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Intestinal absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453463/impact-of-gastric-emptying-and-small-intestinal-transit-on-blood-glucose-intestinal-hormones-glucose-absorption-in-the-morbidly-obese
#1
Nam Q Nguyen, Tamara L Debreceni, Jenna E Burgess, Max Bellon, Judith Wishart, Scott Standfield, Charles-Henri Malbert, Michael Horowitz
This study evaluated gastric emptying (GE) and small intestinal (SI) transit in people with morbid obesity and their relationships to glycaemia, incretin hormones, and glucose absorption METHODS: GE and caecal arrival time (CAT) of a mixed meal were assessed in 22 morbidly obese (50.2 ± 2.5 years; 13 F:9 M; BMI: 48.6 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 ) and 10 lean (38.6 ± 8.4 years; 5 F:5 M; BMI: 23.9 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ) subjects, using scintigraphy. Blood glucose, plasma 3-O-methylglucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452153/functionalization-of-nanodiamond-with-vitamin-e-tpgs-to-facilitate-oral-absorption-of-curcumin
#2
Bingchao Cheng, Hao Pan, Dandan Liu, Dongyang Li, Jinyu Li, Shihui Yu, Guoxin Tan, Weisan Pan
The purpose of this work was to develop a D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) decorated nanodiamond (ND) system loading water-insoluble curcumin (ND/CUR/TPGS) to improve the colloidal dispersity and oral bioavailability of the preparation. CUR was physically loaded into ND clusters, then TPGS was coated to the ND/CUR complex forming amorphous nanostructure on the interparticle nanocage of the ND substrate. The formulation of the nanocomplexes was optimized using response surface methodology, and the optimal ND/CUR/TPGS showed small particle size (196...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451355/a-critical-evaluation-of-in-vitro-hesperidin-2s-bioavailability-in-a-model-combining-luminal-microbial-digestion-and-caco-2-cell-absorption-in-comparison-to-a-randomized-controlled-human-trial
#3
Evelien Van Rymenant, Bouke Salden, Stefan Voorspoels, Griet Jacobs, Bart Noten, Judit Pitart, Sam Possemiers, Guy Smagghe, Charlotte Grootaert, John Van Camp
SCOPE: Bioavailability strongly determines polyphenol bioactivity, and is strongly influenced by food matrix, enzymatic and microbial degradation and gastro-intestinal absorption. To avoid human trials for pre-screening of polyphenol bioavailability, studies have focused on in vitro model development. Nevertheless, their predictive value for bioavailability can be questioned. METHOD AND RESULTS: We used the orange flavonoid hesperidin 2S to validate a model combining digestion in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME ® ) and Caco-2 cell transport, with a human intervention study...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450829/artificial-lipid-membrane-permeability-method-for-predicting-intestinal-drug-transport-probing-the-determining-step-in-the-oral-absorption-of-sulfadiazine-influence-of-the-formation-of-binary-and-ternary-complexes-with-cyclodextrins
#4
Alicia Delrivo, Carolina Aloisio, Marcela R Longhi, Gladys Granero
We propose an in vitro permeability assay by using a modified lipid membrane to predict the in vivo intestinal passive permeability of drugs. Two conditions were tested, one with a gradient pH (pH 5.5 donor/pH 7.4 receptor) and the other with an iso-pH 7.4. The predictability of the method was established by correlating the obtained apparent intestinal permeability coefficients (P app ) and the oral dose fraction absorbed in humans (f a ) of 16 drugs with different absorption properties. The P app values correlated well with the absorption rates under the two conditions, and the method showed high predictability and good reproducibility...
February 15, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445375/the-role-of-cytochromes-p450-in-infection
#5
REVIEW
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Cytochromes are expressed in many different tissues of the human body. They are found mostly in intestinal and hepatic tissues. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes that oxidize substances using iron and are able to metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. CYP enzymes are linked to a wide array of reactions including and O-dealkylation, S-oxidation, epoxidation, and hydroxylation. The activity of the typical P450 cytochrome is influenced by a variety of factors, such as genus, environment, disease state, herbicide, alcohol, and herbal medications...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445052/increase-in-breath-hydrogen-concentration-was-correlated-with-the-main-pancreatic-duct-stenosis
#6
Daisuke Sakai, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Takuya Ishikawa, Hiroki Suhara, Tomoaki Takeyama, Toshinari Koya, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Tadashi Iida, Ryo Nishio, Hirotaka Suzuki, Kota Uetsuki, Masanobu Matsushita, Takeshi Yamamura, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Akihiro Tsuruta, Woosuck Shin, Hidemi Goto
Hydrogen is produced from unabsorbed carbohydrates in the intestine through degradation and metabolism by hydrogenase of intestinal bacteria. The hydrogen is then partially diffused into blood flow and released and detected in exhaled breath. Pancreatic juice production is decreased in patients with reduced pancreatic exocrine function, including those with pancreatic cancer, thus decreasing digestion and absorption of nutrients including carbohydrates, which may increase undigested carbohydrates in the intestine and increase breath hydrogen concentration (BHC)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441882/dissolution-permeation-the-importance-of-the-experimental-setup-for-the-prediction-of-formulation-effects-on-fenofibrate-in-vivo-performance
#7
K Forner, I Hidalgo, J Lin, M Ackermann, P Langguth
The evaluation of formulation strategies in early drug development requires in vitro methods that correctly predict oral drug absorption. The present study aimed to define key parameters for the predictability of dissolution/permeation experiments. Dissolution/permeation experiments were performed in various setups. The IDAS1 chamber, Ussing chamber, and transwells were used as Caco-2 cell based dissolution/permeation models to study the impact of chamber volumes and vertical or horizontal membrane orientation...
October 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440893/nanoemulsion-as-a-strategy-for-improving-the-oral-bioavailability-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-andrographolide
#8
Ching-Chi Yen, Yi-Chen Chen, Ming-Tsang Wu, Chia-Chi Wang, Yu-Tse Wu
Background: Andrographolide (AG), a compound with low water solubility, possesses various pharmacological activities, particularly anti-inflammatory activity. However, its low oral bioavailability is a major obstacle to its potential use. This study developed and optimized an AG-loaded nanoemulsion (AG-NE) formulation to improve AG oral bioavailability and its protective effects against inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: A high-pressure homogenization technique was used to prepare the AG-NE and solubility, viscosity, and droplet size tests were conducted to develop the optimized AG-NE composed of α-tocopherol, ethanol, Cremophor EL, and water...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438462/butyrate-a-double-edged-sword-for-health
#9
Hu Liu, Ji Wang, Ting He, Sage Becker, Guolong Zhang, Defa Li, Xi Ma
Butyrate, a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid, is produced through microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the lower intestinal tract. Endogenous butyrate production, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor or signaling through several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, butyrate has received particular attention for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436999/pharmacoinformatics-and-molecular-docking-studies-reveal-potential-novel-compounds-against-schizophrenia-by-target-syn-ii
#10
Rana Adnan Tahir, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal
BACKGROUND: Synapsin II regulates neurotransmitter release from mature nerve terminals and plays important role in the formation of new nerve terminals. The associations of SYN II are identified in various studies that are linked to the onset of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal behavior like obsession, dampening of emotions and auditory hallucination. METHODS: The bioinformatics approaches were utilized for structural modeling and docking analyses of SYN II followed by pharmacophore generation to identify potent inhibitors...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434653/shuganyin-decoction-improves-the-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-rat-model-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-induced-by-water-avoidance-stress
#11
Lu Lu, Liang Yan, Jianye Yuan, Qing Ye, Jiang Lin
Background: To determine the effect of Shuganyin decoction (SGD) on the intestinal barrier function in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat model induced by water-avoidance stress. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control, water-avoidance stress (WAS) group, WAS plus Shuganyin decoction (SGD) group and WAS plus dicetel (Dicetel) group. IBS was induced in rats by subjecting them to water-avoidance stress for 7 days. On day 4 of the WAS protocol, the rats were treated for 7 consecutive days (days 4-11) with SGD, dicetel or a negative control (saline)...
2018: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434548/transporter-guided-delivery-of-nanoparticles-to-improve-drug-permeation-across-cellular-barriers-and-drug-exposure-to-selective-cell-types
#12
REVIEW
Longfa Kou, Yangzom D Bhutia, Qing Yao, Zhonggui He, Jin Sun, Vadivel Ganapathy
Targeted nano-drug delivery systems conjugated with specific ligands to target selective cell-surface receptors or transporters could enhance the efficacy of drug delivery and therapy. Transporters are expressed differentially on the cell-surface of different cell types, and also specific transporters are expressed at higher than normal levels in selective cell types under pathological conditions. They also play a key role in intestinal absorption, delivery via non-oral routes (e.g., pulmonary route and nasal route), and transfer across biological barriers (e...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433224/structure-characteristics-for-intestinal-uptake-of-flavonoids-in-caco-2-cells
#13
Yajing Fang, Fuqiang Liang, Kunyuan Liu, Shakeel Qaiser, Siyi Pan, Xiaoyun Xu
Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenols and widely distributed in plant foods. Flavonoids exhibit various biological activities, such as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory while poor oral bioavailability has been considered as a major hurdle in their use as functional foods. Cellular uptake and efflux of flavonoid implicates their bioavailability. To investigate the cellular uptake and efflux of flavonoids, 27 flavonoids were measured for their cellular uptake in Caco-2 cells with (CUV) and without (CU) the inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) verapamil...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430299/serum-carotenoids-and-macular-pigment-optical-density-in-patients-with-intestinal-resections-and-healthy-subjects-an-exploratory-study
#14
Jane N Eriksen, August P Prahm, Mads Krüger Falk, Eva Arrigoni, Palle B Jeppesen, Michael Larsen, Lars O Dragsted
Reduced absorption capacity in patients with intestinal resections (IR) could result in malabsorption of fat-soluble components like carotenoids, which are of clinical interest in relation to visual health. In this case cohort, we investigated the association between IR and serum lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and macular pigment optical density, when compared with healthy controls. Ten patients with IR and twelve healthy controls were included in the study. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, except for higher serum TAG (P < 0·05) and shorter bowel length (P < 0·0001) in the group with IR...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428792/enhancement-of-lymphatic-transport-of-lutein-by-oral-administration-of-a-solid-dispersion-and-a-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-system
#15
Yuki Sato, Tatsuru Joumura, Shunsuke Nashimoto, Sayaka Yokoyama, Yoh Takekuma, Hideto Yoshida, Mitsuru Sugawara
Lutein is located in the macula lutea in the human eye. Since humans cannot synthesize lutein de novo, it must be digested as food. Some studies including our previous study showed very low absorption of lutein after oral administration. Those studies also suggested that the absorption route of lutein from the small intestine involves not only the blood but also the lymph. The aim of this study was to clarify the transfer of lutein into lymph and the tissue distribution after oral administration of a solid dispersion (SD) and a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for improvement of the absorption...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428595/galanin-enhances-systemic-glucose-metabolism-through-enteric-nitric-oxide-synthase-expressed-neurons
#16
Anne Abot, Alexandre Lucas, Tereza Bautzova, Arnaud Bessac, Audren Fournel, Sophie Le-Gonidec, Philippe Valet, Cédric Moro, Patrice D Cani, Claude Knauf
OBJECTIVE: Decreasing duodenal contraction is now considered as a major focus for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, identifying bioactive molecules able to target the enteric nervous system, which controls the motility of intestinal smooth muscle cells, represents a new therapeutic avenue. For this reason, we chose to study the impact of oral galanin on this system in diabetic mice. METHODS: Enteric neurotransmission, duodenal contraction, glucose absorption, modification of gut-brain axis, and glucose metabolism (glucose tolerance, insulinemia, glucose entry in tissue, hepatic glucose metabolism) were assessed...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428098/pathophysiological-consequences-of-obstructive-jaundice-and-perioperative-management
#17
REVIEW
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425660/cranberry-anthocyanin-as-an-herbal-medicine-lowers-plasma-cholesterol-by-increasing-excretion-of-fecal-sterols
#18
Lijun Wang, Hanyue Zhu, Yimin Zhao, Rui Jiao, Lin Lei, Jingnan Chen, Xiaobo Wang, Zhengnan Zhang, Yu Huang, Tiejie Wang, Zhen-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Interest in using herbal medicines to treat the hypercholesterolemia is increasing. Cranberry extract could decrease plasma cholesterol, however, the active ingredients and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was to test the hypothesis that cranberry anthocyanins (CrA) were at least one of the active ingredients responsible for the cholesterol-lowering activity of cranberry fruits via a mechanism of increasing fecal sterol excretion...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425645/repeated-administration-of-sailuotong-a-fixed-combination-of-panax-ginseng-ginkgo-biloba-and-crocus-sativus-extracts-for-vascular-dementia-alters-cyp450-activities-in-rats
#19
Ying Zhang, Lan Miao, Li Lin, Chang-Ying Ren, Jian-Xun Liu, Yi-Min Cui
BACKGROUND: Sailuotong (SLT) is a standard Chinese preparation made from extracts of Panax ginseng (ginseng), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Crocus sativus (saffron). Preliminary clinical trials and animal experiments have demonstrated that SLT could improve cognition of vascular dementia (VD). PURPOSE: To avoid incident drug-drug interaction which is easily encountered in patients of VD, the potential influence of SLT on main drug-metabolic cytochromes P450 enzymes (CYP450) was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424315/recent-approaches-in-the-development-of-phytolipid-complexes-as-novel-drug-delivery
#20
Nandkishor S Talware, Remeth J Dias, V Rama Mohan Gupta
The imbalance of hydrophilicity, and lipophilicity along with, a large molecular size (due to a unique chemical structure) of natural compounds, or plant actives pose a significant challenge for their absorption through a biological membrane and thus, alters the therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, it is desirable to have a novel approach for such formulation in order to improve the solubility and bioavailability, of these phytoconstituents as a phospholipid complexation. Herbal drugs are precisely, embedded and bound by phospholipids to form vesicular structures, which are amphoteric in nature...
February 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
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