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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665535/initiation-of-soil-formation-in-weathered-sulfidic-cu-pb-zn-tailings-under-subtropical-and-semi-arid-climatic-conditions
#1
Fang You, Ram Dalal, Longbin Huang
Field evidence has been scarce about soil (or technosol) formation and direct phytostabilization of base metal mine tailings under field conditions. The present study evaluated key attributes of soil formation in weathered and neutral Cu-Pb-Zn tailings subject to organic amendment (WC: woodchips) and colonization of pioneer native plant species (mixed native woody and grass plant species) in a 2.5-year field trial under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions. Key soil indicators of engineered soil formation process were characterized, including organic carbon fractions, aggregation, microbial community and key enzymatic activities...
April 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663355/microbial-decomposers-not-constrained-by-climate-history-along-a-mediterranean-climate-gradient-in-southern-california
#2
Nameer R Baker, Banafshe Khalili, Jennifer B H Martiny, Steven D Allison
Microbial decomposers mediate the return of CO2 to the atmosphere by producing extracellular enzymes to degrade complex plant polymers, making plant carbon available for metabolism. Determining if and how these decomposer communities are constrained in their ability to degrade plant litter is necessary for predicting how carbon cycling will be affected by future climate change. We analyzed mass loss, litter chemistry, microbial biomass, extracellular enzyme activities, and enzyme temperature sensitivities in grassland litter transplanted along a Mediterranean climate gradient in southern California...
April 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#3
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662223/ecological-suicide-in-microbes
#4
Christoph Ratzke, Jonas Denk, Jeff Gore
The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts...
April 16, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662222/function-and-functional-redundancy-in-microbial-systems
#5
REVIEW
Stilianos Louca, Martin F Polz, Florent Mazel, Michaeline B N Albright, Julie A Huber, Mary I O'Connor, Martin Ackermann, Aria S Hahn, Diane S Srivastava, Sean A Crowe, Michael Doebeli, Laura Wegener Parfrey
Microbial communities often exhibit incredible taxonomic diversity, raising questions regarding the mechanisms enabling species coexistence and the role of this diversity in community functioning. On the one hand, many coexisting but taxonomically distinct microorganisms can encode the same energy-yielding metabolic functions, and this functional redundancy contrasts with the expectation that species should occupy distinct metabolic niches. On the other hand, the identity of taxa encoding each function can vary substantially across space or time with little effect on the function, and this taxonomic variability is frequently thought to result from ecological drift between equivalent organisms...
April 16, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662092/diffusion-limited-growth-of-microbial-colonies
#6
Hayden Tronnolone, Alexander Tam, Zoltán Szenczi, J E F Green, Sanjeeva Balasuriya, Ee Lin Tek, Jennifer M Gardner, Joanna F Sundstrom, Vladimir Jiranek, Stephen G Oliver, Benjamin J Binder
The emergence of diffusion-limited growth (DLG) within a microbial colony on a solid substrate is studied using a combination of mathematical modelling and experiments. Using an agent-based model of the interaction between microbial cells and a diffusing nutrient, it is shown that growth directed towards a nutrient source may be used as an indicator that DLG is influencing the colony morphology. A continuous reaction-diffusion model for microbial growth is employed to identify the parameter regime in which DLG is expected to arise...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662088/tracing-of-the-fecal-microbiota-of-commercial-pigs-at-five-growth-stages-from-birth-to-shipment
#7
Geon Goo Han, Jun-Yeong Lee, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Jongbin Park, Yo Han Choi, Sang-Kee Kang, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
The intestinal microbiota affect various physiological traits of host animals such as brain development, obesity, age, and the immune system. In the swine industry, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and growth stage is essential because growth stage is directly related to the feeding system of pigs, thus we studied the intestinal microbiota of 32 healthy pigs across five sows at 10, 21, 63, 93, and 147 d of ages. The intestinal microbiota were altered with growth of pigs and were separated into three distinct clusters...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660763/diversity-function-and-application-of-clostridium-in-chinese-strong-flavor-baijiu-ecosystem-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Wei Zou, Guangbin Ye, Kaizheng Zhang
Baijiu is a Chinese traditional distilled liquor with an annual yield over 13.12 million tons. Strong flavor baijiu (SFB) also called Luzhou-flavor liquor, takes account for > 70% of the total baijiu produced. SFB is produced by an open solid fermentation process with a complex microbial ecosystem. Clostridium is one of the most important microorganisms for the formation of the main flavor compounds of SFB, such as ethyl caproate. In this paper, we review current research progress on the Clostridium in the SFB ecosystem, focusing on the species diversity, physiological and metabolic features along with interspecies interactions...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660716/high-time-resolution-simulation-of-e-coli-on-hands-reveals-large-variation-in-microbial-exposures-amongst-vietnamese-farmers-using-human-excreta-for-agriculture
#9
Timothy R Julian, Hasitha S K Vithanage, Min Li Chua, Matasaka Kuroda, Ana K Pitol, Pham Hong Lien Nguyen, Robert A Canales, Shigeo Fujii, Hidenori Harada
Infectious disease transmission is frequently mediated by the environment, where people's movements through and interactions with the environment dictate risks of infection and/or illness. Capturing these interactions, and quantifying their importance, offers important insights into effective interventions. In this study, we capture high time-resolution activity data for twenty-five Vietnamese farmers during collection and land application of human excreta for agriculture. Although human excreta use improves productivity, the use increases risks of enteric infections for both farmers and end users...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660711/the-rhizosphere-microbiome-significance-in-rhizoremediation-of-polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soil
#10
REVIEW
Rhitu Kotoky, Jina Rajkumari, Piyush Pandey
Microbial communities are an essential part of plant rhizosphere and participate in the functioning of plants, including rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminants. Rhizoremediation is a promising technology for removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons based on interactions between plants and microbiome in the rhizosphere. Root exudation in the rhizosphere provides better nutrient uptake for rhizosphere microbiome, and therefore it is considered to be one of the major factors of microbial community function in the rhizosphere that plays a key role in the enhanced PAH biodegradation...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659916/human-gut-microbiota-predicts-susceptibility-to-vibrio-cholerae-infection
#11
Firas S Midani, Ana A Weil, Fahima Chowdhury, Yasmin A Begum, Ashraful I Khan, Meti D Debela, Heather K Durand, Aspen T Reese, Sai N Nimmagadda, Justin D Silverman, Crystal N Ellis, Edward T Ryan, Stephen B Calderwood, Jason B Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Lawrence A David, Regina C LaRocque
Background: Cholera is a public health problem worldwide and the risk factors for infection are only partially understood. Methods: We prospectively studied household contacts of cholera patients to compare those who were infected with those who were not. We constructed predictive machine learning models of susceptibility using baseline gut microbiota data. We identified bacterial taxa associated with susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae infection and tested these taxa for interactions with V...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659578/cell-adhesion-and-fluid-flow-jointly-initiate-genotype-spatial-distribution-in-biofilms
#12
Ricardo Martínez-García, Carey D Nadell, Raimo Hartmann, Knut Drescher, Juan A Bonachela
Biofilms are microbial collectives that occupy a diverse array of surfaces. It is well known that the function and evolution of biofilms are strongly influenced by the spatial arrangement of different strains and species within them, but how spatiotemporal distributions of different genotypes in biofilm populations originate is still underexplored. Here, we study the origins of biofilm genetic structure by combining model development, numerical simulations, and microfluidic experiments using the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659479/oral-dysbiotic-communities-and-their-implications-in-systemic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Preethi Sudhakara, Abishek Gupta, Anshumouli Bhardwaj, Aruni Wilson
The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance...
April 16, 2018: Dentistry journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659156/mosaic-patterns-of-b-vitamin-synthesis-and-utilization-in-a-natural-marine-microbial-community
#14
Laura Gómez-Consarnau, Rohan Sachdeva, Scott M Gifford, Lynda S Cutter, Jed A Fuhrman, Sergio A Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Mary Ann Moran
Aquatic environments contain large communities of microorganisms whose synergistic interactions mediate the cycling of major and trace nutrients, including vitamins. B-vitamins are essential coenzymes that many organisms cannot synthesize. Thus their exchange among de-novo synthesizers and auxotrophs is expected to play an important role in the microbial consortia and explain some of the temporal and spatial changes observed in diversity. In this study, we analyzed metatranscriptomes of a natural marine coastal microbial community, diel sampled quarterly over one year to try to identify the potential major B-vitamin synthesizers and consumers...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657965/considering-the-lives-of-microbes-in-microbial-communities
#15
Elizabeth A Shank
Over the last decades, sequencing technologies have transformed our ability to investigate the composition and functional capacity of microbial communities. Even so, critical questions remain about these complex systems that cannot be addressed by the bulk, community-averaged data typically provided by sequencing methods. In this Perspective, I propose that future advances in microbiome research will emerge from considering "the lives of microbes": we need to create methods to explicitly interrogate how microbes exist and interact in native-setting-like microenvironments...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657963/hologenomics-systems-level-host-biology
#16
Kevin R Theis
The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis explaining host evolution in the context of the host microbiomes. As a hypothesis, it needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to the extent of fidelity of transgenerational coassociation of host and microbial lineages and the relative fitness consequences of repeated associations within natural holobiont populations. Behavioral ecologists are in a prime position to test these predictions because they typically focus on animal phenotypes that are quantifiable, conduct studies over multiple generations within natural animal populations, and collect metadata on genetic relatedness and relative reproductive success within these populations...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651160/structure-and-co-occurrence-patterns-in-microbial-communities-under-acute-environmental-stress-reveal-ecological-factors-fostering-resilience
#17
Dinka Mandakovic, Claudia Rojas, Jonathan Maldonado, Mauricio Latorre, Dante Travisany, Erwan Delage, Audrey Bihouée, Géraldine Jean, Francisca P Díaz, Beatriz Fernández-Gómez, Pablo Cabrera, Alexis Gaete, Claudio Latorre, Rodrigo A Gutiérrez, Alejandro Maass, Verónica Cambiazo, Sergio A Navarrete, Damien Eveillard, Mauricio González
Understanding the factors that modulate bacterial community assembly in natural soils is a longstanding challenge in microbial community ecology. In this work, we compared two microbial co-occurrence networks representing bacterial soil communities from two different sections of a pH, temperature and humidity gradient occurring along a western slope of the Andes in the Atacama Desert. In doing so, a topological graph alignment of co-occurrence networks was used to determine the impact of a shift in environmental variables on OTUs taxonomic composition and their relationships...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650468/exploring-bacteroidetes-metabolic-key-points-and-immunological-tricks-of-our-gut-commensals
#18
REVIEW
Giulia Gibiino, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Franco Scaldaferri, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
Bacteroidetes are the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract and are considered the leading players of the healthy state and sophisticated homeostasis safeguarded by gut microbiota. Furthermore, specific roles have been attributed to some Bacteroidetes genera in the development of immune dysregulation, systemic disease such as metabolic syndrome and also neurological disorders. Glycoproteins secretion, short fatty acids imbalance, toxins production and molecular mimicry are only a part of the functions exerted by these commensals interacting with the host...
March 20, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649179/nanocoatings-for-chronic-wound-repair-modulation-of-microbial-colonization-and-biofilm-formation
#19
REVIEW
Mara Mădălina Mihai, Mădălina Preda, Iulia Lungu, Monica Cartelle Gestal, Mircea Ioan Popa, Alina Maria Holban
Wound healing involves a complex interaction between immunity and other natural host processes, and to succeed it requires a well-defined cascade of events. Chronic wound infections can be mono- or polymicrobial but their major characteristic is their ability to develop a biofilm. A biofilm reduces the effectiveness of treatment and increases resistance. A biofilm is an ecosystem on its own, enabling the bacteria and the host to establish different social interactions, such as competition or cooperation. With an increasing incidence of chronic wounds and, implicitly, of chronic biofilm infections, there is a need for alternative therapeutic agents...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648932/response-surface-methodology-for-salmonella-inactivation-during-extrusion-processing-of-oat-flour
#20
Tushar Verma, Xinyao Wei, Soon Kiat Lau, Andreia Bianchini, Kent M Eskridge, Jayne Stratton, Nathan M Anderson, Harshavardhan Thippareddi, Jeyamkondan Subbiah
An increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks and recalls due to Salmonella in low-moisture foods has resulted in the need for the development and validation of process controls to ensure their microbiological safety. Furthermore, the Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food final rule requires food processors to validate their process controls to ensure food safety. The objective of this study was to develop a response surface model to predict Salmonella inactivation in oat flour, as affected by moisture, fat content, screw speed, and temperature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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