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Protein digestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351798/comparative-salivary-proteomics-analysis-of-children-with-and-without-dental-caries-using-the-itraq-mrm-approach
#1
Kun Wang, Yufei Wang, Xiuqing Wang, Qian Ren, Sili Han, Longjiang Ding, Zhongcheng Li, Xuedong Zhou, Wei Li, Linglin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a major worldwide oral disease afflicting a large proportion of children. As an important host factor of caries susceptibility, saliva plays a significant role in the occurrence and development of caries. The aim of the present study was to characterize the healthy and cariogenic salivary proteome and determine the changes in salivary protein expression of children with varying degrees of active caries, also to establish salivary proteome profiles with a potential therapeutic use against dental caries...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350914/cys34-adductomes-differ-between-patients-with-chronic-lung-or-heart-disease-and-healthy-controls-in-central-london
#2
Sa Liu, Hasmik Grigoryan, William Matthew Bell Edmands, Sonia Dagnino, Rudy Sinharay, Paul Cullinan, Peter Collins, Kian Fan Chung, Benjamin M Barratt, Frank J Kelly, Paolo Vineis, Stephen M Rappaport
Oxidative stress generates reactive species that modify proteins, deplete antioxidant defenses and contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). To determine whether protein modifications differ between COPD or IHD patients and healthy subjects, we performed untargeted analysis of adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin (HSA). Biospecimens were obtained from nonsmoking participants from London, U.K., including healthy subjects (n=20) and patients with COPD (n=20) or IHD (n=10)...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350465/proteomics-analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-from-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice-reveals-adaptive-remodeling-of-metabolic-characteristics-and-fiber-type-composition
#3
Milena Schönke, Marie Björnholm, Alexander V Chibalin, Juleen R Zierath, Atul S Deshmukh
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an early metabolic defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, may be a cause or consequence of altered protein expressions profiles. Proteomics technology offers enormous promise to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying pathologies, however, the analysis of skeletal muscle is challenging. Using state-of-the-art multi-enzyme digestion and filter-aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) and a mass spectrometry (MS) based workflow, we performed a global proteomics analysis of skeletal muscle from leptin-deficient, obese, insulin resistant (ob/ob) and lean mice in mere two fractions in a short time (8 hours/sample)...
January 19, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350038/efficient-mass-spectral-analysis-of-active-transporters-overexpressed-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Mamiyo Kawakami, Narinobu Juge, Yuri Kato, Hiroshi Omote, Yoshinori Moriyama, Takaaki Miyaji
Structural analysis of purified active membrane proteins can be performed by mass spectrometry (MS). However, no large-scale expression systems for active eukaryotic membrane proteins are available. Moreover, because membrane proteins cannot easily be digested by trypsin and ionized, they are difficult to analyze by MS. Here, we developed a method for mass spectral analysis of eukaryotic membrane proteins combined to an overexpression system in Escherichia coli. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2/SLC17A6) with a soluble α-helical protein and histidine tag on the N- and C-terminus, respectively, was overexpressed in E...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349463/stability-and-digestibility-of-one-or-bi-layered-medium-chain-triglyceride-emulsions-with-gum-arabic-and-whey-protein-isolates-by-pancreatic-lipase-in-vitro
#5
Xiaolin Yao, Yu Chen, Meng Shu, Kun Zhang, Zhiming Gao, Ying Kuang, Yapeng Fang, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Glyn O Phillips, Fatang Jiang
Interfacial engineering approaches have been used to design functional foods so as to control lipase-induced digestion of emulsified lipids and release of bioactive lipophilic components in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, emulsion droplets with the interface stabilized with gum Arabic (GA) and whey protein isolate (WPI) were prepared by mixing or sequential adsorption. WPI/GA intramolecular soluble complexes (ISCs) have superior emulsifying properties in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The impact of the interfaces for WPI/GA ISC-layered (one-layered) and double-layered emulsions formed by sequential deposition of WPI or GA on the lipolysis of emulsions was investigated using an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal model...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348718/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-furosine-in-fresh-and-processed-ginsengs
#6
Yali Li, Xiaoxu Liu, Lulu Meng, Yingping Wang
Background: Furosine (ɛ-N-2-furoylmethyl-L-lysine, FML) is an amino acid derivative, which is considered to be an important indicator of the extent of damage (deteriorating the quality of amino acid and proteins due to a blockage of lysine and a decrease in the digestibility of proteins) during the early stages of the Maillard reaction. In addition, FML has been proven to be harmful because it is closely related to a variety of diseases such as diabetes. The qualitative analysis of FML in fresh and processed ginsengs was confirmed using HPLC-MS...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348584/quail-egg-homogenate-alleviates-food-allergy-induced-eosinophilic-esophagitis-like-disease-through-modulating-par-2-transduction-pathway-in-peanut-sensitized-mice
#7
Priscilia Lianto, Shiwen Han, Xinrui Li, Fredrick Onyango Ogutu, Yani Zhang, Zhuoyan Fan, Huilian Che
The present pharmacotherapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) fundamentally depend on inhaled corticosteroids. Despite the fact that oral intake of topical steroids can be successful in restricting EoE-related inflammation, there are concerns with respect to the long term utilization of steroids, especially in kids. In the current research, we assess the effect of quail egg, which is reportedly a known serine protease inhibitor, on symptomatology and immune responses in a peanut-sensitized mouse model of food allergy induced EoE...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346611/combined-roles-of-atp-and-small-hairpin-rna-in-the-activation-of-rig-i-revealed-by-solution-based-analysis
#8
Neelam Shah, Simone A Beckham, Jacqueline A Wilce, Matthew C J Wilce
RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) is a cytosolic innate immune protein that senses viral dsRNA with a 5'-triphosphate overhang. Upon interaction with dsRNA a de-repression of the RIG-I CARD domains takes place that ultimately leads to the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigate the RIG-I conformational rearrangement upon interaction with an activating 5'-triphosphate-10-base pair dsRNA hairpin loop (10bp) compared with a less active 5'-triphosphate-8-base pair dsRNA hairpin loop (8bp)...
January 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345929/antihypertensive-effects-molecular-docking-study-and-isothermal-titration-calorimetry-assay-of-the-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptides-from-chlorella-vulgaris
#9
Jingli Xie, Xujun Chen, Junjie Wu, Yanyan Zhang, Yan Zhou, Lujia Zhang, Yajie Tang, Dong-Zhi Wei
The aim of this work is to explore angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and discover the inhibitory mechanism of the peptides. After C. vulgaris proteins were gastrointestinal digested in silico, several ACE inhibitory peptides with C-terminal tryptophan were screened. Among them, two novel non-competitive ACE inhibitors, Thr-Thr-Trp (TTW) and Val-His-Trp (VHW), exhibited the highest inhibitory activity indicated by IC50 values, 0.61 ± 0.12 and 0.91 ± 0...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345928/physicochemical-properties-of-whey-protein-stabilized-astaxanthin-nanodispersion-and-its-transport-via-caco-2-monolayer
#10
Xue Shen, Changhui Zhao, Jing Lu, Mingruo Guo
Astaxanthin nanodispersion was prepared using whey protein isolate (WPI) and polymerized whey protein (PWP) through an emulsification-evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of the astaxanthin nanodispersion were evaluated and the transport of astaxanthin was assessed using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The astaxanthin nanodispersions stabilized by WPI and PWP (2.5%, w/w) had a small particle size (121 ± 4.9 and 80.4 ± 5.9 nm), negative zeta potential (-19.3 ± 1.5 and -35.0 ± 2.2 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (92...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344873/laser-capture-microdissection-and-rna-extraction-from-perfusion-fixed-cartilage-and-bone-tissue-from-mice-implanted-with-human-ipsc-derived-mscs-in-a-calvarial-defect-model
#11
Xiaonan Xin, Xi Jiang, Alexander Lichtler, Mark Kronenberg, David Rowe, Joel S Pachter
Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) coupled to downstream RNA analysis poses unique difficulties for the evaluation of mineralized tissues. A rapid protocol was thus developed to enable sufficient integrity of bone and cartilage tissue for reliable sectioning, while minimizing RNA loss associated with prolonged decalcification and purification steps. Specifically, the protocol involves pump-assisted, cardiac perfusion-fixation with paraformaldehyde, and moderate digestion of LCM-acquired tissue with proteinase K followed by DNase treatment and separation of RNA using magnetic beads...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344869/isolation-of-amyloid-plaques-and-neurofibrillary-tangles-from-archived-alzheimer-s-disease-tissue-using-laser-capture-microdissection-for-downstream-proteomics
#12
Eleanor Drummond, Shruti Nayak, Geoffrey Pires, Beatrix Ueberheide, Thomas Wisniewski
Here, we describe a new method that allows localized proteomics of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are the two pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid plaques and NFTs are visualized using immunohistochemistry and microdissected from archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissue samples using laser-capture microdissection. The majority of human tissue specimens are FFPE; hence the use of this type of tissue is a particular advantage of this technique...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344855/protocol-for-the-analysis-of-laser-capture-microdissected-fresh-frozen-tissue-homogenates-by-silver-stained-1d-sds-page
#13
DaRue A Prieto, Gordon Whitely, Donald J Johann, Josip Blonder
The heterogeneity present in solid tumors adds significant difficulty to scientific analysis and improved understanding. Fundamentally, solid tumor formation consists of cancer cells proper along with stromal elements. The burgeoning malignant process is dependent upon modified stromal elements. Collectively, the stroma forms an essential microenvironment, which is indispensable for the survival and growth of the malignant neoplasm. This cellular heterogeneity makes molecular profiling of solid tumors via mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics a daunting task...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343251/effects-of-the-isoflavone-genistein-in-early-life-stages-of-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-role-of-the-survivin-and-proliferation-versus-apoptosis-pathways
#14
Carmen Sarasquete, María Úbeda-Manzanaro, Juan B Ortiz-Delgado
BACKGROUND: Phytochemical flavonoids are widely distributed in the environment and are derived from many anthropogenic activities. The isoflavone genistein is a naturally occurring compound found in soya products that are habitual constituents of the aquafeeds. This isoflavone possesses oestrogenic biological activity and also apoptotic properties. The present study has been performed to determine the effects of the genistein in the early life stages of the flatfish Senegalese sole during the first month of larval life, and it is focused especially at the metamorphosis, analysing the expression transcript levels and the immunohistochemical protein patterns implicated in the cell proliferation and apoptosis pathways (proliferation cellular/PCNA, anti-apoptosis Survivin/BIRC-5, death receptors/Fas, and Caspases)...
January 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341427/lc-ms-based-intact-igg-and-released-glycan-analysis-for-bioprocessing-applications
#15
Tianhua Wang, Kong Meng Hoi, Henning Stöckmann, Corrine Wan, Lyn Chiin Sim, Noor Hayati Bte Kamari, Shi Jie Tay, Ce Huang Poo, Susanto Woen, Yuangsheng Yang, Peiqing Zhang, Pauline M Rudd
Robust plate based antibody glycan analysis platforms are urgently needed for biopharmaceutical development and manufacturing as well as for clinical biomarker research. A 96-well plate based workflow has been developed to analyze both intact IgG antibodies and released N-glycans using an Orbitrap Fusion Mass Spectrometer and an LC/MS method on the Waters UNIFI platform. Here we describe such a workflow including protein A purification, PNGaseF digestion, 2-AB labeling and SPE clean-up. The measured IgG glycan profile is consistent with that obtained from non-plate based method and commercial kit and has the advantage of less hands-on time...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341114/recombinant-human-hepatocyte-growth-factor-provides-protective-effects-in-celurein-induced-acute-pancreatitis-in-mice
#16
Mayrel Palestino-Domínguez, Mario Pelaez-Luna, Roberto Lazzarini-Lechuga, Ignacio Rodríguez-Ochoa, Verónica Souza, Roxana U Miranda, Benjamín Pérez-Aguilar, Leticia Bucio, Jens U Marquardt, Luis Enrique Gomez-Quiroz, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Acute pancreatitis is a multifactorial disease associated with profound changes of the pancreas induced by release of digestive enzymes that lead to increase in proinflammatory cytokine production, excessive tissue necrosis, edema, and bleeding. Elevated levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met have been observed in different chronic and acute pancreatic diseases including experimental models of acute pancreatitis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects induced by the recombinant human HGF in a mouse model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340635/nutrient-digestibility-response-to-sugarcane-bagasse-addition-and-corn-particle-size-in-normal-and-high-na-diets-for-broilers
#17
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, S-B Wu
Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340436/dietary-pectin-and-mango-pulp-effects-on-small-intestinal-enzyme-activity-levels-and-macronutrient-digestion-in-grower-pigs
#18
Anton M Pluschke, Barbara A Williams, Dagong Zhang, Michael J Gidley
The effects of refined pectin and mango pulp on macronutrient digestion and small intestinal enzyme activity were studied in grower pigs. Diets based on wheat starch with and without apple pectin or dried mango fruit pulp were fed to 30 grower pigs for 21 days. Pigs were euthanized two hours postprandially, and their gastrointestinal contents recovered. Starch and protein digestion as well as α-amylase activity were all increased in pigs fed pectin. In contrast, fat digestion, lipase and protease (trypsin) activities were all significantly reduced in these pigs...
January 17, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340042/identification-of-potential-genetic-causal-variants-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#19
Ying Li, Elaine Lai-Han Leung, Hudan Pan, Xiaojun Yao, Qingchun Huang, Min Wu, Ting Xu, Yuwei Wang, Jun Cai, Runze Li, Wei Liu, Liang Liu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a highly prevalent chronic autoimmune disease. However, genetic and environmental factors involved in RA pathogenesis are still remained largely unknown. To identify the genetic causal variants underlying pathogenesis and disease progression of RA patients, we undertook the first comprehensive whole-exome sequencing (WES) study in a total of 124 subjects including 58 RA cases and 66 healthy controls in Han Chinese population. We identified 378 novel genes that were enriched with deleterious variants in RA patients using a gene burden test...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339411/flagellin-glycoproteomics-of-the-periodontitis-associated-pathogen-selenomonas-sputigena-reveals-previously-not-described-o-glycans-and-rhamnose-fragment-rearrangement-occurring-on-the-glycopeptides
#20
Cornelia B Rath, Falko Schirmeister, Rudolf Figl, Peter H Seeberger, Christina Schaeffer, Daniel Kolarich
Flagellated, Gram-negative, anaerobic, crescent-shaped Selenomonas species are colonizers of the digestive system, where they act at the interface between health and disease. Selenomonas sputigena is also considered a potential human periodontal pathogen, but information on its virulence factors and underlying pathogenicity mechanisms is scarce. Here we provide the first report of a Selenomonas glycoprotein, showing that S. sputigena produces a diversely and heavily O-glycosylated flagellin C9LY14 as a major cellular protein, which carries various hitherto undescribed rhamnose- and N-acetylglucosamine linked O-glycans in the range from mono- to hexasaccharides...
January 16, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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