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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223089/river-water-infiltration-enhances-denitrification-efficiency-in-riparian-groundwater
#1
Nico Trauth, Andreas Musolff, Kay Knöller, Ute S Kaden, Toralf Keller, Ulrike Werban, Jan H Fleckenstein
Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221892/coevolution-of-nonlinear-group-interactions-and-strategies-in-well-mixed-and-structured-populations
#2
Lei Zhou, Aming Li, Long Wang
In microbial populations and human societies, the rule of nonlinear group interactions strongly affects the intraspecific evolutionary dynamics, which leads to the variation of the strategy composition eventually. The consequence of such variation may retroact to the rule of the interactions. This correlation indicates that the rule of nonlinear group interactions may coevolve with individuals' strategies. Here, we develop a model to investigate such coevolution in both well-mixed and structured populations...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218336/chemical-signaling-involved-in-plant-microbe-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Fernanda Oliveira Chagas, Rita de Cassia Pessotti, Andrés Mauricio Caraballo-Rodríguez, Mônica Tallarico Pupo
Microorganisms are found everywhere, and they are closely associated with plants. Because the establishment of any plant-microbe association involves chemical communication, understanding crosstalk processes is fundamental to defining the type of relationship. Although several metabolites from plants and microbes have been fully characterized, their roles in the chemical interplay between these partners are not well understood in most cases, and they require further investigation. In this review, we describe different plant-microbe associations from colonization to microbial establishment processes in plants along with future prospects, including agricultural benefits...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217869/leaf-and-root-c-to-n-ratios-are-poor-predictors-of-soil-microbial-biomass-c-and-respiration-across-32-tree-species
#4
Olga Ferlian, Christian Wirth, Nico Eisenhauer
Soil microorganisms are the main primary decomposers of plant material and drive biogeochemical processes like carbon and nitrogen cycles. Hence, knowledge of their nutritional demands and limitations for activity and growth is of particular importance. However, potential effects of the stoichiometry of soil and plant species on soil microbial activity and carbon use efficiency are poorly understood. Soil properties and plant traits are assumed to drive microbial carbon and community structure. We investigated the associations between C and N concentrations of leaf, root, and soil as well as their ratios and soil microbial biomass C and activity (microbial basal respiration and specific respiratory quotient) across 32 young native angiosperm tree species at two locations in Central Germany...
November 2017: Pedobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216732/vitamin-b12-sources-and-microbial-interaction
#5
Fumio Watanabe, Tomohiro Bito
Vitamin B12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B12, which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216467/drivers-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-in-a-subarctic-catchment-importance-of-microbial-decomposition-sorption-desorption-peatland-and-lateral-flow
#6
Jing Tang, Alla Y Yurova, Guy Schurgers, Paul A Miller, Stefan Olin, Benjamin Smith, Matthias B Siewert, David Olefeldt, Petter Pilesjö, Anneli Poska
Tundra soils account for 50% of global stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), and it is expected that the amplified climate warming in high latitude could cause loss of this SOC through decomposition. Decomposed SOC could become hydrologically accessible, which increase downstream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and subsequent carbon release to the atmosphere, constituting a positive feedback to climate warming. However, DOC export is often neglected in ecosystem models. In this paper, we incorporate processes related to DOC production, mineralization, diffusion, sorption-desorption, and leaching into a customized arctic version of the dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS in order to mechanistically model catchment DOC export, and to link this flux to other ecosystem processes...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215165/transcriptional-response-of-nautella-italica-r11-towards-its-macroalgal-host-uncovers-new-mechanisms-of-host-pathogen-interaction
#7
Jennifer Hudson, Melissa Gardiner, Nandan Deshpande, Suhelen Egan
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are essential for the functioning of temperate marine ecosystems, but there is increasing evidence to suggest that their survival is under threat from anthropogenic stressors and disease. Nautella italica R11 is recognised as an etiological agent of bleaching disease in the red alga, Delisea pulchra. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding the molecular mechanisms involved in this model host-pathogen interaction. Here we report that mutations in the gene encoding for a LuxR-type quorum sensing transcriptional regulator, RaiR, render N...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214471/duration-of-the-conditioning-phase-affects-the-results-of-plant-soil-feedback-experiments-via-soil-chemical-properties
#8
Clémentine Lepinay, Zuzana Vondráková, Tomáš Dostálek, Zuzana Münzbergová
Plant-soil feedback (PSF) is a fundamental mechanism explaining plant community composition. Two-phase experiments, i.e., conditioning and feedback, represent a common methodology to study PSF. The duration of the conditioning phase varies among studies and the PSF observed is often explained by its biotic component. Little is known about the temporal variation of PSF and its abiotic component. As early life stages are crucial for plant establishment, we grew Rorippa austriaca in soil conditioned over 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks by a conspecific or a co-occurring species, Agrostis capillaris...
December 6, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213325/designer-biomass-for-next-generation-biorefineries-leveraging-recent-insights-into-xylan-structure-and-biosynthesis
#9
REVIEW
Peter J Smith, Hsin-Tzu Wang, William S York, Maria J Peña, Breeanna R Urbanowicz
Xylans are the most abundant noncellulosic polysaccharides in lignified secondary cell walls of woody dicots and in both primary and secondary cell walls of grasses. These polysaccharides, which comprise 20-35% of terrestrial biomass, present major challenges for the efficient microbial bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuels and other value-added products. Xylans play a significant role in the recalcitrance of biomass to degradation, and their bioconversion requires metabolic pathways that are distinct from those used to metabolize cellulose...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213271/visceral-inflammation-and-immune-activation-stress-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Peter Holzer, Aitak Farzi, Ahmed M Hassan, Geraldine Zenz, Angela Jačan, Florian Reichmann
Stress refers to a dynamic process in which the homeostasis of an organism is challenged, the outcome depending on the type, severity, and duration of stressors involved, the stress responses triggered, and the stress resilience of the organism. Importantly, the relationship between stress and the immune system is bidirectional, as not only stressors have an impact on immune function, but alterations in immune function themselves can elicit stress responses. Such bidirectional interactions have been prominently identified to occur in the gastrointestinal tract in which there is a close cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the local immune system, governed by the permeability of the intestinal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#11
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213260/increased-denitrification-rates-associated-with-shifts-in-prokaryotic-community-composition-caused-by-varying-hydrologic-connectivity
#12
Abigail Tomasek, Christopher Staley, Ping Wang, Thomas Kaiser, Nicole Lurndahl, Jessica L Kozarek, Miki Hondzo, Michael J Sadowsky
While modern developments in agriculture have allowed for increases in crop yields and rapid human population growth, they have also drastically altered biogeochemical cycles, including the biotransformation of nitrogen. Denitrification is a critical process performed by bacteria and fungi that removes nitrate in surface waters, thereby serving as a potential natural remediation strategy. We previously reported that constant inundation resulted in a coupling of denitrification gene abundances with denitrification rates in sediments, but these relationships were not maintained in periodically-inundated or non-inundated environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212851/omics-of-bifidobacteria-research-and-insights-into-their-health-promoting-activities
#13
REVIEW
Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212730/hierarchical-social-networks-shape-gut-microbial-composition-in-wild-verreaux-s-sifaka
#14
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212561/crosstalk-between-entamoeba-histolytica-and-the-human-intestinal-tract-during-amoebiasis
#15
Elisabeth Labruyère, Roman Thibeaux, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Nancy Guillén
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the microbial agent of amoebiasis - an infection that is endemic worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. As the disease develops, virulent E. histolytica deplete the mucus layer, interact with the intestinal epithelium, and then degrade the colonic mucosa and disrupt the extracellular matrix (ECM). Our research demonstrated that virulent parasites with an invasive phenotype display rapid, highly specific changes in their transcriptome (notably for essential factors involved in carbohydrate metabolism and the processing of glycosylated residues)...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211828/asar-visual-analysis-of-metagenomes-in-r
#16
Askarbek Orakov, Nazgul Sakenova, Anatoly Sorokin, Igor Goryanin
Motivation: Functional and taxonomic analyses are critical steps in understanding interspecific interactions within microbial communities. Currently, such analyses are run separately, which complicates interpretation of results. Here we present the ASAR interactive tool for simultaneous analysis of metagenomic data in three dimensions: taxonomy, function, metagenome. Results: An interactive data analysis tool for selection, aggregation, and visualization of metagenomic data is presented...
December 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211318/nitrogen-rich-microbial-products-provide-new-organo-mineral-interactions-for-the-stabilization-of-soil-organic-matter
#17
Peter M Kopittke, Maria C Hernandez-Soriano, Ram C Dalal, Damien Finn, Neal W Menzies, Carmen Hoeschen, Carsten W Mueller
Understanding the cycling of C and N in soils is important for maintaining soil fertility while also decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, but much remains unknown about how organic matter (OM) is stabilized in soils. We used nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to investigate changes in C and N in a Vertisol and an Alfisol incubated for 365 d with 13 C and 15 N pulse labelled lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in order to discriminate new inputs of OM from the existing soil OM. We found that almost all OM within the free stable microaggregates of the soil was associated with mineral particles, emphasizing the importance of organo-mineral interactions for the stabilization of C...
December 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211119/study-of-microbial-interaction-formed-by-candida-krusei-and-candida-glabrata-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#18
Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Fernanda Freire, Jéssica Diane Dos Santos, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Juliana Campos Junqueira
Recently, the non-albicans Candida species have become recognized as an important source of infection and oral colonization by association of different species in a large number of immunosuppressed patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interactions between C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilms formed in vitro and their ability to colonize the oral cavity of mouse model. Monospecies and mixed biofilms were developed of each strain, on 96-well microtiter plates for 48 h. These biofilms were analyzed by counting colony-forming units (CFU/mL) and by determining cell viability, using the XTT hydroxide colorimetric assay...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210693/impact-on-nitrifiers-of-full-scale-bioaugmentation
#19
F Stenström, J la Cour Jansen
Nitrifiers are the slowest growing bacteria used in conventional biological wastewater treatment. Furthermore, their growth rate is seriously hampered by low temperature. As a result, the volume needed for nitrification dominates the volume of the biological reactors at a wastewater treatment plant. As a way of enhancing nitrification and reducing this volume, bioaugmentation can be used. Nitrifiers from a side-stream plant can be inoculated to the mainstream process, which is thereby boosted. The effect of bioaugmentation can be measured in different ways...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210396/engineering-chemical-interactions-in-microbial-communities
#20
REVIEW
Douglas J Kenny, Emily P Balskus
Microbes living within host-associated microbial communities (microbiotas) rely on chemical communication to interact with surrounding organisms. These interactions serve many purposes, from supplying the multicellular host with nutrients to antagonizing invading pathogens, and breakdown of chemical signaling has potentially negative consequences for both the host and microbiota. Efforts to engineer microbes to take part in chemical interactions represent a promising strategy for modulating chemical signaling within these complex communities...
December 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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