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Intestinal absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725139/hybrid-polymeric-matrices-for-oral-modified-release-of-desvenlafaxine-succinate-tablets
#1
Wael Samy, Ayman Elnoby, Hanan M El-Gowelli, Nazik Elgindy
Purpose: Desvenlafaxine succinate (DSV) is a water soluble anti-depressant drug, which is rapidly absorbed after oral administration exaggerating its side effects. The current work aimed to prepare controllable release DSV matrix to reduce DSV side effects related to its initial burst. Methods: Fifteen DSV matrix formulations were prepared using different polymers, polymer/drug ratios and matrix excipients and characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, water uptake and in vitro DSV release...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725050/carrier-mediated-and-energy-dependent-uptake-and-efflux-of-deoxynivalenol-in-mammalian-cells
#2
Xiaoming Li, Peiqiang Mu, Jikai Wen, Yiqun Deng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins and exerts many adverse effects on humans and animals. To date, the transporting mechanism of DON in mammalian cells remains unclear. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), Transwell models and metabolic inhibitors were used to determine the possible transporting mechanisms of DON in Caco-2, MDCK and HepG2 cells. PAMPA and Transwell models showed reduced passive transport and increased intestinal absorption, indicating a carrier-mediated transporting mechanism...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724701/integrative-physiology-of-transcellular-and-paracellular-intestinal-absorption
#3
REVIEW
William H Karasov
Glucose absorption by the small intestine has been studied for nearly a century. Despite extensive knowledge about the identity, functioning and regulation of the relevant transporters, there has been and there remains controversy about how these transporters work in concert to determine the overall epithelial absorption of key nutrients (e.g. sugars, amino acids) over a wide range of dietary and/or luminal concentrations. Our broader, integrative understanding of intestinal absorption requires more than the reductionist dissection of all the components and their elaboration at molecular and genetic levels...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722112/in-silico-and-in-vitro-prediction-of-gastrointestinal-absorption-from-potential-drug-eremantholide-c
#4
Tamires G Caldeira, Dênia A Saúde-Guimarães, André B Dezani, Cristina Helena Dos Reis Serra, Jacqueline de Souza
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of the biopharmaceutical properties of eremantholide C, sesquiterpene lactone with proven pharmacological activity and low toxicity, is required to evaluate its potential to become a drug. METHODS: Preliminary analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of eremantholide C was performed in silico. Equilibrium solubility was evaluated using the shake-flask method, at 37.0 °C, 100 rpm during 72 h in biorelevant media. The permeability was analysed using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, at 37...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721446/rhamnolipids-enhance-in-vivo-oral-bioavailability-of-poorly-absorbed-molecules
#5
El-Sayed Khafagy, Mona F El-Azab, Mohamed E H ElSayed
PURPOSE: This report describes the effect of rhamnolipids (RLs) on the tight junctions (TJ) of the intestinal epithelium using the rat in-situ closed loop model. METHODS: We investigated the transport of 5 (6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with average molecular weights of 4.4 and 10 kDa (FD-4 and FD-10) when co-administered with different concentrations of RLs. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay and histopathological examination of treated intestinal loops were used to assess potential toxicity of RLs...
July 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719542/cideb-deficiency-aggravates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice-by-exacerbating-the-oxidative-burden-in-colonic-mucosa
#6
Chao Sun, Yuanlin Zhao, Xing Gao, Yuan Yuan, Chao Wang, Yingmei Wang, Lijun Zhang, Yu Gu, Feng Zhang, Peizhen Hu, Zhe Wang, Zhuyi Li, Jiankuan Shi, Sheng Li, Kaiyu Cao, Bingcheng Ren, Ming Yu, Weihua Liang, Zengshan Li, Jing Ye
BACKGROUND: Abnormal lipid metabolism is one of many factors that contribute to the development of ulcerative colitis (UC). As a lipid droplet-associated protein, Cideb facilitated the export of lipids from enterocytes and promoted intestinal lipid absorption. We found that Cideb was upregulated in the colonic mucosa of both UC patients and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis, but its roles in the pathogenesis of UC are still ill-defined. METHODS: Acute colitis was induced with DSS in Cideb-null and wild-type mice, and the inflammation and oxidative stress were evaluated in the colonic mucosa...
August 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#7
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718031/newcomers-in-paediatric-gi-pathology-childhood-enteropathies-including-very-early-onset-monogenic-ibd
#8
Arzu Ensari, Judith Kelsen, Pierre Russo
Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response...
July 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718014/protein-hydrolysate-from-canned-sardine-and-brewing-by-products-improves-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-in-an-intestinal-endothelial-co-culture-cell-model
#9
Elsa F Vieira, John Van Camp, Isabel M P L V O Ferreira, Charlotte Grootaert
PURPOSE: The anti-inflammatory activity of sardine protein hydrolysates (SPH) obtained by hydrolysis with proteases from brewing yeast surplus was ascertained. METHODS: For this purpose, a digested and desalted SPH fraction with molecular weight lower than 10 kDa was investigated using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) as such and in a co-culture model with an intestinal cell line (Caco-2). Effects of SPH <10 kDa on nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chemokine IL-8 (IL-8) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated in TNF-α-treated and untreated cells...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716079/the-human-jejunum-has-an-endogenous-microbiota-that-differs-from-those-in-the-oral-cavity-and-colon
#10
Olof H Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715146/identification-of-hypoglycin-a-binding-adsorbents-as-potential-preventive-measures-in-co-grazers-of-atypical-myopathy-affected-horses
#11
T Krägeloh, J M V Cavalleri, J Ziegler, J Sander, M Terhardt, G Breves, A Cehak
BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorption of hypoglycin A (HGA) and its metabolism are considered major prerequisites for atypical myopathy (AM). The increasing incidence and the high mortality rate of AM urgently necessitate new therapeutic and/or preventative approaches. OBJECTIVES: To identify a substance for oral administration capable of binding HGA in the intestinal lumen, and effectively reducing the intestinal absorption of the toxin. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study...
July 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714648/-phosphate-binders-what-are-the-recent-evidences
#12
Iméne Achek Bouajila, Pierre-Yves Martin, Sophie De Seigneux
Hyperphosphatemia is a late complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is a major non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor in CKD. The management of hyperphosphatemia is based on restriction of phosphate intake, phosphate binders and dialysis. Phosphate binders are divided into calcium-based and non-calcium-based binders. Recent evidence suggest restricting the dose of calcium-based phosphate binders because of the associated increased mortality in compared to non-calcic ones. New treatments are under development such as inhibitors of kidney or intestinal phosphate absorption...
February 22, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714596/multifunctional-nanotube-mucoadhesive-poly-methyl-vinyl-ether-co-maleic-acid-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-acetate-succinate-composite-for-site-specific-oral-drug-delivery
#13
Nattha Kerdsakundee, Wei Li, João Pedro Martins, Zehua Liu, Feng Zhang, Marianna Kemell, Alexandra Correia, Yaping Ding, Mikko Airavaara, Jouni Hirvonen, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee, Hélder A Santos
An advanced oral drug delivery system that can effectively deliver drugs with poor oral bioavailability is strongly desirable. Herein, a multifunctional nano-in-micro structured composite is developed by encapsulation of the mucoadhesive poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with the pH-responsive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate by the microfluidics to control the drug release, increase cell-particle interaction, and improve drug absorption. The microparticles show spherical shape, homogeneous particle size distribution (58 ± 1 µm), and pH-responsive dissolution behavior at pH > 6, and they prevent the premature release of curcumin in simulated pH conditions of the stomach and immediately release the curcumin in simulated pH conditions of the small intestine...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714227/transepithelial-transport-of-milk-derived-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptide-with-the-rlsfnp-sequence
#14
Yuxing Guo, Junai Gan, Qian Zhu, Xiaoqun Zeng, Yangying Sun, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan
BACKGROUND: To exert an antihypertensive effect after oral administration, Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides must remain active after intestinal transport. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the transport permeability and route of ACE inhibitory peptide Arg-Leu-Ser-Phe-Asn-Pro (RLSFNP) across the intestinal epithelium using a Caco-2 cell monolayers. RESULTS: Intact RLSFNP and RLSFNP breakdown fragments F, FNP, SFNP and RLSF were found in RLSFNP transport solution across Caco-2 cell monolayers using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714103/hunger-and-microbiology-is-a-low-gastric-acid-induced-bacterial-overgrowth-in-the-small-intestine-a-contributor-to-malnutrition-in-developing-countries
#15
Shafiqul A Sarker, Tahmeed Ahmed, Harald Brüssow
Underproduction of hydrochloric acid into the stomach is frequently encountered in subjects from developing countries. We explore the hypothesis that hypochlorhydria compromises the gastric barrier and favours bacterial overgrowth in the proximal parts of the small intestine where nutrient absorption takes place. Food calories are thus deviated into bacterial metabolism. In addition to an adequate caloric supply, correcting hypochlorhydria might be needed to decrease childhood malnutrition.
July 17, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714057/population-specific-responses-to-interspecific-competition-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#16
Xiaoping He, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D Heath
The gut microbial community in vertebrates plays a role in nutrient digestion and absorption, development of intestine and immune systems, resistance to infection, regulation of bone mass and even host behavior and can thus impact host fitness. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada, have been unsuccessful, likely due to competition with non-native salmonids. In this study, we explored interspecific competition effects on the gut microbiota of two Atlantic salmon populations (LaHave and Sebago) resulting from four non-native salmonids...
July 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713372/nanoparticle-formulated-curcumin-prevents-posttherapeutic-disease-reactivation-and-reinfection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-following-isoniazid-therapy
#17
Sultan Tousif, Dhiraj Kumar Singh, Sitabja Mukherjee, Shaheer Ahmad, Rakesh Arya, Ranjan Nanda, Anand Ranganathan, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Luc Van Kaer, Santosh K Kar, Gobardhan Das
Curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric also known as "Indian Yellow Gold," exhibits therapeutic efficacy against several chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases. Even though considered as a wonder drug pertaining to a myriad of reported benefits, the translational potential of curcumin is limited by its low systemic bioavailability due to its poor intestinal absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Therefore, the translational potential of this compound is specifically challenged by bioavailability issues, and several laboratories are making efforts to improve its bioavailability...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712300/a-continuous-intestinal-absorption-model-based-on-the-convection-diffusion-equation
#18
Swati Nagar, Richard C Korzekwa, Ken Korzekwa
Prediction of the rate and extent of drug absorption upon oral dosing needs models that capture the complexities of both the drug molecule and intestinal physiology. We report here the development of a continuous intestinal absorption model based on the convection-diffusion equation. The model includes explicit enterocyte apical membrane and intracellular lipid radial compartments along the length of the intestine. Physiologic functions along length x are built into the model, and include velocity, diffusion, surface areas, and pH of the intestine...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711947/repression-of-intestinal-transporters-and-fxr-fgf15-signaling-explains-bile-acids-dysregulation-in-experimental-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#19
Lijuan Cao, Yuan Che, Tuo Meng, Shanshan Deng, Jun Zhang, Min Zhao, Wanfeng Xu, Dandan Wang, Zhichen Pu, Guangji Wang, Haiping Hao
Bile acids (BAs) are important endogenous signaling molecules that play vital roles in the pathological development of various diseases including colitis-associated cancer (CAC). BAs were previously found dysregulated under conditions of CAC; however, the exact patterns and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Based on the development of a method for comprehensive analysis of BAs, this study aims to elucidate the dysregulation patterns and involved mechanisms in a typical CAC model induced by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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