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Intestinal absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335401/the-vital-dye-cdr10b-labels-the-zebrafish-mid-intestine-and-lumen
#1
Veronika Sander, Shantanu Patke, Jung Y Lee, Young-Tae Chang, Alan J Davidson
We describe the use of the fluorescent reporter compound CDr10b to label mid-intestinal structures in zebrafish larvae after simple immersion. CDr10b is deposited into the gut where it initially fills the lumen and is excreted. Using laser-mediated injury of the intestine, we show that CDr10b provides a useful readout of the integrity and repair of the epithelial cell barrier. In addition, CDr10b specifically labels the absorptive mid-intestine segment that is analogous to the mammalian small intestine. By perturbing retinoic acid signaling, which regulates the size of the mid-intestine segment, we show that CDr10b is a valuable tool to rapidly assess developmental malformations of the intestine in live animals...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335380/vitamin-e-nicotinate
#2
REVIEW
Kimbell R Duncan, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications...
March 13, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335354/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-biomolecule-interactions-influence-oral-absorption
#3
Mi-Rae Jo, Jin Yu, Hyoung-Jun Kim, Jae Ho Song, Kyoung-Min Kim, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in various industrial fields, such as electronics, packaging, food, and cosmetics. Accordingly, concerns about the potential toxicity of TiO₂ NPs have increased. In order to comprehend their in vivo behavior and potential toxicity, we must evaluate the interactions between TiO₂ NPs and biomolecules, which can alter the physicochemical properties and the fate of NPs under physiological conditions. In the present study, in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of food grade TiO₂ (f-TiO₂) NPs were evaluated following a single-dose oral administration to rats and were compared to those of general grade TiO₂ (g-TiO₂) NPs...
November 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333199/effect-of-butyrate-and-lactobacillus-gg-on-a-butyrate-receptor-and-transporter-during-campylobacter-jejuni-exposure
#4
Gail A M Cresci, Paul C Mayer, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333140/metabolic-and-molecular-insights-into-an-essential-role-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#5
Li Q Zhang, Leon Van Haandel, Min Xiong, Peixin Huang, Daniel P Heruth, Charlie Bi, Roger Gaedigk, Xun Jiang, Ding-You Li, Gerald Wyckoff, Dmitry N Grigoryev, Li Gao, Linheng Li, Min Wu, J Steven Leeder, Shui Qing Ye
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome, aging, cancer, coronary heart diseases, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, and sepsis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of NAMPT in these physiological and pathological processes are not fully understood. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a Nampt gene homozygous knockout (Nampt(-/-)) resulted in lethality at an early stage of mouse embryonic development and death within 5-10 days in adult mice accompanied by a 25...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#6
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332114/training-the-gut-for-athletes
#7
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be "trained" and perceptions of fullness decreased; some studies have suggested that nutrient-specific increases in gastric emptying may occur...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327177/intestinal-t-lymphocyte-homing-is-associated-with-gastric-emptying-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-critically-ill-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Christian Greis, Zohal Rasuly, Rolf A Janosi, Lambros Kordelas, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Impaired gastric emptying is common in critically ill patients. Intestinal dysmotility, a major cause of feed intolerance, may foster infectious complications due to mucosal barrier disruption. However, little is known about gut-directed immune activation, intestinal barrier function and its association with impaired gastric emptying in critically ill patients at ICU admission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at two tertiary care medical ICUs...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325732/whey-protein-effects-on-energy-balance-link-the-intestinal-mechanisms-of-energy-absorption-with-adiposity-and-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-gene-expression
#9
Kanishka N Nilaweera, Raul Cabrera-Rubio, John R Speakman, Paula M O' Connor, AnneMarie McAuliffe, Caitriona M Guinane, Elaine Lawton, Fiona Crispie, Mònica Aguilera, Maurice Stanley, Serena Boscaini, Susan Joyce, Silvia Melgar, John F Cryan, Paul D Cotter
We tested the hypothesis that dietary whey protein isolate (WPI) affects the intestinal mechanisms related to energy absorption and that the resulting energy deficit is compensated by changes in energy balance to support growth. C57BL/6 mice were provided a diet enriched with WPI with varied sucrose content, and the impact on energy balance related parameters were investigated. As part of a high sucrose diet, WPI reduced the hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and increased energy intake...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323899/lawsonia-intracellularis-exploits-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt-and-notch-signalling-pathways-during-infection-of-intestinal-crypt-to-alter-cell-homeostasis-and-promote-cell-proliferation
#10
Yang W Huan, Rebecca J Bengtsson, Neil MacIntyre, Jack Guthrie, Heather Finlayson, Sionagh H Smith, Alan L Archibald, Tahar Ait-Ali
Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323388/enhanced-intestinal-absorption-of-curcumin-in-caco-2-cell-monolayer-using-mucoadhesive-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#11
Sanipon Chanburee, Waree Tiyaboonchai
This study aimed to compare the intestinal permeation of curcumin-loaded polymer coated nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and uncoated NLCs using the Caco-2 cell model. The uncoated NLCs were prepared using a warm microemulsion technique, while polymer-coated NLCs were prepared with the same method but were followed by coating particle surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). After lyophilization, all formulations possessed a mean size of <400 nm with a zeta potential of ∼-30 mV and a high entrapment efficacy up to 90%...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323213/oral-delivery-of-bacillus-subtilis-spores-expressing-cysteine-protease-of-clonorchis-sinensis-to-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-induces-immune-responses-and-has-no-damage-on-liver-and-intestine-function
#12
Zeli Tang, Hengchang Sun, TingJin Chen, Zhipeng Lin, Hongye Jiang, Xinyi Zhou, Cunbin Shi, Houjun Pan, Ouqin Chang, Pengli Ren, Jinyun Yu, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is a fish-borne trematode. Human can be infected by ingestion of C. sinensis metacercariae parasitized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For induction of effective oral immune responses, spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) WB600 were utilized as vehicle to delivery CsCP (cysteine protease of C. sinensis) cooperated with CotC (B.s-CotC-CP), one of coat proteins, to the gastrointestinal tract. After routine culture of 8-12 h in LB medium, B. subtilis containing CotC-CsCP was transferred into the sporulation culture medium...
March 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322747/quantitation-of-the-rates-of-hepatic-and-intestinal-cholesterol-synthesis-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficient-mice-before-and-during-treatment-with-ezetimibe
#13
Jen-Chieh Chuang, Adam M Lopez, Stephen D Turley
Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triglycerides, contained within lipoproteins taken up by cells, are hydrolysed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. The resulting unesterified cholesterol (UC) is transported via Niemann-Pick type C2 and C1 into the cytosolic compartment where it enters a putative pool of metabolically active cholesterol that is utilized in accordance with cellular needs. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene encoding LAL, result in dramatic increases in tissue concentrations of EC, a hallmark feature of Wolman Disease and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD)...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322745/role-of-the-small-intestine-colon-and-microbiota-in-determining-the-metabolic-fate-of-polyphenols
#14
REVIEW
Gary Williamson, Michael N Clifford
(Poly)phenols are a large group of compounds, found in food, beverages, dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Owing to their biological activities, absorption and metabolism of the most abundant compounds in humans are well understood. Both the chemical structure of the phenolic moiety and any attached chemical groups define whether the polyphenol is absorbed in the small intestine, or reaches the colon and is subject to extensive catabolism by colonic microbiota. Untransformed substrates may be absorbed, appearing in plasma primarily as methylated, sulfated and glucuronidated derivatives, with in some cases the unchanged substrate...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321545/tissue-distribution-of-oral-vitamin-b12-is-influenced-by-b12-status-and-b12-form-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#15
Linda S Kornerup, Sergey N Fedosov, Christian B Juul, Eva Greibe, Christian W Heegaard, Ebba Nexo
PURPOSE: Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) is the dominating Cbl form in food, whereas cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) is common in vitamin pills and oral supplements. This study compares single-dose absorption and distribution of oral HO[(57)Co]Cbl and CN[(57)Co]Cbl in Cbl-deficient and normal rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (7 weeks) were fed a 14-day diet with (n = 15) or without (n = 15) Cbl. We compared the uptakes of HO[(57)Co]Cbl (free or bound to bovine transcobalamin) and free CN[(57)Co]Cbl administered by gastric gavage (n = 5 in each diet group)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#16
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318878/insulin-stimulates-transport-of-organic-anion-compounds-mediated-by-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-2b1-in-the-human-intestinal-cell-line-caco-2
#17
Taku Kobayashi, Takahiro Koizumi, Masaki Kobayashi, Jiro Ogura, Yuichi Horiuchi, Yuki Kimura, Ayuko Kondo, Ayako Furugen, Katsuya Narumi, Natsuko Takahashi, Ken Iseki
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) is the major uptake transporter in the intestine, and transports various clinically used therapeutic agents. Insulin acts through the insulin receptor in targeted cells, and Rab8A is one of the insulin signaling pathways. The small intestine in humans also expresses insulin receptor and Rab8A. It has been reported that insulin stimulates peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) expression at the apical membrane and increases uptake of PEPT1 substrates in small intestine epithelial model cells (Caco-2 cells)...
December 27, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318299/lithocholic-acid-a-new-emergent-protector-of-intestinal-calcium-absorption-under-oxidant-conditions
#18
Ana M Marchionatti, Adriana Pérez, María A Rivoira, Valeria A Rodríguez, Nori G Tolosa de Talamoni
LCA and 1,25(OH)2D3 are vitamin D receptor ligands with different binding affinity. The secosteroid stimulates intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Whether LCA alters this process remains unknown. The aim of our work was to determine the effect of LCA on intestinal Ca(2+) absorption in the absence or presence of NaDOC, bile acid that inhibits the cation transport. The data show that LCA by itself did not alter intestinal Ca(2+) absorption, but prevented the inhibitory effect of NaDOC. The concomitant administration of LCA avoided the reduction of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity caused by NaDOC...
March 20, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317709/the-use-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-reduce-mercury-bioaccessibility
#19
C Jadán-Piedra, C Alcántara, V Monedero, M Zúñiga, D Vélez, V Devesa
Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH3Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH3Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317078/role-of-selenium-from-different-sources-in-prevention-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-syndrome-in-broiler-chickens
#20
A K Zamani Moghaddam, M H Mehraei Hamzekolaei, F Khajali, H Hassanpour
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers is associated with hypoxia, which prevails at high altitude. Oxidative stress is the pathogenic mechanism underlying PAH. Because selenium is key element in the structure of antioxidant enzymes, we evaluated pulmonary hypertensive responses in broiler chickens fed with diets supplemented with organic or nano-selenium. One hundred forty-four broilers (starting at 5 days old) were fed with (i) control group: birds received a standard diet; (ii) nano-selenium group: birds were fed with basal diet supplemented with nano-selenium at 0...
March 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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