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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544806/can-soil-microbial-diversity-influence-plant-metabolites-and-life-history-traits-of-a-rhizophagous-insect-a-demonstration-in-oilseed-rape
#1
Tom Lachaise, Morgane Ourry, Lionel Lebreton, Anne-Yvonne Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Juliette Linglin, Chrystelle Paty, Valérie Chaminade, Nathalie Marnet, Julie Aubert, Denis Poinsot, Anne-Marie Cortesero, Christophe Mougel
Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544080/the-skin-microbiome-of-cow-nose-rays-rhinoptera-bonasus-in-an-aquarium-touch-tank-exhibit
#2
Patrick J Kearns, Jennifer L Bowen, Michael F Tlusty
Public aquaria offer numerous educational opportunities for visitors while touch-tank exhibits offer guests the ability to directly interact with marine life via physical contact. Despite the popularity of touch-tanks, there is a paucity of research about animal health in these exhibits and, in particular, there is little research on the microbial communities in these highly interactive exhibits. Microbial community structure can have implications for both host health and habitat function. To better understand the microbiome of a touch-tank we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze the microbial community on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of cow-nose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) as well as their environment in a frequently visited touch-tank exhibit at the New England Aquarium...
May 23, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541720/assessment-of-hydrocarbon-degradation-potentials-in-plant-microbe-interaction-system-with-oil-sludge-contamination-a-sustainable-solution
#3
Monika Dhote, Anil Kumar, Anjana Jajoo, Asha Juwarkar
A pot culture experiment was conducted for 90 days for evaluation of oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in vegetated and non-vegetated treatments of real field oil sludge contaminated soil. Five different treatments include, (T1) control, 2% oil sludge contaminated soil; (T2), augmentation of microbial consortium; (T3), Vertiver zizanioide; (T4), bio-augmentation along with Vertiver zizanioide and (T5), bio-augmentation with Vertiver zizanioide and bulking agent. During the study, oil reduction, TPH and degradation of its fractions was determined...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541442/cbl-interacting-protein-kinase-6-negatively-regulates-immune-response-to-pseudomonas-syringae-in-arabidopsis
#4
Atish Sardar, Ashis Kumar Nandi, Debasis Chattopadhyay
Cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) is an essential mediator of the plant innate immune response. Here, we report that a calcium-regulated protein kinase Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase 6 (CIPK6) functions as a negative regulator of immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lines with compromised expression of CIPK6 exhibited enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen and to P. syringae harboring certain but not all avirulent effectors, while restoration of CIPK6 expression resulted in abolition of resistance...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540925/microorganisms-and-ocean-global-change
#5
REVIEW
David A Hutchins, Feixue Fu
The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that drive the pelagic ocean's biogeochemical cycles are currently facing an unprecedented set of comprehensive anthropogenic changes. Nearly every important control on marine microbial physiology is currently in flux, including seawater pH, pCO2, temperature, redox chemistry, irradiance and nutrient availability. Here, we examine how microorganisms with key roles in the ocean carbon and nitrogen cycles may respond to these changes in the Earth's largest ecosystem...
May 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540921/the-path-towards-microbiome-based-metabolite-treatment
#6
Jotham Suez, Eran Elinav
The increasing evidence pointing towards the involvement of the gut microbiome in multiple diseases, as well as its plasticity, renders it a desirable potential therapeutic target. Nevertheless, classical therapies based on the consumption of live probiotic bacteria, or their enrichment by prebiotics, exhibit limited efficacy. Recently, a novel therapeutic approach has been suggested based on metabolites secreted, modulated or degraded by the microbiome. As many of the host-microorganism interactions pertaining to human health are mediated by metabolites, this approach may be able to provide therapeutic efficacy while overcoming caveats of current microbiome-targeting therapies, such as colonization resistance and inter-individual variation in microbial composition...
May 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538678/effects-of-commercial-apple-varieties-on-human-gut-microbiota-composition-and-metabolic-output-using-an-in-vitro-colonic-model
#7
Athanasios Koutsos, Maria Lima, Lorenza Conterno, Mattia Gasperotti, Martina Bianchi, Francesca Fava, Urska Vrhovsek, Julie A Lovegrove, Kieran M Tuohy
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538664/abiotic-and-biotic-factors-regulating-inter-kingdom-engagement-between-insects-and-microbe-activity-on-vertebrate-remains
#8
REVIEW
Heather R Jordan, Jeffery K Tomberlin
Abstract: A number of abiotic and biotic factors are known to regulate arthropod attraction, colonization, and utilization of decomposing vertebrate remains. Such information is critical when assessing arthropod evidence associated with said remains in terms of forensic relevance. Interactions are not limited to just between the resource and arthropods. There is another biotic factor that has been historically overlooked; however, with the advent of high-throughput sequencing, and other molecular techniques, the curtain has been pulled back to reveal a microscopic world that is playing a major role with regards to carrion decomposition patterns in association with arthropods...
May 24, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537941/pathophysiology-of-anca-associated-vasculitis
#9
Turki Al-Hussain, Maged H Hussein, Walter Conca, Hadeel Al Mana, Mohammed Akhtar
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is characterized as inflammation of small-sized to medium-sized blood vessels and encompasses several clinicopathologic entities including granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitis. Over the past several decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Although neutrophils contain a multitude of granular proteins, clinically significant autoantibodies are only recognized against myeloperoxidase and proteinase 3, both of which are present in the azurophilic granules...
May 22, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536735/effects-of-co-inoculating-rice-straw-with-ruminal-microbiota-and-anaerobic-sludge-digestion-performance-and-spatial-distribution-of-microbial-communities
#10
Yuying Deng, Zhenxing Huang, Mingxing Zhao, Wenquan Ruan, Hengfeng Miao, Hongyan Ren
Ruminal microbiota (RM) were co-inoculated with anaerobic sludge (AS) at different ratios to study the digestion of rice straw in batch experiments. The CH4 yield reached 273.64 mL/g volatile solid (VS) at a co-inoculum ratio of 1:1. The xylanase and cellulase activities were 198.88-212.88 and 24.51-29.08 U/mL in co-inoculated samples, respectively, and were significantly different compared to the results for single inoculum (p < 0.05). Higher ratios of AS enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis, and propionate accumulation could be the main reason for the longer lag phase observed in samples with a higher RM ratio...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536564/a-metagenomic-approach-to-cyanobacterial-genomics
#11
REVIEW
Danillo O Alvarenga, Marli F Fiore, Alessandro M Varani
Cyanobacteria, or oxyphotobacteria, are primary producers that establish ecological interactions with a wide variety of organisms. Although their associations with eukaryotes have received most attention, interactions with bacterial and archaeal symbionts have also been occurring for billions of years. Due to these associations, obtaining axenic cultures of cyanobacteria is usually difficult, and most isolation efforts result in unicyanobacterial cultures containing a number of associated microbes, hence composing a microbial consortium...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536291/evolution-of-bacterial-frenemies
#12
Sophie E Darch, Carolyn B Ibberson, Marvin Whiteley
Chronic polymicrobial infections are associated with increased virulence compared to monospecies infections. However, our understanding of microbial dynamics during polymicrobial infection is limited. A recent study by Limoli and colleagues (D. H. Limoli, G. B. Whitfield, T. Kitao, M. L. Ivey, M. R. Davis, Jr., et al., mBio 8:e00186-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00186-17) provides insight into a mechanism that may contribute to the coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#13
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535857/functional-characterization-of-the-collagen-binding-protein-dip2093-and-its-influence-on-host-pathogen-interaction-and-arthritogenic-potential-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae
#14
Renata Stavracakis Peixoto, Camila Azevedo Antunes, Liliane Simpson Lourêdo, Vanilda Gonçalves Viana, Cintia Silva Dos Santos, Jemima Fuentes Ribeiro da Silva, Raphael Hirata, Elena Hacker, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is typically recognized as the a etiological agent of diphtheria, a toxaemic infection of the respiratory tract; however, both non-toxigenic and toxigenic strains are increasingly isolated from cases of invasive infections. The molecular mechanisms responsible for bacterial colonization and dissemination to host tissues remain only partially understood. In this report, we investigated the role of DIP2093, described as a putative adhesin of the serine-aspartate repeat (Sdr) protein family in host-pathogen interactions of C...
May 23, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#15
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#16
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533782/towards-an-integrative-understanding-of-diet-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#17
Mark N Read, Andrew J Holmes
Over the last 20 years, a sizeable body of research has linked the microbiome and host diet to a remarkable diversity of diseases. Yet, unifying principles of microbiome assembly or function, at levels required to rationally manipulate a specific individual's microbiome to their benefit, have not emerged. A key driver of both community composition and activity is the host diet, but diet-microbiome interactions cannot be characterized without consideration of host-diet interactions such as appetite and digestion...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533216/a-diverse-community-to-study-communities-integration-of-experiments-and-mathematical-models-to-study-microbial-consortia
#18
Antonella Succurro, Fiona Wanjiku Moejes, Oliver Ebenhöh
The last few years have seen the advancement of high-throughput experimental techniques produce an extraordinary amount of data. Bioinformatics and statistical analyses have become instrumental to interpreting the information coming from e.g. sequencing data, and often motivate further targeted experiments. The broad discipline of "computational biology" spans far beyond the well-established field of bioinformatics, but it is our impression that more theoretical methods like mathematical models are not yet as well integrated in the research studying microbial interactions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531262/biogeography-of-cryoconite-bacterial-communities-on-glaciers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#19
Yongqin Liu, Trista J Vick-Majors, John C Priscu, Tandong Yao, Shichang Kang, Keshao Liu, Ziyuang Cong, Jingbo Xiong, Yang Li
Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry, and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531184/bacarena-individual-based-metabolic-modeling-of-heterogeneous-microbes-in-complex-communities
#20
Eugen Bauer, Johannes Zimmermann, Federico Baldini, Ines Thiele, Christoph Kaleta
Recent advances focusing on the metabolic interactions within and between cellular populations have emphasized the importance of microbial communities for human health. Constraint-based modeling, with flux balance analysis in particular, has been established as a key approach for studying microbial metabolism, whereas individual-based modeling has been commonly used to study complex dynamics between interacting organisms. In this study, we combine both techniques into the R package BacArena (https://cran.r-project...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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