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Carbohydrate digestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153156/a-100-year-review-carbohydrates-characterization-digestion-and-utilization
#1
Mary Beth Hall, David R Mertens
Our knowledge of the role of carbohydrates in dairy cattle nutrition has advanced substantially in the 100 years of the publication of the Journal of Dairy Science. In this review, we trace the history of scientific investigation and discovery from crude fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and "unidentified factors" to our present analytical schemes and understanding of ruminal and whole-animal utilization and effects of dietary carbohydrates. Historically, advances in research and new feeding standards occurred in parallel with and fostered by new methods of analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146964/effects-of-waste-sources-on-performance-of-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-complex-organic-wastes-taking-food-waste-as-an-example
#2
Xingang Lu, Wengang Jin, Shengrong Xue, Xiaojiao Wang
Few studies have addressed how to blend wastes for anaerobic co-digestion. This study investigated the effects of waste sources on anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) performance, by varying the quality of food wastes (FWs) from six sources in Xi'an region, China that were individually co-digested with pre-treated corn straw and cattle manure. These effects were analysed in terms of their volatile solid (VS) ratios, C/N ratios, and the chemical composition of the FWs. The results indicated that the VS ratios were not suitable as a common mixture method because the VS ratios at which the best methane potentials occurred differed significantly among the six FW groups...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140289/cats-and-carbohydrates-the-carnivore-fantasy
#3
REVIEW
Adronie Verbrugghe, Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125862/peptidergic-control-in-a-fruit-crop-pest-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#4
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125542/slowly-digestible-carbohydrate-for-balanced-energy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evidence
#5
Vishnupriya Gourineni, Maria L Stewart, Rob Skorge, Bernard C Sekula
There is growing interest among consumers in foods for sustained energy management, and an increasing number of ingredients are emerging to address this demand. The SUSTRA™ 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch, with the potential to provide balanced energy after a meal. The aim of the study was to characterize this starch's digestion profile in vitro (modified Englyst assay) and in vivo (intact and cecectomized rooster study), and to determine its effects on available energy, by measuring post-prandial glycemia in healthy adults (n = 14), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with two food forms: cold-pressed bar and pudding...
November 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120790/digestion-under-saliva-simulated-gastric-and-small-intestinal-conditions-and-fermentation-in-vitro-by-human-intestinal-microbiota-of-polysaccharides-from-fuzhuan-brick-tea
#6
Guijie Chen, Minhao Xie, Peng Wan, Dan Chen, Hong Ye, Ligen Chen, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Zhonghua Liu
The aim of present study was to examine whether the digestivesystem (saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions) could break down and large intestinal microbiota could utilize the polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBTPS). The results showed that there was no change in molecular weight, monosaccharide content and content of reducing sugars before and after saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion, indicating that FBTPS could pass through the digestive system without being broken down and reach the large intestine safely...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117110/digestibility-is-similar-between-commercial-diets-that-provide-ingredients-with-different-perceived-glycemic-responses-and-the-inaccuracy-of-using-the-modified-atwater-calculation-to-calculate-metabolizable-energy
#7
Natalie J Asaro, Marcial A Guevara, Kimberley Berendt, Ruurd Zijlstra, Anna K Shoveller
Dietary starch is required for a dry, extruded kibble; the most common diet type for domesticated felines in North America. However, the amount and source of dietary starch may affect digestibility and metabolism of other macronutrients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 3 commercial cat diets on in vivo and in vitro energy and macronutrient digestibility, and to analyze the accuracy of the modified Atwater equation. Dietary treatments differed in their perceived glycemic response (PGR) based on ingredient composition and carbohydrate content (34...
November 8, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114440/carbohydrates-digestion-and-metabolism-in-the-spiny-lobster-panulirus-argus-biochemical-indication-for-limited-carbohydrate-utilization
#8
Leandro Rodríguez-Viera, Erick Perera, Vivian Montero-Alejo, Rolando Perdomo-Morales, Tsai García-Galano, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera
As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110088/carbohydrate-active-enzyme-domains-from-extreme-thermophiles-components-of-a-modular-toolbox-for-lignocellulose-degradation
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Botha, Eshchar Mizrachi, Alexander A Myburg, Don A Cowan
Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for the manufacture of biodegradable and renewable bioproducts. However, the complex lignocellulosic polymeric structure of woody tissue is difficult to access without extensive industrial pre-treatment. Enzyme processing of partly depolymerised biomass is an established technology, and there is evidence that high temperature (extremely thermophilic) lignocellulose degrading enzymes [carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes)] may enhance processing efficiency. However, wild-type thermophilic CAZymes will not necessarily be functionally optimal under industrial pre-treatment conditions...
November 6, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108031/beef-steers-with-average-dry-matter-intake-and-divergent-average-daily-gain-have-altered-gene-expression-in-the-jejunum
#10
A P Foote, B N Keel, C M Zarek, A K Lindholm-Perry
The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% dry-rolled corn, 20% wet distillers grains with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, and 4.2% vitamin/mineral supplement. From the cohort, a subset of steers with DMI within ±0.32 SD of the mean for DMI and the greatest (high) and least (low) ADG were chosen for slaughter and jejunum mucosa collection ( = 8 for each group)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103723/predicting-manure-volatile-solid-output-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#11
J A D R N Appuhamy, L E Moraes, C Wagner-Riddle, D P Casper, E Kebreab
Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101228/mass-spectrometric-revival-of-an-l-rhamnose-and-d-galactose-specific-lectin-from-a-lost-strain-of-streptomyces
#12
Yoko Fujita-Yamaguchi, Karine Bagramyan, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Akemi Ikeda, Naoshi Dohmae, Teresa B Hong, Markus Kalkum
Blood type B-specific Streptomyces S27S5 hemagglutinin (SHA) was discovered and characterized in the 1970s. Although strain 27S5 has been lost, the purified SHA protein survived intact under frozen conditions and retained its activity. Using modern techniques, here we further characterized SHA. Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance MS analysis determined SHA's average molecular mass as 13,314.67 Da. MS of digested SHA peptides, Streptomyces genomic database matching, and N-terminal sequencing solved the 131-residue amino acid sequence of SHA...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098678/nutrition-support-therapy
#13
Li-Jun Xiao, Ran Tao
In most addictions, serious nutritional deficiencies of major proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals exist which prevent their capability to digest carbohydrates efficiently. This review aims to point out some treatment approaches in nutrition management for alcohol addiction, drug addiction, food addiction, Internet addiction and sex addiction, according to existing literatures.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098639/tef-the-rising-ancient-cereal-what-do-we-know-about-its-nutritional-and-health-benefits
#14
Habtu Shumoy, Katleen Raes
This review covers the nutritional significance of tef cereal as compared to other common cereals with emphasis on carbohydrate content and starch digestibility, protein content, iron and zinc bioavailability and antioxidant potentials. Tef is a gluten free cereal and contains the highest iron and calcium among other cereals. It has high micro- and macro- nutritional profile and is becoming globally popular in the healthy grain food chain. Tef starch has a high gelatinization temperature, an essential precondition in the preparation of low glycemic index foods...
November 2, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094671/reducing-agent-can-be-omitted-in-the-incubation-medium-of-the-batch-in-vitro-fermentation-model-of-the-pig-intestines
#15
C Poelaert, G Nollevaux, C Boudry, B Taminiau, C Nezer, G Daube, Y-J Schneider, D Portetelle, A Théwis, J Bindelle
Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models...
November 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091908/alteration-of-biomacromolecule-in-corn-by-steam-flaking-in-relation-to-biodegradation-kinetics-in-ruminant-revealed-with-vibrational-molecular-spectroscopy
#16
Ningning Xu, Jianxin Liu, Peiqiang Yu
Large scale of steam flaked corn has been used in dairy ration to maintain high milk production level. This study aimed to determine effects of steam flaking on processing-induced intrinsic molecular structure changes that were associated with rumen degradation kinetics and nutrients supply. The advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy was applied to reveal the processing-induced intrinsic structure changes on a molecular basis. The rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient supply were determined using in situ approach in ruminant livestock system...
October 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091855/comparison-of-thermophilic-bacteria-and-alkyl-polyglucose-pretreatment-on-two-stage-anaerobic-digestion-with-waste-sludge-biogas-production-potential-and-substrate-metabolism-process
#17
Liang Guo, Zengshuai Zhang, Mengchun Gao, Zonglian She, Yangguo Zhao, Yiding Guo, Jian Sun
To gain a better understanding of the influence on two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with thermophilic bacteria (TB) and alkyl polyglucose (APG) pretreatment, changing of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and dissolved organic matters (DOM) were analyzed. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate compositional and structural characteristics of DOM. The highest hydrogen and methane yield of TB pretreated sludge was 12...
October 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084242/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activin-signaling-in-neurons-increases-susceptibility-to-starvation
#18
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Rafael Koch, Xiaoxue Li, Shu Kondo, Emi Nagoshi, Bruno Lemaitre
Animals rely on complex signaling network to mobilize its energy stores during starvation. We have previously shown that the sugar-responsive TGFβ/Activin pathway, activated through the TGFβ ligand Dawdle, plays a central role in shaping the post-prandial digestive competence in the Drosophila midgut. Nevertheless, little is known about the TGFβ/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism beyond the midgut. Here, we address the importance of Dawdle (Daw) after carbohydrate ingestion. We found that Daw expression is coupled to dietary glucose through the evolutionarily conserved Mio-Mlx transcriptional complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079996/prebiotics-bone-and-mineral-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Corrie M Whisner, Luisa F Castillo
Increasing interest in functional foods has driven discovery in the area of bioactive compounds. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate compounds that, when consumed, elicit health benefits and aid in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. While prebiotics have been shown to improve a number of chronic, inflammatory conditions, growing evidence exists for prebiotic effects on calcium metabolism and bone health. These novel dietary fibers have been shown to increase calcium absorption in the lower intestines of both preclinical and human models...
October 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069492/lectin-zg16p-inhibits-proliferation-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-its-carbohydrate-binding-sites
#20
Akiko Mito, Yukiko Nakano, Takako Saitoh, Sabine S S Gouraud, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Toshiro Sato, Nobuo Sasaki, Kyoko Kojima-Aikawa
Zymogen granule protein 16 (ZG16p) is a soluble lectin that binds to both mannose and heparin/heparan sulfate. It is highly expressed in the human digestive tract and is secreted into the mucus. In this study, we investigated the effect of ZG16p on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells. Overexpression of ZG16p in Caco-2 cells decreased cell growth. Recombinant ZG16p markedly inhibited proliferation of Caco-2, LS174T, HCT116 and HCT15 cells. Caco-2 cell growth was not inhibited by two mutated ZG16p proteins, D151A and M5 (K36A, R37A, R53A, R55A and R79A) lacking mannose- and heparin-binding activities, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Glycobiology
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