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microbial interactions

Narayan C Rath, Rohana Liyanage, Anamika Gupta, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Jackson O Lay
Enterocytes function as both absorptive and protective components of intestine that come in close contact with a variety of enteric factors, such as dietary, microbial, and parasites, that have potential to affect the organismal health. Understanding how enterocytes interact with this complex array of factors may help improve gut health particularly in the context of poultry production where it is also linked to food safety issues. The enterocyte in vitro culture can help screen different factors and their interactions with microbiome, and potentially be utilized in the development of interventions strategies for pathogens such as antibiotic alternatives...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Pi-Yu Chen, Chi-Ying Hsieh, Chao-Jen Shih, Yuan-Jing Lin, Chia-Wen Tsao, Yu-Liang Yang
Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to microbiology and natural product research has opened the door to the exploration of microbial interactions and the consequent discovery of new natural products and their functions in the interactions. However, several drawbacks of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry have limited its application especially to complicated and uneven microbial samples. Here, we applied nanostructured silicon as a substrate for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for microbial imaging mass spectrometry to explore fungal metabolic interactions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Jenny Fabian, Sanja Zlatanović, Michael Mutz, Hans-Peter Grossart, Robert van Geldern, Andreas Ulrich, Gerd Gleixner, Katrin Premke
In aquatic ecosystems, light availability can significantly influence microbial turnover of terrestrial organic matter through associated metabolic interactions between phototrophic and heterotrophic communities. However, particularly in streams, microbial functions vary significantly with the structure of the streambed, that is the distribution and spatial arrangement of sediment grains in the streambed. It is therefore essential to elucidate how environmental factors synergistically define the microbial turnover of terrestrial organic matter in order to better understand the ecological role of photo-heterotrophic interactions in stream ecosystem processes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carla E Rosenfeld, Bruce R James, Cara Santelli
Mining and other industrial activities worldwide have resulted in Se-enriched surface soils, which pose risks to human and environmental health. Although not well studied, microbial activity can alter Se bioavailability and distribution, even in oxic environments. We used high throughput sequencing to profile bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting mine soils in southeastern Idaho, comparing mined and unmined locations within two reclaimed phosphate mine areas containing variable Se concentrations. The goal was to determine whether microbial communities differed in (i) different mines, (ii) mined areas compared to unmined areas, and (iii) varying soil Se concentrations...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Georg M Guebitz, Gibson S Nyanhongo
Hydrogels are 3D hydrophilic polymer networks that absorb and hold huge amounts of water. Although hydrogels have traditionally been synthesized using chemical and physical methods, rapid developments in enzyme technology that, like chemical-based methods, enable the formation of stable covalent bonds are fast emerging as alternative 'green catalyst' tools. Enzymes show great potential for the synthesis of complex multifunctional wound dressing hydrogels (WDHs) ex situ and in situ as well as in acting as interactive molecules to promote the wound healing process...
June 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Kirk E Anderson, Vincent A Ricigliano, Brendon M Mott, Duan C Copeland, Amy S Floyd, Patrick Maes
BACKGROUND: In social insects, identical genotypes can show extreme lifespan variation providing a unique perspective on age-associated microbial succession. In honey bees, short- and long-lived host phenotypes are polarized by a suite of age-associated factors including hormones, nutrition, immune senescence, and oxidative stress. Similar to other model organisms, the aging gut microbiota of short-lived (worker) honey bees accrue Proteobacteria and are depleted of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, consistent with a suite of host senescence markers...
June 18, 2018: Microbiome
Kévin Gillois, Mathilde Lévêque, Vassilia Théodorou, Hervé Robert, Muriel Mercier-Bonin
Synthetic chemicals (environmental pollutants, food additives) are widely used for many industrial purposes and consumer-related applications, which implies, through manufactured products, diet, and environment, a repeated exposure of the general population with growing concern regarding health disorders. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physical and biological barrier against these compounds, and thus their first target. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiota represents a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants and food additives; however, little is known on the toxicological relevance of the mucus/pollutant interplay, even though mucus is increasingly recognized as essential in gut homeostasis...
June 15, 2018: Microorganisms
Venkata L Reddy Pullagurala, Swati Rawat, Ishaq O Adisa, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The advent of industrialization has led to the discovery of a wide range of chemicals designed for multiple uses including plant protection. However, after use, most of the chemicals and their derivatives end up in soil and water, interacting with living organisms. Plants, which are primary producers, are intentionally or unintentionally exposed to several chemicals, serving as a vehicle for the transfer of products into the food chain. Although the exposure of pesticides towards plants has been witnessed over a long time in agricultural production, other chemicals have attracted attention very recently...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Caitlin E Moss, Andrew Robson, Erol Fikrig, Sukanya Narasimhan
Infectious diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors continue to pose a significant threat to human health worldwide. The pathogens causing these diseases, do not exist in isolation when they colonize the vector; rather, they likely engage in interactions with resident microorganisms in the gut lumen. The vector microbiota has been demonstrated to play an important role in pathogen transmission for several vector-borne diseases. Whether resident bacteria in the gut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, the vector of several human pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, influence tick transmission of pathogens is not determined...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tiroyaone Shimane Tshikantwa, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Feng He, Guang Yang
For a long time, it was considered that interactions between microbes are only inhibitory in nature. However, latest developments in research have demonstrated that within our environment, several classes of microbes exist which produce different products upon interaction and thus embrace a wider scope of useful and potentially valuable aspects beyond simple antibiosis. Therefore, the current review explores different types of microbial interactions and describes the role of various physical, chemical, biological, and genetic factors regulating such interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mishtu Dey, Adam E Brummett
The organosulfur metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and its enzymatic breakdown product dimethyl sulfide (DMS) have important implications in the global sulfur cycle and in marine microbial food webs. Enormous amounts of DMSP are produced in marine environments where microbial communities import and catabolize it via either the demethylation or the cleavage pathways. The enzymes that cleave DMSP are termed "DMSP lyases" and generate acrylate or hydroxypropionate, and ~107 tons of DMS annually...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Nabin Aryal, Torben Kvist, Fariza Ammam, Deepak Pant, Lars D M Ottosen
Biogas upgrading technologies have received widespread attention recently and are researched extensively. Microbial biogas upgrading (biomethanation) relies on the microbial performance in enriched H2 and CO2 environments. In this review, recent developments and applications of CH4 enrichment in microbial methanation processes are systematically reviewed. During biological methanation, either H2 can be injected directly inside the anaerobic digester to enrich CH4 by a consortium of mixed microbial species or H2 can be injected into a separate bioreactor, where CO2 contained in biogas is coupled with H2 and converted to CH4 , or a combination hereof...
June 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shenara Musthaq, Anna Mazuy, Jeannette Jakus
The skin supports a delicate ecosystem of microbial elements. Although the skin typically acts as a barrier, these microbes interact with the internal body environment and imbalances from the "healthy" state that have been linked to several dermatologic diseases. Understanding the changes in microbial flora in disease states allows for the potential to treat by restoring equilibrium. With the rising popularity of holistic and natural consumerism, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotic, and other therapies are under study to find alternative treatments to these skin disorders through manipulation or supplementation of the microbiome...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
Pingping Zhu, Jian Zhang, Yujie Chen, Shanshan Yin, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Kim L R Brouwer, Changxiao Liu, Ke Lan, Wei Jia
Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions are closely associated with health and disease. A manifestation of such co-metabolism is the vast structural diversity of bile acids (BAs) involving both oxidative stereochemistry and conjugation. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a LC-MS-based method for the analysis of human C24 BA metabolome in serum and urine. The method has high throughput covering the discrimination of oxidative stereochemistry of unconjugated species in a 15-min analytical cycle...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Colin P McNally, Elhanan Borenstein
BACKGROUND: Metabolic dependencies between microbial species have a significant impact on the assembly and activity of microbial communities. However, the evolutionary origins of such dependencies and the impact of metabolic and genomic architecture on their emergence are not clear. RESULTS: To address these questions, we developed a novel framework, coupling a reductive evolution model with a multi-species genome-scale metabolic model to simulate the evolution of two-species microbial communities...
June 15, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Richard M Johnson, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful microbial pathogens, and currently infects over a quarter of the world's population. Mtb's success depends on the ability of the bacterium to sense and respond to dynamic and hostile environments within the host, including the ability to regulate bacterial metabolism and interactions with the host immune system. One of the ways Mtb senses and responds to conditions it faces during infection is through the concerted action of multiple cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Giuseppe Merlino, Alan Barozzi, Grégoire Michoud, David Kamanda Ngugi, Daniele Daffonchio
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are unique water bodies occurring within fractures at the bottom of the sea, where the dissolution of anciently buried evaporites created dense anoxic brines that are separated by a chemocline/pycnocline from the overlying oxygenated deep-seawater column. DHABs have been described in the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Red Sea. They are characterized by prolonged historical separation of the brines from the upper water column due to lack of mixing and by extreme conditions of salinity, anoxia, and relatively high hydrostatic pressure and temperatures...
July 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fernando Bueno Ferreira Fonseca de Fraga
Microorganisms are extremely abundant on our planet, and, as a result, they interact with many others forms of life. Today, science recognizes the essential role of these organisms in the emergence and maintenance of life on Earth. Nonetheless, misconceptions about microorganisms in the imaginations of students and the lay audience persist. A major challenge in teaching and popularizing microbiology is to provide students and the general public with a varied understanding of microbes in nature to reinforce their importance in a multitude of processes...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
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