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Intestinal absorption

João C P Silva, Marta Mota, Fatima O Martins, Celia Nogueira, Teresa Gonçalves, Tatiana Carneiro, Joana Pinto, Daniela Duarte, Antonio S Barros, John G Jones, Ana M Gil
Increased sugar intake is implicated in Type-2 diabetes and fatty liver disease, however, the mechanisms through which glucose and fructose promote these conditions are unclear. We hypothesize that alterations in intestinal metabolite and microbiota profiles specific to each monosaccharide are involved. Two groups of six adult C57BL/6 mice were fed for 10-weeks with diets with glucose (G) or fructose (F) as sole carbohydrates, and a third group was fed with a normal chow carbohydrate mixture (N). Fecal metabolites were profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microbial composition by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
M Chakhtoura, M S Ramnitz, N Khoury, G Nemer, N Shabb, A Abchee, A Berberi, M Hourani, M Collins, S Ichikawa, G El Hajj Fuleihan
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC), secondary to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene mutation, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent calcified masses. We describe young Lebanese cousins presenting with HFTC, based on a retrospective chart review and a prospective case study. In addition, we present a comprehensive review on the topic, based on a literature search conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar, in 2014 and updated in December 2017. While the patients had the same previously reported FGF23 gene mutation (homozygous c...
June 20, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Paula Simó-Mirabet, Erick Perera, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Juan M Afonso, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Sirtuins (SIRTs) represent a conserved protein family of deacetylases that act as master regulators of metabolism, but little is known about their roles in fish and livestock animals in general. The present study aimed to assess the value of SIRTs for the metabolic phenotyping of fish by assessing their co-expression with a wide-representation of markers of energy and lipid metabolism and intestinal function and health in two genetically different gilthead sea bream strains with differences in growth performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rudra Pangeni, Jeong Uk Choi, Vijay Kumar Panthi, Youngro Byun, Jin Woo Park
Objective: The current study sought to design an oral delivery system of pemetrexed (PMX), a multitargeted antifolate antimetabolite, by enhancing its intestinal membrane permeability. Materials and methods: PMX was ionically complexed with a permeation enhancer such as N α -deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester (DCK) and prepared as an amorphous solid dispersion by mixing with dispersants such as 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and poloxamer 188 (P188), forming an HP-beta-CD/PMX/DCK/P188; the complex was incorporated into multiple water-in-oil-in-water nanoemulsions in a supersaturated state (HP-beta-CD/PMX/DCK/P188-NE)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Narayan C Rath, Rohana Liyanage, Anamika Gupta, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Jackson O Lay
Enterocytes function as both absorptive and protective components of intestine that come in close contact with a variety of enteric factors, such as dietary, microbial, and parasites, that have potential to affect the organismal health. Understanding how enterocytes interact with this complex array of factors may help improve gut health particularly in the context of poultry production where it is also linked to food safety issues. The enterocyte in vitro culture can help screen different factors and their interactions with microbiome, and potentially be utilized in the development of interventions strategies for pathogens such as antibiotic alternatives...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Jinpeng Du, Chaojie Hu, Jie Bai, Miaomiao Peng, Qingbo Wang, Ning Zhao, Yu Wang, Guobin Wang, Kaixiong Tao, Geng Wang, Zefeng Xia
BACKGROUND: The unique effects of gastric resection after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on type 2 diabetes mellitus remain unclear. This work aimed to investigate the effects of VSG on gastric leptin expression and intestinal glucose absorption in high-fat diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. HFD mice were randomized into VSG and sham-operation groups, and the relevant parameters were measured at 8 weeks postoperation...
June 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Eline N Kuipers, Andrea D van Dam, Ntsiki M Held, Isabel M Mol, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Patrick C N Rensen, Mariëtte R Boon
Obesity and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, lowers plasma triglycerides (TG) in human intervention studies, and its intake is associated with lower CVD risk. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which quercetin lowers plasma TG levels in diet-induced obesity. C57Bl/6J mice received a high-fat diet (45% of calories derived from fat) with or without quercetin (0.1% w / w ) for 12 weeks. Quercetin decreased plasma TG levels from nine weeks onwards (&minus;19%, p < 0...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Frederico Alisson-Silva, Janet Z Liu, Sandra L Diaz, Lingquan Deng, Mélanie G Gareau, Ronald Marchelletta, Xi Chen, Victor Nizet, Nissi Varki, Kim E Barrett, Ajit Varki
While infectious agents have typical host preferences, the noninvasive enteric bacterium Vibrio cholerae is remarkable for its ability to survive in many environments, yet cause diarrheal disease (cholera) only in humans. One key V. cholerae virulence factor is its neuraminidase (VcN), which releases host intestinal epithelial sialic acids as a nutrition source and simultaneously remodels intestinal polysialylated gangliosides into monosialoganglioside GM1. GM1 is the optimal binding target for the B subunit of a second virulence factor, the AB5 cholera toxin (Ctx)...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Salvatore Magliocca, Carmen De Caro, Loretta Lazzarato, Roberto Russo, Barbara Rolando, Konstantin Chegaev, Elisabetta Marini, Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Gianpiero Boatto, Claudia Cristiano, Domenica Marabello, Elena Gazzano, Chiara Riganti, Federica Sodano, Maria Grazia Rimoli
Aceclofenac is a popular analgesic, antipyretic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for prolonged treatment (at least three months) in musculoskeletal disorders. It is characterized by several limitations, such as poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. The main side-effect of aceclofenac, as well as all NSAIDs, is the gastrotoxicity; among other adverse effects, there is the risk of bleeding since aceclofenac reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation. With the aim to reduce these drawbacks, we have designed, synthesized and characterized both in vitro and in vivo, an orally administrable pro-drug of aceclofenac (ACEgal)...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Hao Li, Ming-Hui Chen, Joseph G Ibrahim, Sungduk Kim, Arvind K Shah, Jianxin Lin, Andrew M Tershakovec
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been identified as a causative factor for atherosclerosis and related coronary heart disease, and as the main target for cholesterol- and lipid-lowering therapy. Statin drugs inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver and are typically the first line of therapy to lower elevated levels of LDL-C. On the other hand, a different drug, Ezetimibe, inhibits the absorption of cholesterol by the small intestine and provides a different mechanism of action. Many clinical trials have been carried out on safety and efficacy evaluation of cholesterol lowering drugs...
April 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Peng Li, Rongmei Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Xiaojuan Wang, Jingpeng Zhao, Hai Lin
The transport of calcium and phosphorus is mainly relied on their corresponding transporters. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary phosphorus level on the expression of the relevant calcium and phosphorus transporters in laying hens, which has a large amount of calcium and phosphorus input from intestine and output from kidney and eggshell gland. Thirty-six 25-week-old Hy-line Brown hens were fed diets with different available phosphorus level (AP, 0.15, 0.41, and 0.82%), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Martin Tresguerres, Cristina Salmerón
The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is the most recently identified source of the messenger molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate. sAC is evolutionarily conserved from cyanobacteria to human, is directly stimulated by [Formula: see text] ions, and can act as a sensor of environmental and metabolic CO2 , pH, and [Formula: see text] levels. sAC genes tend to have multiple alternative promoters, undergo extensive alternative splicing, be translated into low mRNA levels, and the numerous sAC protein isoforms may be present in various subcellular localizations...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Imane Saidoune-Malek, Aouatef Ait-Lounis, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
We previously reported that Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom induces inflammation in several tissues, however limited information is available on its role in gastrointestinal tract. Here we evaluate the involvement of TNF-α in lipid metabolism in the small intestine after Aah envenomation. To address these issues, NMRI mice (3-month-old) were pre-treated with a TNF-α antagonist, 30 minutes prior to Aah venom injection. Redox status, cytotoxicity and histopathological changes were analyzed in small intestine 3 and 24 hours after Aah injection...
June 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
P Haines Ely
The gut is the largest lymphoid organ in the body. The human microbiome is composed of trillions of bacteria. The DNA of these bacteria dwarfs the human genome. Diet and ethanol can cause rapid shifts in the number and types of bacteria in the gut. The psoriatic microbiome is similar to that seen in alcoholics; there is a decrease in bacterial diversity and overgrowth of bacteria in the small bowel. Psoriatics often have liver disease and deficiencies in bile acids. Psoriasis is a disease characterized by a leaky gut...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
A Attaya, T Wang, J Zou, T Herath, A Adams, C J Secombes, S Yoon
Increased knowledge of the immune response of the intestine, a physiologically critical organ involved in absorption, secretion and homeostasis in a non-sterile environment, is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of long-lasting immunity and, subsequently, the development of efficacious gastrointestinal immunization approaches. To this end, analysis of isolated gut cells will give an insight into the cell types present and their immune capability. Hence, in this study we first optimised a method for salmonid gut leucocyte isolation and characterised the cells on the basis of their expression of a range of selected cell markers associated with T & B cells and dendritic cells...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Nour M Moukalled, Fuad A El Rassi, Sally N Temraz, Ali T Taher
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
E Zhang, Fulong Chu, Lixu Xu, Hao Liang, Shuliang Song, Aiguo Ji
A new method to label fucoidan sulfate was established with tyramine and fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC). The fluorescence spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography verified the successful labelling of fucoidan by FITC. The results of the single-pass intestinal perfusion indicated jejunum and ileum as the main absorption sites, and there was carrier saturation. In addition, fucoidan sulfate at 1 mg/mL had no inhibitory effect on Caco-2 cell proliferation. Studies on the transmembrane transport mechanism showed that fucoidan can be absorbed because the apparent permeability coefficient of drugs (Papp ) A→B was 3...
June 14, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Bo Wang, Peter Tontonoz
Liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ) are nuclear receptors with pivotal roles in the transcriptional control of lipid metabolism. Transcriptional activity of LXRs is induced in response to elevated cellular levels of cholesterol. LXRs bind to and regulate the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in cholesterol absorption, transport, efflux, excretion and conversion to bile acids. The coordinated, tissue-specific actions of the LXR pathway maintain systemic cholesterol homeostasis and regulate immune and inflammatory responses...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Qing Xu, Xinsheng Zhang, Yong Zhang, Yinghua Liu, Changyong Xue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate caprylic acid( C8 ∶ 0), capric acid( C10 ∶ 0)or stearic acid( C18∶ 0) on the absorption of exogenous cholesterol in mice. METHODS: ApoE-/-mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: 2% caprylic acid( C8 ∶ 0), capric acid( C10∶ 0) or stearic acid( C18∶ 0) were fed with high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured at the beginning of the experiment, the 8 th week and the 16 th week. At 16 th weeks of intervention, 1 h and 4 h after ~3H-cholesterol intragastric administration, the contents of ~3H-cholesterol in the jejunum, ileum and colon contents of mice were intragastric measured...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Fang-Fang Fan, Fei-Fei Guo, Wen Zhang, Yi Zhang, Hong-Jun Yang, Yi Zhang, De-Feng Li, Jing Zhang, Jing-Jing Zhang
In this study, a computer-based network pharmacology approach was applied to investigate the potential mechanism and important components of Rhodiola crenulata in the protection of H9c2 cells against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress. The intestinal absorption liquid of R. crenulata enhanced the cell viability, maintained cell morphology and inhibited cell apoptosis in the H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress in H9c2. Then, computer-based network pharmacology was used to analyze the relevant mechanism...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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