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Intestinal absorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administrated-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-ob-ob-mice
#1
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be anti-diabetic. Herein, further study on the effect of orally administrated BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032641/cholic-acid-attenuate-er-stress-induced-cell-death-in-coxsackievirus-b3-infection
#2
Jae-Young Han, Hae In Jeong, Cheol-Woo Park, Jisoo Yoon, Jaeyoung Ko, Sang-Jip Nam, Byung-Kwan Lim
Coxsackievirus Type B3 (CVB3) is an enterovirus that belongs to the Picornaviridae and causes of various diseases such as myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth diseases. But effective antiviral drug was still not developed. In this study, we looking for potential inhibitors of CVB3 replication by examining survival of CVB3-infected HeLa cells. We detected an antiviral effect of cholic acid and identified it as a candidate inhibitor of CVB3 replication. Cholic acid circulates in the liver and intestines, and it helps digestion and absorption of lipids in small intestine...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032508/development-and-characterization-of-2-dimensional-culture-for-buffalo-intestinal-cells
#3
Nidhi Chaudhary, Himanshu Agrawal, Mamta Pandey, Suneel Onteru, Dheer Singh
Small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) play a major role in the absorption of nutrients and toxins. Due to the similarity of genome-wide single copy protein orthologues between cattle and human, establishment of ruminant's primary small IEC culture could be a valuable tool for toxicity studies. Therefore, the current study focused on the development and characterization of buffalo IEC culture, as cattle slaughter is banned in India. The buffalo jejunum fragments were washed consecutively several times in saline, warm phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS with 5 mM dithiothreitol, digesting solution and 2% sorbitol in PBS...
October 14, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031973/predicting-solubility-miscibility-in-amorphous-dispersions-it-s-time-to-move-beyond-regular-solution-theories
#4
REVIEW
Bradley D Anderson
The evolving challenges associated with the development of poorly soluble drug molecules have been met with major advances in drug solubilization. In particular, amorphous solid dispersion technology is becoming an increasingly important option to enhance oral bioavailability by creating prolonged drug supersaturation to maximize the driving force for intestinal absorption. A primary concern in the development of amorphous solid dispersions is their physical stability, leading to increasing interest in predictive methodologies to assess the propensity for drug crystallization under various storage conditions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031956/the-solubility-permeability-trade-off-of-progesterone-with-cyclodextrins-under-physiological-conditions-experimental-observations-and-computer-simulations
#5
Le Sun, Bing Zhang, Jin Sun
This study intended to evaluate the effect of cyclodextrins on the apparent solubility and permeability of lipophilic drugs under physiological conditions and establish in silico model to choose the optimal amount of cyclodextrins for cyclodextrin-containing oral formulations. In order to study the effect of cyclodextrins under physiological conditions, bile salts and lecithin were added into the rat intestinal perfusion solution to simulate the fasted intestinal fluid. In addition, the in vivo oral absorption performances of cyclodextrin-containing formulations were simulated by gastrointestinal simulation technology based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model (ACAT)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031817/bcrp-abcg2-and-high-alert-medications-biochemical-pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic-and-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Daiki Hira, Tomohiro Terada
The human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter that uses ATP hydrolysis to expel xenobiotics from cells, including anti-cancer medications. It is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, and brain endothelium. Thus, ABCG2 functions as a tissue barrier to drug transport that strongly influences the pharmacokinetics of substrate medications. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCG2 are closely related to inter-individual variations in therapeutic performance...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030814/determination-of-histone-2b-green-fluorescent-protein-gfp-retention-in-intestinal-stem-cells
#7
Kevin R Hughes, Yashwant R Mahida
The epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract represents the interface between the luminal contents of the gut and that of the host tissues and plays a central role not only in regulating absorption of dietary nutrients but also in providing a barrier to prevent the entry of bacteria and other pathogens. Repair and replacement of damaged aging cells within the epithelium is modulated by stem cells, which are located in the intestinal crypts of the small intestine.Two distinct populations of intestinal stem cells have been described in the literature, one population at the very base of the crypt and a second population of long-lived stem cells located just above the Paneth cell zone...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030247/inhibition-of-intestinal-ascorbic-acid-uptake-by-lipopolysaccharide-is-mediated-via-transcriptional-mechanism-s
#8
Veedamali S Subramanian, Subrata Sabui, Hamid Moradi, Jonathan S Marchant, Hamid M Said
Ascorbic acid (AA) accumulation in intestinal epithelial cells is an active transport process mainly mediated by two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (SVCT-1 and SVCT-2). To date, little is known about the effect of gut microbiota generated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bacterially-derived LPS on AA homeostasis in enterocytes using Caco-2 cells, mouse intestine and intestinal enteroids models...
October 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029577/a-novel-core-shell-lipid-nanoparticle-for-improving-oral-administration-of-water-soluble-chemotherapeutic-agents-inhibited-intestinal-hydrolysis-and-enhanced-lymphatic-absorption
#9
Tao Wang, Liao Shen, Zhen Zhang, Haiyan Li, Ri Huang, Yadan Zhang, Dongqin Quan
The oral administration of water-soluble chemotherapeutical agents is limited by their serious gastrointestinal side effects, instability at intestinal pH, and poor absorption. Aiming to solve these problems, we chose topotecan (TPT) as a model drug and developed a novel lipid formulation containing core-shell lipid nanoparticle (CLN) that makes the water-soluble drug to 'dissolve' in oil. TPT molecules can be encapsulated into nanoparticles surrounded by oil barrier while avoiding the direct contact with intestinal environment, thus easing the intestinal hydrolytic degradation and gastrointestinal (GI) irritation...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028605/the-construction-and-characterization-of-hybrid-paclitaxel-in-micelle-in-liposome-systems-for-enhanced-oral-drug-delivery
#10
Yimu Li, Zheng Chen, Yanan Cui, Guangxi Zhai, Lingbing Li
In this study, novel paclitaxel (PTX) loaded hybrid liposomes for oral PTX delivery were prepared through incorporating PTX loaded polyion complex micelles comprised of positively charged Pluronic F127-Polyethylenimine (PF127-PEI) copolymer and negatively charged sodium cholate (CA) into liposomes consisted of phospholipid molecules. According to the results, this kind of PTX-loaded hybrid liposomes showed improved PTX encapsulation efficiency, sustained PTX release, and enhanced PTX absorption in intestine...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#11
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025082/intestinal-absorption-of-vitamin%C3%A2-d-a-systematic-review
#12
Mariana Costa Silva, Tania Weber Furlanetto
Vitamin D is frequently prescribed as a supplement, yet its absorption remains poorly understood. This systematic review was performed to evaluate data on mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of vitamin D. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The following studies were included: experimental laboratory studies of vitamin D absorption through the enterocyte brush-border membrane; absorption tests that used radiolabeled vitamin D; and clinical trials in adults that investigated a single dose of cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol and reported at least 2 measurements of serum cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D...
August 17, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022834/phenolic-protein-interactions-effects-on-food-properties-and-health-benefits
#13
Nydia E Buitimea-Cantúa, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldívar
Phenolic-protein interactions (PPI), which naturally occur in most food systems, are being intentionally designed to enhance functional performance of phenolic compounds (PC). PPI have been primarily associated with changes related to sensorial, nutritional, and nutraceutical features of foods. Furthermore, these interactions affect properties such as astringency, protein digestibility, absorption, and bioavailability of antioxidants. Therefore, new product development should pay attention to these interactions and not only on the concentration of PC...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022400/formulation-optimization-and-the-absorption-mechanisms-of-nanoemulsion-in-improving-baicalin-oral-exposure
#14
Lei Wu, Yujie Bi, Hongfei Wu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to optimize baicalin nanoemulsion, clarify the absorption mechanisms of nanoemulsion improving the exposure of baicalin, and assess the potential of employing nanoemulsion as nanosystem for insoluble drugs. SIGNIFICANCE: A novel nanoemulsion formulation was successfully prepared to enhance oral exposure of baicalin. METHODS: Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were utilized to evaluate nanoemulsion area. Physicochemical properties of optimal nanoemulsion formulation were investigated...
October 12, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018933/from-osteoimmunology-to-osteomicrobiology-how-the-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-regulate-bone
#15
REVIEW
Emory Hsu, Roberto Pacifici
Osteomicrobiology refers to the role of microbiota in bone health and the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates post-natal skeletal development, bone aging, and pathologic bone loss. Here, we review recent reports linking gut microbiota to changes in bone phenotype. A pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu drives bone resorption in conditions such as sex steroid hormone deficiency. The response of the immune system to activation by the microbiome results in increased circulating osteoclastogenic cytokines in a T cell-dependent mechanism...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018244/bioengineering-of-functional-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-grafts
#16
Kentaro Kitano, Dana M Schwartz, Haiyang Zhou, Sarah E Gilpin, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Xi Ren, Cesar A Sommer, Amalia V Capilla, Douglas J Mathisen, Allan M Goldstein, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Harald C Ott
Patients with short bowel syndrome lack sufficient functional intestine to sustain themselves with enteral intake alone. Transplantable vascularized bioengineered intestine could restore nutrient absorption. Here we report the engineering of humanized intestinal grafts by repopulating decellularized rat intestinal matrix with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal epithelium and human endothelium. After 28 days of in vitro culture, hiPSC-derived progenitor cells differentiate into a monolayer of polarized intestinal epithelium...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017142/mechanisms-of-antidiabetic-effects-of-flavonoid-rutin
#17
REVIEW
Ahmad Ghorbani
Several lines of evidence suggest that flavonoids that originated from vegetables and medicinal plants have beneficial effects on diabetes by improving glycemic control, lipid profile, and antioxidant status. Rutin is a flavonoid found in many plants and shows a wide range of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. In this review, the antihyperglycemic property of rutin and its protective effects against the development of diabetic complications are discussed...
October 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994235/lipo-protein-emulsion-structure-in-the-diet-affects-protein-digestion-kinetics-intestinal-mucosa-parameters-and-microbiota-composition
#18
Marion Oberli, Véronique Douard, Martin Beaumont, Daphné Jaoui, Fabienne Devime, Sandy Laurent, Catherine Chaumontet, Damien Mat, Steven Le Feunteun, Camille Michon, Anne-Marie Davila, Gilles Fromentin, Daniel Tomé, Isabelle Souchon, Marion Leclerc, Claire Gaudichon, François Blachier
SCOPE: Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. METHODS & RESULTS: Rats (n = 40) were fed for 3 weeks two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and micro-structure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingested a (15) N-labeled LFE or GCE test meal and were euthanized 0, 15min, 1h and 5h later...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993998/lithocholic-bile-acid-inhibits-lipogenesis-and-induces-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Trang H Luu, Jean-Marie Bard, Delphine Carbonnelle, Chloé Chaillou, Jean-Michel Huvelin, Christine Bobin-Dubigeon, Hassan Nazih
BACKGROUND: It has amply been documented that mammary tumor cells may exhibit an increased lipogenesis. Biliary acids are currently recognized as signaling molecules in the intestine, in addition to their classical roles in the digestion and absorption of lipids. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of lithocholic acid (LCA) on the lipogenesis of breast cancer cells. The putative cytotoxic effects of LCA on these cells were also examined. METHODS: The effects of LCA on breast cancer-derived MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied using MTT viability assays, Annexin-FITC and Akt phosphorylation assays to evaluate anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties, qRT-PCR and Western blotting assays to assess the expression of the bile acid receptor TGR5 and the estrogen receptor ERα, and genes and proteins involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, p53) and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FASN, ACACA)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993217/mechanistic-pbpk-modeling-of-the-dissolution-and-food-effect-of-a-bcs-iv-compound-the-venetoclax-story
#20
Arian Emami Riedmaier, David J Lindley, Jeffrey A Hall, Steven Castleberry, Russell T Slade, Patricia Stuart, Robert A Carr, Thomas B Borchardt, Daniel A J Bow, Marjoleen Nijsen
PURPOSE: Venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor, is a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class IV compound. The aim of this study was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to mechanistically describe absorption and disposition of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of venetoclax in humans. METHODS: A mechanistic PBPK model was developed incorporating measured amorphous solubility, dissolution, metabolism and plasma protein binding...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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