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Intestinal absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646243/provitamin-a-carotenoids-from-an-engineered-high-carotenoid-maize-are-bioavailable-and-zeaxanthin-does-not-compromise-%C3%AE-carotene-absorption-in-poultry
#1
Joana Díaz-Gómez, Jose A Moreno, Eduardo Angulo, Gerhard Sandmann, Changfu Zhu, Teresa Capell, Carmina Nogareda
High-carotenoid (HC) maize, a biofortified staple crop which accumulates β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, was used as a feed component in a chicken feeding trial to assess the bioavailability of provitamin A (PVA) carotenoids in the kernel matrix compared to the synthetic and natural color additives routinely used in the poultry industry. We found that the PVA carotenoids in HC maize were not metabolized in the same manner: β-carotene was preferentially converted into retinol in the intestine whereas β-cryptoxanthin accumulated in the liver...
June 23, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644348/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-among-children-in-rural-bangladesh
#2
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Sucheta Mehra, Hasmot Ali, Lee Wu, Rubhana Raqib, Sarah Baker, Alain Labrique, Keith P West, Parul Christian
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) may inhibit growth and development in low- and middle-income countries, but available assessment methodologies limit its study. In rural Bangladesh, we measured EED using the widely used lactulose mannitol ratio (L:M) test and a panel of intestinal and systemic health biomarkers to evaluate convergence among biomarkers and describe risk factors for EED. METHODS: In 539 18-month-old children finishing participation in a randomized food supplementation trial, serum, stool, and urine collected after lactulose and mannitol dosing were analyzed for biomarkers of intestinal absorption, inflammation, permeability and repair, and systemic inflammation...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643569/iron-overload-directly-affecting-the-ovaries-in-a-patient-with-diamond-blackfan-anaemia-a-case-report
#3
Mariano Mascarenhas, Victoria Rawnsley, Adam Balen
Iron is a 'one-way' element and the primary point of regulation of body iron stores is at the level of intestinal iron absorption. Repeated blood transfusions for congenital anaemias bypass this regulatory checkpoint and inevitably lead to iron overload in the long-term. Iron overload causes multi-organ dysfunction of the heart, liver, pancreas and joints. It also causes reproductive toxicity primarily through its damaging effect on the anterior pituitary leading to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Another less understood mechanism of reproductive toxicity is direct gonadal damage of excess free iron...
June 23, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642864/the-effects-of-fasting-and-massive-diarrhea-on-absorption-of-enteral-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Takehiko Oami, Noriyuki Hattori, Yosuke Matsumura, Eizo Watanabe, Ryuzo Abe, Taku Oshima, Waka Takahashi, Shingo Yamazaki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Shigeto Oda
PURPOSE: Although vancomycin (VCM) is not absorbed from healthy intestinal mucosa, elevations in the serum VCM concentrations have been reported in some cases. The aims of this study are to evaluate the necessity of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during enteral VCM administration in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 19 patients admitted to our intensive care unit who were treated with enteral VCM from December 2006 to January 2014...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641010/alpha-mangostin-reverses-multidrug-resistance-by-attenuating-the-function-of-the-multidrug-resistance-linked-abcg2-transporter
#5
Chung-Pu Wu, Sung-Han Hsiao, Megumi Murakami, Yu-Jen Lu, Yan-Qing Li, Yang-Hui Huang, Tai-Ho Hung, Suresh V Ambudkar, Yu-Shan Wu
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter ABCG2 can actively efflux a wide variety of chemotherapeutic agents out of cancer cells and subsequently reduce the intracellular accumulation of these drugs. Therefore, the overexpression of ABCG2 often contributes to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells, which is one of the major obstacles to successful cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, ABCG2 is highly expressed in various tissues including the intestine and blood-brain barrier (BBB), limiting the absorption and bioavailability of many therapeutic agents...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637675/structure-functional-aspects-of-the-human-riboflavin-transporter-3-slc52a3-role-of-the-predicted-glycosylation-and-substrate-interacting-sites
#6
Veedamali S Subramanian, Subrata Subai, Trevor Teafatiller, Jennifer A Bohl, Hamid M Said
The human riboflavin (RF) transporter-3 (hRFVT-3; product of the SLC52A3 gene) plays an essential role in the intestinal RF absorption process and is expressed exclusively at the apical membrane domain of polarized enterocytes. Previous studies have characterized different physiological/biological aspects of this transporter, but nothing is known about the glycosylation status of the hRFVT-3 protein and role of this modification in its physiology/biology. Additionally, little is known about the residues in the hRFVT-3 protein that interact with the ligand, RF...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637464/kaiso-differentially-regulates-components-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway-in-intestinal-cells
#7
Shaiya C Robinson, Kristina Klobucar, Christina C Pierre, Amna Ansari, Svetlana Zhenilo, Egor Prokhortchouk, Juliet M Daniel
BACKGROUND: In mammalian intestines, Notch signaling plays a critical role in mediating cell fate decisions; it promotes the absorptive (or enterocyte) cell fate, while concomitantly inhibiting the secretory cell fate (i.e. goblet, Paneth and enteroendocrine cells). We recently reported that intestinal-specific Kaiso overexpressing mice (Kaiso (Tg) ) exhibited chronic intestinal inflammation and had increased numbers of all three secretory cell types, hinting that Kaiso might regulate Notch signaling in the gut...
June 21, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630260/cholesterol-auxotrophy-and-intolerance-to-ezetimibe-in-mice-with-srebp-2-deficiency-in-the-intestine
#8
Shunxing Rong, Jeffrey McDonald, Luke Engelking
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activates transcription of all genes needed for cholesterol biosynthesis. To study SREBP-2 function in intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-BP2(-/-) ) in which Cre recombinase ablates SREBP-2 in intestinal epithelia. Intestines of Vil-BP2(-/-) mice had reduced expression of genes required for sterol synthesis, in vivo sterol synthesis rates, and epithelial cholesterol contents. On a cholesterol-free diet, they displayed chronic enteropathy with histological abnormalities of both villi and crypts, growth restriction, and reduced survival that was prevented by supplementation of cholesterol in the diet...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628255/still-a-reasonable-goal-targeting-cholesterol-in-dialysis-and-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#9
EDITORIAL
Gunnar H Heine, Kyrill S Rogacev, Oliver Weingärtner, Gunther Marsche
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high burden of cardiovascular disease. In the general population, lipid metabolism disorders, which cause the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic vascular changes, are major targets for preventive and therapeutic strategies in cardiovascular medicine. However, data from large cohort studies and from clinical trials suggest that the treatment guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention and therapy cannot uncritically be transferred from individuals with intact renal function to CKD patients...
June 19, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628135/-effect-of-nano-tio2-on-intestinal-glucose-absorption-in-young-rat-on-the-everted-gut-sac-model
#10
Y L Zhang, Z J Chen, S Chen, L Zhuo, G Jia, Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on intestinal glucose absorption in young rats and its size effect. METHODS: In the study, 63 small intestine segments were isolated from 63 Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats, 4-week-old) to prepare the everted gut sac model. In the first part of our work, the everted sacs were exposed to 0, 50 mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (24 nm) for 2 h with the presence of a series of glucose concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mmol/L), and the glucose absorbing function of the everted sacs were assessed in the process...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627641/osteopontin-deficiency-protects-mice-from-cholesterol-gallstone-formation-by-reducing-expression-of-intestinal-npc1l1
#11
Jing Lin, Wei-Qing Shao, Qing-Zhi Chen, Wen-Wei Zhu, Lu Lu, Hu-Liang Jia, Jin-Hong Chen
Homeostasis of cholesterol is regulated by absorption in the intestine and synthesis in the liver. The authors previously demonstrated that OPN (osteopontin) exhibits the ability to alter hepatic cholesterol metabolism, thus affecting cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. The present study investigated the role of OPN in cholesterol gallstone formation, focusing on its effect on intestinal absorption of cholesterol. OPN gene knockout (OPN‑/‑) mice and wild‑type mice were respectively fed with a chow or lithogenic diet (LD) for 8 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#12
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622778/-causes-of-iron-deficiency-in-children
#13
J-P Olives
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and parasitic infection. Poor iron intake linked to inadequate diets, low iron intestinal absorption, chronic blood losses and increased requirements are common causes in high-income countries.
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622776/-iron-and-susceptibility-to-infections
#14
L de Pontual
Iron is essential for proper functioning of the host immune system as well as an essential nutrient for growth of various pathogens. Iron deficiency increases infection susceptibility, specially those due to intracellular pathogens. At the opposite, excess iron stores could increase the virulence of some pathogens. Hepcidin synthesis is increased during the acute inflammation phase; leading to decreased iron intestinal absorption and retention of the metal within macrophages. This is considered to result from a defense mechanism of the child to limit the availability of iron for extracellular pathogens...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621714/acute-effect-of-metformin-on-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-through-delayed-gastric-emptying
#15
Daisuke Sato, Katsutaro Morino, Fumiyuki Nakagawa, Koichiro Murata, Osamu Sekine, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential target for cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia. Metformin has been reported to reduce plasma triglyceride concentrations in the postprandial states. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the triglyceride-lowering effect of metformin. Here, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid metabolism after olive oil-loading in 129S mice fed a high fat diet for three weeks. Metformin administration (250 mg/kg) for one week decreased postprandial plasma triglycerides...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620479/postprandial-glycaemic-response-to-berry-nectars-containing-inverted-sucrose
#16
Riitta Törrönen, Jarkko Hellström, Pirjo Mattila, Kyllikki Kilpi
Sucrose is commonly used for sweetening berry products. During processing and storage of berry products containing added sucrose, sucrose is inverted to glucose and fructose. We have previously shown that postprandial glycaemic response induced by intact sucrose is attenuated when sucrose is consumed with berries rich in polyphenols. It is not known how inversion of sucrose affects glycaemic response. We investigated postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) nectars and a reference drink (water) sweetened with glucose and fructose, representing completely inverted sucrose...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620185/c-abl-regulates-gastrointestinal-muscularis-propria-homeostasis-via-erks
#17
Jinnan Xiang, Yiqun Zhang, Dandan Bao, Na Cao, Xin Zhang, Ping Li, Shoutao Qiu, Jigang Guo, Dan He, Baojie Li, Liqing Yao, Huijuan Liu
The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for food digestion and absorption. The muscularis propria propels the foodstuff through the GI tract and defects in intestine motility may cause obstruction disorders. Our present genetic studies identified non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as an important regulator of the muscularis propria homeostasis and a risk factor for rectal prolapse. Mouse deficient for c-Abl showed defects in the muscularis propria of gastrointestinal tract and older c-Abl (-/-) mice developed megaesophagus and rectal prolapse...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619730/consumption-of-a-high-iron-diet-disrupts-homeostatic-regulation-of-intestinal-copper-absorption-in-adolescent-mice
#18
Jung-Heun Ha, Caglar Doguer, James F Collins
High-iron feeding of rodents has been commonly used to model human iron-overload disorders. We recently noted that high-iron consumption impaired growth and caused severe systemic copper deficiency in growing rats, but the mechanism by which this occurred could not be determined due to technical limitations. In the current investigation, we thus utilized mice; first to determine if the same phenomenon occurred in another mammalian species, and secondly since we could assess in vivo copper absorption in mice...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619728/activated-notch-signaling-cascade-is-correlated-with-stem-cell-differentiation-toward-absorptive-progenitors-after-massive-small-bowel-resection-in-a-rat
#19
Igor Sukhotnik, Arnold G Coran, Yulia Pollak, Eviatar Kuhnreich, Drora Berkowitz, Amulya K Saxena
Notch signaling is thought to act to drive cell versification in the lining of the small intestine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of Notch signaling pathway in stem cell differentiationin the late stages of intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection in a rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups of 8 rats each: Sham rats underwent bowel transection and re-anastomosis, SBS- rats underwent 75% small bowel resection. Rats were sacrificed on day 14...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618876/niosomes-for-oral-delivery-of-nateglinide-in-situ-in-vivo-correlation
#20
Amal A Sultan, Sanaa A El-Gizawy, Mohamed A Osman, Gamal M El Maghraby
Niosomes have been claimed to enhance intestinal absorption and to widen the absorption window of acidic drugs. This was reported after monitoring the intestinal absorption in situ. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of niosomal encapsulation on intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of nateglinide. This was conducted with the goal of correlation between in situ intestinal absorption and in vivo availability. The drug was encapsulated into proniosomes. The niosomes resulting after hydration of proniosomes were characterized with respect to vesicle size and drug entrapment efficiency...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
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