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Protein digestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926591/no-evidence-for-the-presence-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-mobile-tongue
#1
Torben Wilms, Gulfaraz Khan, Philip J Coates, Nicola Sgaramella, Robin Fåhraeus, Asma Hassani, Pretty S Philip, Lena Norberg Spaak, Luigi Califano, Giuseppe Colella, Katarina Olofsson, Christos Loizou, Renato Franco, Karin Nylander
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926141/working-at-the-membrane-interface-ligand-induced-changes-in-dynamic-conformation-and-oligomeric-structure-in-human-aromatase
#2
Giovanna Di Nardo, Giuseppe Cimicata, Roberta Baravalle, Valentina Dell'Angelo, Alberto Ciaramella, Gianluca Catucci, Piero Ugliengo, Gianfranco Gilardi
Aromatase catalyses the biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens. Due to the physiological importance of this conversion of lipophilic substrates, the interaction with the lipid bilayer for this cytochrome P450 is crucial for its dynamics that must allow an easy access to substrates and inhibitors. Here, aromatase-anastrozole interaction is studied combining computational methods to identify possible access/egress routes with the protein inserted in the membrane and experimental tools aimed at the investigation of the effect of the inhibitor on the protein conformation...
September 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924868/photodegradation-pathways-of-protein-disulfides-human-growth-hormone
#3
Daniel Steinmann, Olivier Mozziconacci, Rupesh Bommana, John F Stobaugh, Y John Wang, Christian Schöneich
PURPOSE: Comprehensive product characterization was performed for the photodegradation of protein disulfides, representatively of human growth hormone (somatotropin; hGH), in order to provide a product database, which will be useful for the general analysis of protein stability. METHODS: HGH was photo-irradiated at λ = 254 and λ > 295 nm and tryptic digests were analyzed by HPLC-MS to investigate light-induced disulfide degradation pathways. RESULTS: A total of 60 products were detected, and structures/tentative structures were assigned to the products by MS(2) and MS(3) analysis...
September 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921966/tool-for-rapid-analysis-of-glycopeptide-by-permethylation-trap-via-one-pot-site-mapping-and-glycan-analysis
#4
Asif Shajahan, Nitin Tatyaso Supekar, Christian Heiss, Mayumi Ishihara, Parastoo Azadi
To overcome the challenges in the analysis of protein glycosylation, we have developed a comprehensive and universal tool through permethylation of glycopeptides and their tandem mass spectrometric analysis. This method has the potential to simplify glycoprotein analysis by integrating glycan sequencing and glycopeptide analysis in a single experiment. Moreover, glycans with unique glycosidic linkages, particularly from prokaryotes, which are resistant to enzymatic or chemical release, could also be detected and analyzed by this methodology...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921896/evaluating-potential-risks-of-food-allergy-and-toxicity-of-soy-leghemoglobin-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris
#5
Yuan Jin, Xiaoyun He, Kwame Andoh-Kumi, Rachel Z Fraser, Mei Lu, Richard E Goodman
SCOPE: The Soybean (Glycine max) leghemoglobin c2 (LegHb) gene was introduced into Pichia pastoris yeast for sustainable production of a heme-carrying protein, for organoleptic use in plant-based meat. The potential allergenicity and toxicity of LegHb and 17 Pichia host-proteins each representing ≥1% of total protein in production batches were evaluated by literature review, bioinformatics sequence comparisons to known allergens or toxins, and in vitro pepsin digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Literature searches found no evidence of allergenicity or toxicity for these proteins...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920411/effect-of-inclusion-level-and-adaptation-duration-on-digestible-energy-and-nutrient-digestibility-in-palm-kernel-meal-fed-to-growing-finishing-pigs
#6
Chengfei Huang, Shuai Zhang, Hans-Henrik Stein, Jinbiao Zhao, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level of palm kernel meal (PKM) and adaptation duration on the digestible energy (DE) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Methods: Thirty crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with an average initial body weight (BW) of 85.0 ± 2.1 kg were fed to 5 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 additional diets in which corn and soybean meal (SBM) were partly replaced by 10, 20, 30, or 40% PKM...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919876/peptide-composition-of-stroke-causing-emboli-correlate-with-serum-markers-of-atherosclerosis-and-inflammation
#7
Neal M Rao, Joseph Capri, Whitaker Cohn, Maram Abdaljaleel, Lucas Restrepo, Jeffrey A Gornbein, William H Yong, David S Liebeskind, Julian P Whitelegge
INTRODUCTION: The specific protein composition of stroke-causing emboli is unknown. Because ischemic stroke has a varied etiology, it is possible that the composition of the thrombus from which an embolus originated will have distinctive molecular characteristics reflective of the underlying pathophysiology. We used mass spectrometry to evaluate the protein composition of retrieved emboli from patients with differing stroke etiologies and correlated the protein levels to serum predictors of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918562/crispr-cas9-genome-editing-in-wheat
#8
Dongjin Kim, Burcu Alptekin, Hikmet Budak
Genome editing has been a long-term challenge for molecular biology research, particularly for plants possess complex genome. The recently discovered Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a versatile tool for genome editing which enables editing of multiple genes based on the guidance of small RNAs. Even though the efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 system has been shown with several studies from diploid plants, its application remains a challenge for plants with polyploid and complex genome...
September 16, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918153/linseed-oil-and-dgat1-k232a-polymorphism-effects-on-methane-emission-energy-and-nitrogen-metabolism-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-composition-of-holstein-friesian-cows
#9
S van Gastelen, M H P W Visker, J E Edwards, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, S J J Alferink, W H Hendriks, H Bovenhuis, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916914/the-effects-of-protein-and-fiber-content-on-gut-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#10
Samantha C Leigh, Bao-Quang Nguyen-Phuc, Donovan P German
Chemical reactor theory (CRT) suggests that the digestive tract functions as a chemical reactor for processing food. Presumably, gut structure and function should match diet to ensure adequate nutrient and energy uptake to maintain performance. Within CRT, dietary biochemical composition is the most important factor affecting gut structure and function in vertebrates. We fed Danio rerio (zebrafish) diets ranging from high- to moderate- to low-quality (i.e., ranging from high-protein, low-fiber to low-protein, high-fiber), and observed how gut length and surface area, as well as the activity levels of digestive enzymes (amylase, maltase, trypsin, aminopeptidase, and lipase) shifted in response to these dietary changes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916707/pqn-75-is-expressed-in-the-pharyngeal-gland-cells-of-caenorhabditiselegans-and-is-dispensable-for-germline-development
#11
Jesse D Rochester, Paige C Tanner, Catherine S Sharp, Karolina M Andralojc, Dustin L Updike
In Caenorhabditis elegans, five pharyngeal gland cells reside in the terminal bulb of the pharynx and extend anterior processes to five contact points in the pharyngeal lumen. Pharyngeal gland cells secrete mucin-like proteins thought to facilitate digestion, hatching, molting and assembly of the surface coat of the cuticle, but supporting evidence has been sparse. Here we show pharyngeal gland cell expression of PQN-75, a unique protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide, nucleoporin (Nup)-like phenylalanine/glycine (FG) repeats, and an extensive polyproline repeat domain with similarities to human basic salivary proline-rich pre-protein PRB2...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914314/the-impact-of-extrusion-on-the-nutritional-composition-dietary-fiber-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-gluten-free-snacks-based-on-rice-pea-and-carob-flour-blends
#12
C Arribas, B Cabellos, C Sánchez, C Cuadrado, E Guillamón, M M Pedrosa
Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%)...
September 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913664/supplementation-of-enzyme-treated-soy-protein-saves-dietary-protein-and-promotes-digestive-and-absorptive-ability-referring-to-tor-signaling-in-juvenile-fish
#13
Weiwei Xiao, Weidan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Yongan Zhang, Xiaoqiu Zhou
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of enzyme-treated soy protein (ETSP) supplementation in the low-protein diet on growth performance, digestive and absorptive capacities, and related signaling molecules' gene expressions in juvenile Jian carp. The results showed that percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed intake (FI) were decreased by reducing dietary protein from 34 to 32% (P < 0.05). Supplying low-protein diet with optimal ETSP increased previously mentioned indices of juvenile Jian carp (P < 0...
September 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912804/assessment-of-nutritional-status-digestion-and-absorption-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#14
J E Witvliet-van Nierop, C M Lochtenberg-Potjes, N J Wierdsma, H J Scheffer, G Kazemier, K Ottens-Oussoren, M R Meijerink, M A E de van der Schueren
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911547/multifunctions-of-dietary-polyphenols-in-the-regulation-of-intestinal-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Makoto Shimizu
Food for specified health use is a type of functional food approved by the Japanese government, with more than 1250 products in 10 health-claim categories being approved as of April 2016. Polyphenols are currently used as functional ingredients in seven of the 10 categories. Although they have not yet been used for the food-for-specified-health-use category of "gut health promotion," polyphenols are expected to contribute to the future development of gut-modulating food. Intestinal functions include digestion/absorption, acting as a barrier, recognition of external factors, and signal transduction...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911541/food-macromolecule-based-nanodelivery-systems-for-enhancing-the-bioavailability-of-polyphenols
#16
REVIEW
Bing Hu, Xixia Liu, Chunlan Zhang, Xiaoxiong Zeng
Diet polyphenols-primarily categorized into flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and isoflavones) and nonflavonoids (with major subclasses of stilbenes and phenolic acids)-are reported to have health-promoting effects, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinoma, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cardioprotective properties. However, their applications in functional foods or medicine are limited because of their inefficient systemic delivery and poor oral bioavailability...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911227/a-fluorescence-assay-for-ribonuclease-h-based-on-non-labeled-substrate-and-dnazyme-assisted-cascade-amplification
#17
Lanbo Wang, Hongyan Zhou, Bin Liu, Chuan Zhao, Jialong Fan, Wei Wang, Chunyi Tong
As a highly conserved damage repair protein, RNase H can specifically hydrolyze RNA in DNA-RNA chimeric strands. DNAzyme, a synthetic single-stranded DNA consisting of binding and catalytic sites, can cleave RNA in the presence of cofactors. In this study, we establish a highly sensitive RNase H assay assisted with DNAzyme's cleavage property. A DNA-RNA chimeric strand, which contains DNAzyme sequences, is used as the hydrolysis substrate of RNase H. The RNase H hydrolysis of the chimeric substrate results in the release of DNAzyme...
September 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911209/intracellular-activation-of-ovastacin-mediates-pre-fertilization-hardening-of-the-zona-pellucida
#18
Hagen Körschgen, Michael Kuske, Konstantin Karmilin, Irene Yiallouros, Melanie Balbach, Julia Floehr, Dagmar Wachten, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Walter Stöcker
STUDY QUESTION: How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? STUDY FINDING: Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910601/identification-of-plasma-biomarkers-for-distinguishing-bipolar-depression-from-major-depressive-disorder-by-itraq-coupled-lc-ms-ms-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#19
Juanjuan Ren, Guoqing Zhao, Xiujia Sun, Hongmei Liu, Ping Jiang, Jun Chen, Zhiguo Wu, Daihui Peng, Yiru Fang, Chen Zhang
It is important to differentiate between bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in the first depressive episode because of the potential treatment implications. Previous studies have mainly focused on the different clinical features or pathological biomarkers to distinguish these two diseases; however, a better understanding of the proteomics profiling of BD may help aid future therapeutic strategies. Here, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins between MDD and bipolar depression (BP)...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910263/enzymatic-insights-into-an-inherited-genetic-disorder
#20
Liping Zhang, Kelly G Ten Hagen
Mutations in an enzyme involved in protein degradation affect a signaling pathway that stimulates the development of the digestive tract.
September 14, 2017: ELife
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