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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447197/role-of-zinc-in-the-development-progression-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Craig McClain, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Matthew Cave
Many variables, aside from the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, play a role in the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). One critical factor that can be modified is diet/nutrition. We have made major recent advances in our understanding of the interactions of nutrition and ALD. In this article, we review advances made in zinc metabolism/therapy for ALD. There is major zinc dyshomeostasis with ALD which is mediated, in part, by poor intake and absorption, increased excretion, and altered zinc transporters, especially ZIP14...
April 26, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446221/effectiveness-of-three-commonly-used-transition-phase-diets-in-the-inpatient-management-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-in-malawi
#2
Christian J Versloot, Wieger Voskuijl, Sara J van Vliet, Meta van den Heuvel, Jane C Carter, Ajib Phiri, Marko Kerac, Geert Tom Heikens, Patrick F van Rheenen, Robert H J Bandsma
BACKGROUND: The case fatality rate of severely malnourished children during inpatient treatment is high and mortality is often associated with diarrhea. As intestinal carbohydrate absorption is impaired in severe acute malnutrition (SAM), differences in dietary formulations during nutritional rehabilitation could lead to the development of osmotic diarrhea and subsequently hypovolemia and death. We compared three dietary strategies commonly used during the transition of severely malnourished children to higher caloric feeds, i...
April 26, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445388/maternal-methyl-donor-supplementation-during-gestation-counteracts-the-bisphenol-a-induced-impairment-of-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-nutrient-transporters-gene-expression-in-newborn-and-weaning-pigs
#3
Hong Liu, Jun Wang, Daolin Mou, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Bin Feng, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, De Wu
This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET)...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443246/genetic-and-dietary-iron-overload-differentially-affect-the-course-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#4
Manfred Nairz, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Stefanie Dichtl, Piotr Tymoszuk, Egon Demetz, Patrizia Moser, Hubertus Haas, Ferric C Fang, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
Genetic and dietary forms of iron overload have distinctive clinical and pathophysiological features. HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by overwhelming intestinal iron absorption, parenchymal iron deposition, and macrophage iron depletion. In contrast, excessive dietary iron intake results in iron deposition in macrophages. However, the functional consequences of genetic and dietary iron overload for the control of microbes are incompletely understood. Using Hfe(+/+) and Hfe(-/-) mice in combination with oral iron overload in a model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, we found animals of either genotype to induce hepcidin antimicrobial peptide expression and hypoferremia following systemic infection in an Hfe-independent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441908/glucose-fructose-ingestion-and-exercise-performance-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-beyond
#5
Robin Rosset, Léonie Egli, Virgile Lecoultre
Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance exercise performance. In the past two decades, research has repeatedly reported the performance benefits of formulations comprising both glucose and fructose (GLUFRU) over those based on glucose (GLU). This has been usually related to additive effects of these two monosaccharides on the gastrointestinal tract whereby intestinal carbohydrate absorption is enhanced and discomfort limited. This is only a partial explanation, since glucose and fructose are also metabolized through different pathways after being absorbed from the gut...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438611/low-dietary-cholesterol-availability-during-lactation-programs-intestinal-absorption-of-cholesterol-in-adult-mice
#6
Lidiya G Dimova, Jan Freark de Boer, Josee Plantinga, Torsten Plösch, Menno Hoekstra, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early-life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438535/a-critical-view-on-in-vitro-analysis-of-p-glycoprotein-p-gp-transport-kinetics
#7
Lasse Saaby, Birger Brodin
Transport proteins expressed in the different barriers of the human body can have great implications on absorption, distribution and excretion of drug compounds. Inhibition or saturation of a transporter can potentially alter these ADME properties, and thereby also the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of drug compounds. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), is an efflux transporter which is present in most of the barriers of the body, including the small intestine, the blood-brain barrier, the liver and the kidney...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436589/short-chain-fatty-acids-augment-rat-duodenal-mucosal-barrier-function
#8
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine, particularly from diets containing fibres and carbohydrates. The small intestinal epithelium is exposed to SCFAs derived mainly from oral bacteria or food supplementation. Although luminal nutrients are important in regulation of intestinal functions the role of SCFAs in regulation of small intestinal mucosal barrier function and motility has not been fully described. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of acetate and propionate on duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432604/phosphate-imbalance-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
E C Christopoulou, T D Filippatos, E Megapanou, M S Elisaf, G Liamis
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption...
April 22, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432152/exposure-to-seawater-increases-intestinal-motility-in-euryhaline-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Albin Gräns, Esmée Dekens, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), this study demonstrates that in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 minutes followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 minutes...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431964/microvillus-specific-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-sap-1-plays-a-role-in-regulating-the-intestinal-paracellular-transport-of-macromolecules
#12
Shingo Mori, Noriyasu Kamei, Yoji Murata, Kozo Takayama, Takashi Matozaki, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
The stomach cancer associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases, however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed to clarify the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431399/muc2-mucin-deficiency-alters-inflammatory-and-metabolic-pathways-in-the-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#13
Selamawit Tadesse, Georgia Corner, Elena Dhima, Michele Houston, Chandan Guha, Leonard Augenlicht, Anna Velcich
The mucus layer in the intestine affects several aspects of intestinal biology, encompassing physical, chemical protection, immunomodulation and growth, thus contributing to homeostasis. Mice with genetic inactivation of the Muc2 gene, encoding the MUC2 mucin, the major protein component of mucus, exhibit altered intestinal homeostasis, which is strictly dependent on the habitat, likely due to differing complements of intestinal microbes. Our previous work established that Muc2 deficiency was linked to low chronic inflammation resulting in tumor development in the small, large intestine including the rectum...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#14
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#15
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430654/alpha-ketoglutarate-suppresses-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-pathway-and-enhances-the-pxr-regulated-detoxification-pathway
#16
Liuqin He, Huan Li, Niu Huang, Xihong Zhou, Junquan Tian, Tiejun Li, Jing Wu, Yanan Tian, Yulong Yin, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a critical nutritional factor in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, the relative mechanism of AKG has not been well understood. It was recently shown that the interaction between nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory pathway and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated detoxification pathway is a check and balance mechanism for keeping the homeostatic state of the intestine, preventing the onset of intestinal inflammation which may lead to cancer. In the current study we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet and intestinal porcine epithelial cells-J2 models to investigate the effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the intestinal immune system and PXR regulated target expression...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429994/ileal-endogenous-losses-in-pigs-feeding-a-protein-free-diet-or-diets-with-different-contents-of-casein-or-crystalline-amino-acids
#17
Matej Brestenský, Soňa Nitrayová, Peter Patráš
The common usage of protein-free diets to estimate unspecific AA losses has been criticised as unphysiological and incorrect. Therefore, in this study different diets were tested for the determination of endogenous losses (EL) of amino acids (AA) and nitrogen (N) assuming a complete absorption in the small intestine. Seven cannulated gilts received a protein-free diet (Diet PF) or diets with 3%, 6% or 10% crude protein (CP) from crystalline AA (Diets CA) or casein (Diets CAS) according to a 7 × 7 Latin square design...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429991/effects-of-medium-chain-triglycerides-on-intestinal-morphology-and-energy-metabolism-of-intrauterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#18
Li-Li Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yue Li, Tian Wang
It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415922/host-pharmacokinetics-and-drug-accumulation-of-anthelmintics-within-target-helminth-parasites-of-ruminants
#19
A Lifschitz, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy...
April 17, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415037/enantiomer-specific-accumulation-and-depuration-of-%C3%AE-hexabromocyclododecane-%C3%AE-hbcdd-in-chicken-gallus-gallus-as-a-tool-to-identify-contamination-sources
#20
Elsa Omer, Ronan Cariou, Adeline Huneau-Salaün, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Élisabeth Baéza, Angélique Travel, Sophie Le Bouquin, Catherine Jondreville, Bruno Le Bizec
A LC-ESI(-)-HRMS method dedicated to the analysis of 6 HBCDD enantiomers at trace levels in animal matrices was developed, using a cellulose based stationary phase with a particle size of 2.5 μm. This method was applied to a sample set derived from a kinetic study of α-HBCDD previously conducted in fast- and slow-growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus, n = 49, plus controls), in order to study the enantiomer specific accumulation and depuration of α-HBCDD in various tissues. Regarding abdominal adipose tissue, muscle and liver, the average enantiomeric fractions of α-HBCDD (EFα) for continuously exposed groups ranged between 0...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
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