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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916753/automated-n-glycosylation-sequencing-of-biopharmaceuticals-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#1
Marton Szigeti, Andras Guttman
Comprehensive analysis of the N-linked carbohydrates of glycoproteins is gaining high recent interest in both the biopharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In addition to high resolution glycosylation profiling, sugar residue and linkage specific enzymes are also routinely used for exoglycosidase digestion based carbohydrate sequencing. This latter one, albeit introduced decades ago, still mostly practiced by following tedious and time consuming manual processes. In this paper we introduce an automated carbohydrate sequencing approach using the appropriate exoglycosidase enzymes in conjunction with the utilization of some of the features of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument to speed up the process...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#2
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914528/inhibition-of-human-and-rat-sucrase-and-maltase-activities-to-assess-anti-glycemic-potential-optimisation-of-the-assay-using-acarbose-and-polyphenols
#3
Alison Pyner, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Gary Williamson
We have optimised the assays used to measure inhibition of rat and human α-glucosidases (sucrase and maltase activities), intestinal enzymes which catalyse the final steps of carbohydrate digestion. Cell-free extracts from fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2/TC7 monolayers were shown to be a suitable source of sucrase-isomaltase, with the same sequence as human small intestine, and were compared to a rat intestinal extract. The kinetic conditions of the assay were optimised, including comparison of enzymatic and chromatographic methods to detect the monosaccharide products...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914059/physiochemical-characteristics-and-molecular-structures-for-digestible-carbohydrates-of-silages
#4
Basim Refat, Luciana Louzada Prates, Yaogeng Lei, David Christensen, John J McKinnon, Peiqiang Yu
The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro NDFD digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD , Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) as regards to their physiochemical features (energy), carbohydrate nutrient fractions and rumen digestive contents in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R), and (2) to identify the pattern of interactive association between the molecular structure of carbohydrates and digestible carbohydrates content...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912804/assessment-of-nutritional-status-digestion-and-absorption-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#5
J E Witvliet-van Nierop, C M Lochtenberg-Potjes, N J Wierdsma, H J Scheffer, G Kazemier, K Ottens-Oussoren, M R Meijerink, M A E de van der Schueren
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900990/-prognostic-value-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-alpha-fetoprotein-carbohydrate-antigen-125-and-carbohydrate-antigen-19-9-in-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#6
Luohai Chen, Yu Zhang, Minhu Chen, Jie Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the rate of elevated common biomarkers of digestive tumors, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN) and their prognostic values in GEP-NEN. METHODS: Clinicopathological data of patients with GEP-NEN treated in The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University from January 2011 to December 2016 were retrospectively studied...
September 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895793/food-stabilizing-antioxidants-increase-nutrient-bioavailability-in-the-in-vitro-model
#7
Magdalena Mika, Agnieszka Wikiera, Anna Antończyk, Maja Grabacka
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether antioxidants may enhance bioavailability of lipids and carbohydrates and therefore increase the risk of obesity development. METHODS: We tested how supplementation with antioxidants (0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT], α-tocopherol, and green tea catechins) of a diet containing butter and wheat bread affects bioavailability of fats and carbohydrates. The absorption of the in vitro digested diet was estimated in the intestinal epithelia model of the Caco-2 cells cultured in Transwell chambers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894623/ethnopharmacological-values-of-cassava-and-its-potential-for-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-management-knowledge-survey-and-critical-review-of-report
#8
Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Bonaventure C Onodu, Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor, Mathew O Sedowo, John N Okuzor, Richard J Culas
BACKGROUND: Beyond nutritional values are the pharmacological potentials of cassava comparative with other staple carbohydrate plant-based foods such as wheat. The knowledge of applicability to diabetes and its cardiovascular complications management seems not just limited but unacknowledged. As a preliminary study, a community's knowledge of pharmacological value of cassava is investigated. METHODS: Descriptive observational study using questionnaire-based "cross-sectional" survey was conducted...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884852/crystal-structure-of-a-marine-glycoside-hydrolase-family-99-related-protein-lacking-catalytic-machinery
#9
Craig S Robb, Agata Anna Mystkowska, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
Algal polysaccharides of diverse structures are one of the most abundant carbon resources for heterotrophic, marine bacteria with coevolved digestive enzymes. A putative sulfo-mannan polysaccharide utilization locus, which is conserved in marine Flavobacteriia, contains an unusual GH99-like protein that lacks the conserved catalytic residues of glycoside hydrolase family 99. Using X-ray crystallography, we structurally characterized this protein from the marine Flavobacterium Ochrovirga pacifica to help elucidate its molecular function...
September 8, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869121/exploring-surface-characterization-and-electrostatic-property-of-hybrid-pennisetum-during-alkaline-sulfite-pretreatment-for-enhanced-enzymatic-hydrolysability
#10
Ming Yang, Jingfeng Wang, Xincun Hou, Juying Wu, Xifeng Fan, Fan Jiang, Pan Tao, Fan Wang, Pai Peng, Fangxia Yang, Junhua Zhang
The surface characterization and electrostatic property of Hybrid Pennisetum (HP) after alkaline sulfite pretreatment were explored for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysability. The O/C ratio in HP increased from 0.34 to 0.60, and C1 concentration decreased from 62.5% to 31.6%, indicating that alkaline sulfite pretreatment caused poorer lignin but richer carbohydrate on HP surface. Zeta potential and sulfur element analysis indicated that more enzymes would preferably adsorb on the carbohydrate surface of alkaline sulfite pretreated HP because the lignin was sulfonated, which facilitated the decrease of non-productive adsorption...
August 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868668/green-and-chamomile-teas-but-not-acarbose-attenuate-glucose-and-fructose-transport-via-inhibition-of-glut2-and-glut5
#11
Jose A Villa-Rodriguez, Ebru Aydin, Julia S Gauer, Alison Pyner, Gary Williamson, Asimina Kerimi
SCOPE: High glycaemic sugars result in blood glucose spikes, while high doses of post-prandial fructose inundate the liver, causing an imbalance in energy metabolism, both leading to increased risk of metabolic malfunction and type 2 diabetes. Acarbose, used for diabetes management, reduces post-prandial hyperglycaemia by delaying carbohydrate digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chamomile and green teas both inhibited digestive enzymes (α-amylase and maltase) related to intestinal sugar release, as already established for acarbose...
September 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861070/environmental-pollutant-benzo-a-pyrene-impacts-the-volatile-metabolome-and-transcriptome-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#12
Clémence Defois, Jérémy Ratel, Sylvain Denis, Bérénice Batut, Réjane Beugnot, Eric Peyretaillade, Erwan Engel, Pierre Peyret
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a ubiquitous, persistent, and carcinogenic pollutant that belongs to the large family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Population exposure primarily occurs via contaminated food products, which introduces the pollutant to the digestive tract. Although the metabolism of B[a]P by host cells is well known, its impacts on the human gut microbiota, which plays a key role in health and disease, remain unexplored. We performed an in vitro assay using 16S barcoding, metatranscriptomics and volatile metabolomics to study the impact of B[a]P on two distinct human fecal microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855825/enhancing-antidiabetic-and-antimicrobial-performance-of-ocimum-basilicum-and-ocimum-sanctum-l-using-silver-nanoparticles
#13
Veshara Malapermal, Izel Botha, Suresh Babu Naidu Krishna, Joyce Nonhlanhla Mbatha
The role of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) is an attractive proposition for advancing modern diabetes therapies and applied science. Stable AgNps with a size range of 3-25 nm were synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts from Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, and in combination. The concentration of the extracts facilitated the reduction of silver nitrate that led to the rapid formation of AgNps at room temperature, indicating a higher reaction rate as opposed to harsh chemical methods, and high conversion energy usually involved in the synthesis...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853210/modulation-of-starch-digestibility-in-breakfast-cereals-consumed-by-subjects-with-metabolic-risk-impact-on-markers-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-during-fasting-and-the-postprandial-period
#14
Stéphanie Lambert-Porcheron, Sylvie Normand, Emilie Blond, Monique Sothier, Hubert Roth, Alexandra Meynier, Sophie Vinoy, Martine Laville, Julie-Anne Nazare
SCOPE: Decreasing postprandial glycaemic excursions may have a beneficial effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress profiles. In this study, we investigated the impact of carbohydrate digestibility modulation per se, as a means of reducing the glycaemic response, on metabolic and inflammatory responses in subjects with metabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty healthy subjects with metabolic risk consumed a cereal product either high in Slowly Digestible Starch (HSDS) or low in SDS (LSDS) at breakfast daily for 3 weeks, in a cross-over design...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847085/corn-stover-for-biogas-production-effect-of-steam-explosion-pretreatment-on-the-gas-yields-and-on-the-biodegradation-kinetics-of-the-primary-structural-compounds
#15
Javier Lizasoain, Adrian Trulea, Johannes Gittinger, Iris Kral, Gerhard Piringer, Andreas Schedl, Paal J Nilsen, Antje Potthast, Andreas Gronauer, Alexander Bauer
This study evaluated the effect of steam explosion on the chemical composition and biomethane potential of corn stover using temperatures ranging between 140 and 220°C and pretreatment times ranging between 2 and 15min. Biodegradation kinetics during the anaerobic digestion of untreated and corn stover, pretreated at two different intensities, 140°C for 5min and 180°C for 5min, were studied in tandem. Results showed that pretreatment at 160°C for 2min improved the methane yield by 22%. Harsher pretreatment conditions led to lower hemicellulose contents and methane yields, as well as higher lignin contents, which may be due to the formation of pseudo-lignin...
August 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841788/influence-of-thermal-hydrolysis-pretreatment-on-organic-transformation-characteristics-of-high-solid-anaerobic-digestion
#16
Yun Han, Yang Zhuo, Dangcong Peng, Qian Yao, Huijuan Li, Qiliang Qu
The study evaluated the influence of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) on anaerobic digestion (AD) ability of high solid sludge. The transformation characteristics of organics during the THP+AD process of dewatering sludge from wastewater treatment plant was investigated using a lab-scale THP reactor and four anaerobic digesters. The reduction efficiency of volatile suspended solids using THP+AD exceeded 49%. The acceleration of biogas production during AD was due to the enhancement of protein hydrolysis and acidogenesis by THP...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833462/the-impact-of-pollen-consumption-on-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-digestive-physiology-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#17
Vincent A Ricigliano, William Fitz, Duan C Copeland, Brendon M Mott, Patrick Maes, Amy S Floyd, Arnold Dockstader, Kirk E Anderson
Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) due to its dietary specialization on plant-based nutrition. Secretory glycoside hydrolases (GHs) produced in worker head glands aid in the processing of floral nectar into honey and are expressed in accordance with age-based division of labor. Pollen utilization by the honey bee has been investigated in considerable detail, but little is known about the metabolic fate of indigestible carbohydrates and glycosides in pollen biomass...
August 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822541/only-7-of-the-variation-in-feed-efficiency-in-veal-calves-can-be-predicted-from-variation-in-feeding-motivation-digestion-metabolism-immunology-and-behavioral-traits-in-early-life
#18
M S Gilbert, J J G C van den Borne, C G van Reenen, W J J Gerrits
High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822244/new-insights-into-the-enhanced-performance-of-high-solid-anaerobic-digestion-with-dewatered-sludge-by-thermal-hydrolysis-organic-matter-degradation-and-methanogenic-pathways
#19
Sisi Chen, Ning Li, Bin Dong, Wentao Zhao, Lingling Dai, Xiaohu Dai
Two lab-scale high solid anaerobic digesters fed with untreated sludge (R1) and thermally hydrolyzed sludge (R2) were operated to investigate the influence of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) on the degradation of individual macromolecular organic components (MOCs), as well as the functional and metabolic responses of microbes during anaerobic digestion (AD). The degradation of MOCs was improved by THP at different rates, in which improved degradation of proteins (by 49.0%) and hemicelluloses (by 25.0%) were the main factors contributing to the increase in volatile solids (VS) reduction...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821781/expressional-divergence-of-the-fatty-acid-amino-acid-conjugate-hydrolyzing-aminoacylase-1-l-acy-1-in-helicoverpa-armigera-and-helicoverpa-assulta
#20
Qian Cheng, Shaohua Gu, Zewen Liu, Chen-Zhu Wang, Xianchun Li
How FACs-producing generalist and specialist herbivores regulate their FACs-hydrolyzing enzyme L-ACY-1 to balance FACs' beneficial vs. detrimental effects remains unknown. To address this question, we compared L-ACY-1 expression in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, a pair of closely related sibling species differing mainly in their host range, by the same sets of hostplants, protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratios, or allelochemical. L-ACY-1 expression remained low/unchanged in H. armigera, but was induced by hot pepper fruits and repressed by cotton bolls in H...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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