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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243419/-advances-of-mechanism-research-on-procyanidin-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Xue-Ping Wang, Yi-Ming Li, Zhao Wang, Qi Jia, Kai-Xian Chen
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease, is characterized by high blood glucose that could induce various complications. Procyanidin, a kind of polyphenol compounds existing in many plants, have shown to be effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus as they may lower blood glucose, moderate insulin resistance and protect islet β cells. This review focused on the research advances on the preventive and therapeutic application of procyanidin in promoting glucose absorption, protecting islet β cells, modulating intestinal microbiota and regulating diabetic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which should provide useful reference for subsequent studies...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239290/re-evaluation-of-the-life-cycle-of-eimeria-maxima-tyzzer-1929-in-chickens-gallus-domesticus
#2
J P Dubey, M C Jenkins
A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238994/intestinal-p-glycoprotein-inhibitors-benzoxanthone-analogues
#3
Song Wha Chae, Jaeok Lee, Jung Hyun Park, Youngjoo Kwon, Younghwa Na, Hwa Jeong Lee
OBJECTIVES: The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which limits an access of exogenous compounds in the luminal membrane of the intestine have been studied to enhance the intestinal P-gp-mediated absorption of anticancer drugs. METHODS: Inhibition of the efflux pump by synthesized benzoxanthone derivatives was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MCF-7/ADR cell line was used for cytotoxicity assay and [3 H]-daunomycin (DNM) accumulation/efflux study. Eight benzoxanthone analogues were tested for their effects on DNM cytotoxicity...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238476/anti-hyperglycemic-and-antioxidant-potential-of-croton-bonplandianus-bail-fractions-in-correlation-with-polyphenol-content
#4
Uma Dharshini Karuppiah Vijayamuthuramalingam, Rajeswari Rajaram, Kalaivani Madhavaram Kuppusamy, Bhavana Jonnalagadda, Sumathy Arokiasamy
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus, a carbohydrate metabolic disorder, occurs due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Current treatment strategies involve either preventing or delaying the intestinal absorption of glucose to lower the levels of postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Herbal remedies have been since ancient times for treating diabetes mellitus. Therefore, identifying novel phytocompounds with α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity that would reduce the glucose absorption as well as the rise in postprandial blood glucose level is vital...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236119/estimation-of-the-bioaccessibility-and-bioavailability-of-fe-mn-cu-and-zn-in-chinese-vegetables-using-the-in-vitro-digestion-caco-2-cell-model-the-influence-of-gut-microbiota
#5
Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Guoxin Sun, Lihong Wang, Yudong Xu, Yuqing Chen, Yanshan Cui
The influence of the human gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetables has barely been studied. An in vitro digestion model combining the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied. Results showed that the gut microbiota increased the bioaccessibility of iron (Fe) in ten test vegetables by 1.3-1.8 times, but reduced the bioaccessibility of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables in the colon phase by 3...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234952/increased-calcium-uptake-and-improved-trabecular-bone-properties-in-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-knockout-mice
#6
Lucas R Brun, M Lombarte, S Roma, F Perez, J L Millán, A Rigalli
Previous studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity and calcium (Ca) absorption in the gut, as IAP acts as a protective mechanism inhibiting high Ca entry into enterocytes, preventing Ca overload. Here we evaluated Ca absorption and bone properties in knockout mice (KO) completely devoid of duodenal IAP (Akp3 -/- mice). Female C57BL/6 control mice (WT, n = 7) and KO mice (n = 10) were used to determine Ca absorption in vivo and by in situ isolated duodenal loops followed by histomorphometric analysis of duodenal villi and crypts...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234895/intestinal-stem-cells-to-advance-drug-development-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-a-paradigm-shift-in-translational-research
#7
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234672/vamp8-mucin-exocytosis-attenuates-intestinal-pathogenesis-by-entamoeba-histolytica
#8
COMMENT
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
The intestinal mucosa encounters a barrage of ingested insults within the host yet under homeostasis elegantly facilitates nutrient absorption and sustenance of the commensal microbiota. An essential defence mechanism employed by the host is limiting the spatial niche various microbes may occupy as executed by the fluid mucus layer. Pathogens that violate their restricted niche within the intestinal mucosa are first expelled by robust mucus secretion from goblet cells thus by-passing the need for an immune response...
November 27, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234422/effect-of-gelsemium-elegans-and-mussaenda-pubescens-the-components-of-a-detoxification-herbal-formula-on-disturbance-of-the-intestinal-absorptions-of-indole-alkaloids-in-caco-2-cells
#9
Yinghao Wang, Heshan Wang, Shuisheng Wu, Desen Li, Sainan Chen
Gelsemium elegans (GE) is a kind of well-known toxic plant. It can be detoxified by Mussaenda pubescens (MP), but the detoxification mechanism is still unclear. Thus, a detoxification herbal formula (GM) comprising GE and MP was derived. The Caco-2 cells monolayer model was used to evaluate GM effects on transporting six kinds of indole alkaloids of GE. The bidirectional transport studies demonstrated that absorbance percentage of indole alkaloids in GE increased linearly over time. But in GM, Papp (AP→BL) values of the most toxic members, gelsenicine, humantenidine, and gelsevirine, were lower than that of Papp (BL→AP) (P < 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233733/regulation-mechanism-of-dioscin-on-uric-acid-excretion
#10
Yi Zhang, Lijun Jin, Jinchang Liu, Wei Wang, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Qian Chen, Tao Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Dioscin, a spirostane glycoside, the rhizoma of Dioscorea septemloba (Diocoreacea) is used for diuresis, rheumatism, and joints pain. Given the poor solubility and stability of Dioscin, we proposed a hypothesis that Dioscin's metabolite(s) are the active substance(s) in vivo to contribute to the reducing effects on serum uric acid levels. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to identify the active metabolite(s) of Dioscin in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232562/tm6sf2-a-novel-target-for-plasma-lipid-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Ting-Ting Li, Tao-Hua Li, Juan Peng, Bei He, Lu-Shan Liu, Dang-Heng Wei, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Xi-Long Zheng, Zhi-Han Tang
Transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 (TM6SF2), a gene identified at the locus 19p12, has been recognized to regulate plasma lipids. Here, we provide an overview of the roles of TM6SF2 as a novel target for plasma lipid regulation. We first review the association of TM6SF2 variant with plasma lipid traits, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Then, we present an overview about the in vivo validation of TM6SF2 as a regulator of plasma lipid levels using mice, with overexpression or knockdown/knockout of TM6SF2...
December 1, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231746/is-there-a-role-for-charcoal-in-palliative-diarrhea-management
#12
Helen Senderovich, Megan J Vierhout
OBJECTIVE: Symptomatic therapy is an intervention centred entirely on the symptom management and pain relief. The utilization of charcoal in diarrhea management is a pertinent example of this type of medical care. Diarrhea is an ailment defined as an escalation in the frequency of bowel movements, unformed stool, abdominal discomfort and pain. These symptoms can be extremely debilitating for patients and effectuate frustration as well as severely damping mood and overall well-being. This narrative review aims to explore the use of charcoal in diarrhea management and its possible benefits in alleviating discomfort associated with these symptoms...
December 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229878/uptake-of-phenolic-compounds-from-plant-foods-in-human-intestinal-caco-2-cells
#13
Gavirangappa Hithamani, Dhanya Kizhakayil, Krishnapura Srinivasan
In continuation of our studies on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from food grains as influenced by domestic processing, we examined the uptake of phenolics from native/sprouted finger millet (Eleucine coracana) and green gram (Vigna radiata) and native/heat-processed onion (Allium cepa) in human Caco-2 cells. Absorption of pure phenolic compounds, as well as the uptake of phenolic compounds from finger millet, green gram, and onion, was investigated in Caco-2 monolayer model. Transport of individual phenolic compounds from apical compartment to the basolateral compartment across Caco-2 monolayer was also investigated...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228954/combination-of-berberine-and-evodiamine-inhibits-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-in-high-fat-diet-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#14
Xin Zhou, Fengying Ren, Hong Wei, Liyun Liu, Tao Shen, Shijun Xu, Jiangping Wei, Jiayue Ren, Hengfan Ni
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia characterized of elevated serum lipid levels is a prevalent disease frequently resulting in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Berberine and evodiamine are herbal products of traditional Chinese herb Coptis chinensis and Evodia rutaecarpa, which are indicated to exert regulation of lipid metabolism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of berberine and evodiamine combination in hyperlipidemic rats. METHOD: The rat model of hyperlipidemia was established by providing high-fat-diet (HFD) for 4 weeks...
December 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228872/the-in-vivo-pharmacokinetics-tissue-distribution-and-excretion-investigation-of-mesaconine-in-rats-and-its-in-vitro-intestinal-absorption-study-using-uplc-ms-ms
#15
Xiuxiu Liu, Minghai Tang, Taohong Liu, Chunyan Wang, Qiaoxin Tang, Yaxin Xiao, Ruixin Yang, Ruobing Chao
Mesaconine, an ingredient from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., has been proven to have cardiac effect. For further development and better pharmacological elucidation, the in vivo process and intestinal absorptive behavior of mesaconine should be investigated comprehensively. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantitation of mesaconine in rat plasma, tissue homogenates, urine and feces to investigate the in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and excretion...
December 12, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228833/in-vitro-in-silico-approach-in-the-development-of-simvastatin-loaded-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems
#16
Zora Ćetković, Sandra Cvijić, Dragana Vasiljević
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to formulate simvastatin (SV)-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), and explore the potential of these drug delivery systems to improve SV solubility, and also to identify the optimal place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for the release of SV using coupled in vitro/in silico approach. SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to other published results, this study considered the extensive presystemic clearance of SV, which could significantly decrease its systemic and hepatic bioavailability if SV is delivered into the small intestine...
December 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227499/self-discriminating-fluorescent-hybrid-nanocrystals-efficient-and-accurate-tracking-of-translocation-via-oral-delivery
#17
Chengying Shen, Yinqian Yang, Baode Shen, Yike Xie, Jianping Qi, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Weifeng Zhu, Wei Wu, Hailong Yuan, Yi Lu
The in vivo fate of nanocrystals is a controversial topic, i.e. dissolving versus integral absorption through the intestinal membrane. This is due to the lack of functional strategies to identify integral nanocrystals. In this study, the in vivo fate of quercetin hybrid nanocrystals (QT-HNCs) via the oral route is explored by physically embedding an environment-responsive probe in the crystal lattices of quercetin. The specific property of the probe is the water-initiated aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) ability, by which integral QT-HNCs can be self-discriminated...
December 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226508/glucose-homeostasis-in-two-degrees-of-sepsis-lethality-induced-by-caecum-ligation-and-puncture-in-mice
#18
Francielle B D Ferreira, Cristiane Dos Santos, Maciel A Bruxel, Everson A Nunes, Fernando Spiller, Alex Rafacho
Sepsis is associated with high mortality. Both critically ill humans and animal models of sepsis exhibit changes in their glucose homeostasis, that is, hypoglycaemia, with the progression of infection. However, the relationship between basal glycaemia, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity is not well understood. Thus, we aimed to evaluate this glucose homeostasis triad at the late stage of sepsis (24 h after surgery) in male Swiss mice subjected to lethal and sublethal sepsis by the caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226354/liquid-chromatographic-methods-for-the-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-methotrexate-as-clinical-decision-support-for-personalized-medicine-a-brief-review
#19
REVIEW
Mónica Francisco Silva, Cláudia Ribeiro, Virgínia M F Gonçalves, Maria Elizabeth Tiritan, Áurea Lima
Methotrexate (MTX) is an antifolate drug used for several diseases. Depending on the disease, MTX can be administered at low-dose (LDMTX) in some autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, or at high-dose (HDMTX) in some cancers, such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. After absorption, MTX is metabolized in the liver to 7-hydroxymethotrexate (7-OH-MTX) and in the intestine to 2,4-diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid (DAMPA). Moreover, inside red blood cells (RBCs), MTX is converted to active metabolites, MTX polyglutamates (MTXPGs), contributing to its pharmacodynamics...
December 11, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226149/role-of-p-glycoprotein-inhibitors-in-the-bioavailability-enhancement-of-solid-dispersion-of-darunavir
#20
Saleha Rehman, Bushra Nabi, Mohammad Fazil, Saba Khan, Naimat Kalim Bari, Romi Singh, Shavej Ahmad, Varinder Kumar, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali
Objective: The aim of the present study was to improve bioavailability of an important antiretroviral drug, Darunavir (DRV), which has low water solubility and poor intestinal absorption through solid dispersion (SD) approach incorporating polymer with P-glycoprotein inhibitory potential. Methods: A statistical approach where design of experiment (DoE) was used to prepare SD of DRV with incorporation of P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Using DoE, different methods of preparation, like melt, solvent evaporation, and spray drying method, utilizing carriers like Kolliphor TPGS and Soluplus were evaluated...
2017: BioMed Research International
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