De Domenico, Isabelle Fournier, Cecilia Bucci, Michel Salzet, Anna M Giudetti, Michele Maffia
β-catenin plays an important role as regulatory hub in several cellular processes including cell adhesion, metabolism, and epithelial mesenchymal transition. This is mainly achieved by its dual role as structural component of cadherin-based adherens junctions, and as a key nuclear effector of the Wnt pathway. For this dual role, different classes of proteins are differentially regulated via β-catenin dependent mechanisms. Here, we applied a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to identify proteins modulated after β-catenin knockdown in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793770/assessment-of-in-vitro-digestibility-of-dietary-carbohydrates-using-rat-small-intestinal-extract
#4
Alvaro Ferreira-Lazarte, Agustin Olano, Mar Villamiel, F Javier Moreno
There are few studies on the assessment of digestibility of non-digestible carbohydrates, despite their increasingly important role in human health. In vitro digestibility of a range of dietary carbohydrates classified as digestible (maltose, sucrose and lactose), well-recognized (lactulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and two types of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) differing in the predominant glycosidic linkage) and potential (lactosucrose and GOS from lactulose, OsLu) prebiotics using a rat small intestinal extract (RSIE) under physiological conditions of temperature and pH is described...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789640/the-purplish-bifurcate-mussel-mytilisepta-virgata-gene-expression-atlas-reveals-a-remarkable-tissue-functional-specialization
#5
Marco Gerdol, Yuki Fujii, Imtiaj Hasan, Toru Koike, Shunsuke Shimojo, Francesca Spazzali, Kaname Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Ozeki, Alberto Pallavicini, Hideaki Fujita
BACKGROUND: Mytilisepta virgata is a marine mussel commonly found along the coasts of Japan. Although this species has been the subject of occasional studies concerning its ecological role, growth and reproduction, it has been so far almost completely neglected from a genetic and molecular point of view. In the present study we present a high quality de novo assembled transcriptome of the Japanese purplish mussel, which represents the first publicly available collection of expressed sequences for this species...
August 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782575/toxicological-evaluation-of-neoagarooligosaccharides-prepared-by-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-agar
#6
Sun Joo Hong, Je-Hyeon Lee, Eun Joo Kim, Hea Jung Yang, Jae-Seon Park, Soon-Kwang Hong
Agar, a heterogeneous polymer of galactose, is the main component of the cell wall of marine red algae. It is well established as a safe, non-digestible carbohydrate in Oriental countries. Although neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs) prepared by the hydrolysis of agar by β-agarase have been reported to exert various biological activities, the safety of these compounds has not been reported to date. For safety evaluation, NAOs containing mainly neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose were prepared from agar by enzymatic hydrolysis using β-agarase DagA from Streptomyces coelicolor...
August 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780756/potential-hormone-mechanisms-of-bariatric-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Manpal S Randeva, Alexander D Miras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in energy homeostasis through modulation of the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and the production of incretin hormones is well recognized. RECENT FINDINGS: Bariatric surgery for obesity has been a very effective method in substantially improving weight, and numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation after bariatric procedures. A number of structural and functional changes in the GI tract have been reported postsurgery, which could be responsible for the altered hormonal responses...
August 5, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780102/the-effects-of-high-sugar-ryegrass-red-clover-silage-diets-on-intake-production-digestibility-and-n-utilization-in-dairy-cows-as-measured-in-vivo-and-predicted-by-the-norfor-model
#8
J Bertilsson, M Åkerlind, T Eriksson
Grass silage-based diets often result in poor nitrogen utilization when fed to dairy cows. Perennial ryegrass cultivars with high concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) have proven potential for correcting this imbalance when fed fresh, and have also been shown to increase feed intake, milk production, and N utilization. The possibility of achieving corresponding effects with silage-based diets was investigated in change-over experiments in an incomplete block design with 16 (yr 1) or 12 (yr 2) Swedish Red dairy cows in mid lactation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780096/effect-of-lignin-linkages-with-other-plant-cell-wall-components-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-neutral-detergent-fiber-digestibility-and-rate-of-digestion-of-grass-forages
#9
E Raffrenato, R Fievisohn, K W Cotanch, R J Grant, L E Chase, M E Van Amburgh
The objective of this study was to correlate in vitro and in vivo neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) with the chemical composition of forages and specific chemical linkages, primarily ester- and ether-linked para-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic acids (FA) in forages fed to dairy cattle. The content of acid detergent lignin (ADL) and its relationship with NDF does not fully explain the observed variability in NDFD. The ferulic and p-coumaric acid linkages between ADL and cell wall polysaccharides, rather than the amount of ADL, might be a better predictor of NDFD...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766112/oleanolic-acid-and-ursolic-acid-as-potential-inhibitors-of-human-salivary-%C3%AE-amylase-insights-from-in-vitro-assays-and-in-silico-simulations
#10
Jiachen Sun, Shengjie Dong, Yueting Wu, Hui Zhao, Xia Li, Wenyuan Gao
It is known that inhibiting α-amylase, an important enzyme in digestion of starch and glycogen, is a useful strategy for treating disorders in carbohydrate uptake. Two natural components distributed in many fruits and plants, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, are endowed with important pharmacological activities and wide therapeutic possibilities. Until now, only a tiny fraction of their applications have been identified and exploited. Our in vitro inhibition studies demonstrated that oleanolic acid and ursolic acid non-competitively inhibit the activity and function of human salivary α-amylase...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764815/a-proteomic-insight-into-the-midgut-proteome-of-ornithodoros-moubata-females-reveals-novel-information-on-blood-digestion-in-argasid-ticks
#11
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main African vector of the human relapsing fever agent Borrelia duttoni and the African swine fever virus. Together with saliva, the tick midgut forms part of the host-tick-pathogen interface, and numerous midgut proteins play key functions in the blood digestion-related process and the infection and transmission of pathogens. This work explores the composition of the midgut proteome of unfed and fed O. moubata females with the aim to complete the biological information already obtained from the midgut transcriptome and provide a more robust and comprehensive perspective of this biological system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764092/starch-digestibility-and-predicted-glycemic-index-in-the-bread-fortified-with-pomelo-citrus-maxima-fruit-segments
#12
S K Reshmi, M L Sudha, M N Shashirekha
The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759851/relationship-of-carbohydrates-and-lignin-molecular-structure-spectral-profiles-to-nutrient-profile-in-newly-developed-oats-cultivars-and-barley-grain
#13
Luciana Louzada Prates, Basim Refat, Yaogeng Lei, Mariana Louzada-Prates, Peiqiang Yu
The objectives of this study were to quantify the chemical profile and the magnitude of differences in the oat and barley grain varieties developed by Crop Development Centre (CDC) in terms of Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate sub-fractions: CA4 (sugars), CB1 (starch), CB2 (soluble fibre), CB3 (available neutral detergent fibre - NDF), and CC (unavailable carbohydrate); to estimate the energy values; to detect the lignin and carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structure profiles in CDC Nasser and CDC Seabiscuit oat and CDC Meredith barley grains by using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR); to develop a model to predict nutrient supply based on CHO molecular profile...
July 24, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754022/unfolding-novel-mechanisms-of-polyphenol-flavonoids-for-better-glycaemic-control-targeting-pancreatic-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-iapp
#14
REVIEW
Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defective insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. The impact of over-nutrition and reduced physical activity, evidenced by the exponential rise in obesity and the prevalence of T2D, strongly supports the implementation of lifestyle modification programs. Accordingly, an increased consumption of fruits and plant-derived foods has been advocated, as their intake is inversely correlated with T2D prevalence; this has been attributed, in part, to their contained polyphenolic compounds...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753728/starch-structure-influences-its-digestibility-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Perla A Magallanes-Cruz, Pamela C Flores-Silva, Luis A Bello-Perez
Twenty-five years ago, it was found that a significant fraction of the starch present in foods is not digested in the small intestine and continues to the large intestine, where it is fermented by the microbiota; this fraction was named resistant starch (RS). It was also reported that there is a fraction of starch that is slowly digested, sustaining a release of glucose in the small intestine. Later, health benefits were found to be associated with the consumption of this fraction, called slowly digestible starch (SDS)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753316/inhibitory-potential-of-red-cabbage-against-digestive-enzymes-linked-to-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Anna Podsędek, Iwona Majewska, Alicja Z Kucharska
Assays of the inhibitory potential against enzymes involved in carbohydrate and lipid digestion (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and lipase) as well as the total contents of phenolics and anthocyanins, anthocyanin profile, and antioxidant capacity revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) between five varieties of red cabbage. Among the varieties, the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 3.87 ± 0.12 mg dry weight (DW) of cabbage/mL) and lipase (IC50 = 1.57 ± 0.06 mg DW/mL) was exhibited by the Koda variety, which showed the highest antioxidant capacity in ABTS (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) = 141 ± 4...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736146/lipid-accumulation-potential-of-oleaginous-yeasts-a-comparative-evaluation-using-food-waste-leachate-as-a-substrate
#17
Davidraj Johnravindar, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Kumarasamy Murugesan, Jonathan W C Wong
In present study, the efficiency of three oleaginous yeasts i.e., Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis and Cryptococcus curvatus were compared for their lipid assimilation capacities using three different FW-leachates as a medium. The FW-leachates were collected from dry anaerobic digesters and diluted to achieve carbohydrate content of 25gL(-1) prior to yeast inoculations. Around 5% of yeast cultures were individually mixed in three different FW-leachate mediums and incubated under 30°C and 150rpm agitation for 6days...
June 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733239/protein-carbohydrate-regulation-in-helicoverpa-amigera-and-h-punctigera-and-how-diet-protein-carbohydrate-content-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#18
Ashley E Tessnow, Spencer T Behmer, Tom K Walsh, Gregory A Sword
Many animals, including insects, demonstrate a remarkable ability to regulate their intake of key macronutrients (e.g., soluble protein and digestible carbohydrates), which allows them to optimize fitness and performance. Additionally, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients enhances an animal's ability to defend itself against pathogens, mitigate the effects of secondary plant metabolites, and decrease susceptibility to toxins. In this study, we first compared how Bt-resistant and -susceptible lines of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera regulate their intake of protein (p) and digestible carbohydrates (c)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732922/the-quality-of-functional-whole-meal-durum-wheat-spaghetti-as-affected-by-inulin-polymerization-degree
#19
Lucia Padalino, Cristina Costa, Amalia Conte, Maria Grazia Melilli, Carla Sillitti, Rosaria Bognanni, Salvatore Antonino Raccuia, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
The use of inulin in pasta improves the nutritional value decreasing the glycemic index in the blood after pasta ingestion but it compromises the sensory characteristics in terms of elasticity, firmness, bulkiness and adhesiveness. Thus, in this work, the impact of substituting whole-meal durum wheat flour with inulin on cooking quality, sensory and textural properties, digested starch and chemical composition of spaghetti was investigated. Two types of inulin at two different concentrations (2% and 4%) were adopted: inulin extracted from cardoon roots (CRI) (high polymerization degree) and commercial inulin (CHI) (low polymerization degree) produced from chicory...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731473/ninety-nine-de-novo-assembled-genomes-from-the-moose-alces-alces-rumen-microbiome-provide-new-insights-into-microbial-plant-biomass-degradation
#20
Olov Svartström, Johannes Alneberg, Nicolas Terrapon, Vincent Lombard, Ino de Bruijn, Jonas Malmsten, Ann-Marie Dalin, Emilie El Muller, Pranjul Shah, Paul Wilmes, Bernard Henrissat, Henrik Aspeborg, Anders F Andersson
The moose (Alces alces) is a ruminant that harvests energy from fiber-rich lignocellulose material through carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) produced by its rumen microbes. We applied shotgun metagenomics to rumen contents from six moose to obtain insights into this microbiome. Following binning, 99 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to 11 prokaryotic phyla were reconstructed and characterized based on phylogeny and CAZyme profile. The taxonomy of these MAGs reflected the overall composition of the metagenome, with dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
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