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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319716/multiple-stressors-in-sediments-impact-adjacent-hard-substrate-habitats-and-across-biological-domains
#1
Jasmin C Lawes, Katherine A Dafforn, Graeme F Clark, Mark V Brown, Emma L Johnston
Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by human activities. While the direct effects of individual contaminants have been investigated, the potential for multiple contaminants to impact adjacent hard substrate habitats is poorly understood. Sediment-bound contaminants pose a risk to water column organisms through resuspension and the fluxing of dissolved nutrients and metals. This study experimentally manipulated contaminated coastal sediments in mesocosms with additions of a common fertiliser to investigate the impact on both bacterial biofilms and macrofouling communities on nearby hard substrates...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319121/growth-altering-microbial-interactions-are-responsive-to-chemical-context
#2
Angela Liu, Anne M Archer, Matthew B Biggs, Jason A Papin
Microbial interactions are ubiquitous in nature, and are equally as relevant to human wellbeing as the identities of the interacting microbes. However, microbial interactions are difficult to measure and characterize. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that they are not fixed, but dependent on environmental context. We present a novel workflow for inferring microbial interactions that integrates semi-automated image analysis with a colony stamping mechanism, with the overall effect of improving throughput and reproducibility of colony interaction assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#3
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317574/role-of-oral-microbial-infections-in-oral-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Brett L Ferguson, Scott Barber, Imani H Asher, Chalmers R Wood
The role of bacterial and viral carcinogenesis in the oral cavity is increasingly of interest, as a means to provide more methods of cancer prevention. There may be relationships between bacteria and multiple strains of viruses in the progression of malignancy. Cancer cause is closely related to the type of carcinogen, as well as the synergistic or additive actions of combined risk factors, the susceptibility of the host, and duration of interaction between host and exposure to risk factor. Much research is underway to further define the role of microbial and bacterial agents in the progression of malignancy...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317257/top-down-control-of-carbon-sequestration-grazing-affects-microbial-structure-and-function-in-salt-marsh-soils
#5
Peter Mueller, Dirk Granse, Stefanie Nolte, Hai Thi Do, Magdalena Weingartner, Stefan Hoth, Kai Jensen
Tidal wetlands have been increasingly recognized as long-term carbon sinks in recent years. Work on carbon sequestration and decomposition processes in tidal wetlands focused so far mainly on effects of global-change factors such as sea-level rise and increasing temperatures. However, little is known about effects of land use, such as livestock grazing, on organic matter decomposition and ultimately carbon sequestration. The present work aims at understanding the mechanisms by which large herbivores can affect organic matter decomposition in tidal wetlands...
March 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316999/does-the-gut-microbiota-influence-immunity-and-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathophysiology
#6
Monika Adamczyk-Sowa, Aldona Medrek, Paulina Madej, Wirginia Michlicka, Pawel Dobrakowski
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316889/functional-and-health-promoting-inherent-attributes-of-enterococcus-hirae-f2-as-a-novel-probiotic-isolated-from-the-digestive-tract-of-the-freshwater-fish-catla-catla
#7
Mohd Adnan, Mitesh Patel, Sibte Hadi
BACKGROUND: Probiotic microorganisms are gaining global importance because of their use in the preparation of a nutraceutical or in the treatment of infections. As per the health industry demand, there is an urgent need for exploring new indigenous probiotic strains with its specific origin due to variation in gut microflora, different food habits and specific host-microbial interactions. The main objective of the present study was to isolate and identify a novel probiotic Enterococcus strain from the gut of Catla catla fish and evaluate its potentiality as a potent probiotic...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316093/morphology-heterogeneity-within-a-campylobacter-jejuni-helical-population-the-use-of-calcofluor-white-to-generate-rod-shaped-c-jejuni-81-176-clones-and-the-genetic-determinants-responsible-for-differences-in-morphology-within-11168-strains
#8
Emilisa Frirdich, Jacob Biboy, Steven Huynh, Craig T Parker, Waldemar Vollmer, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni helical shape is important for colonization and host interactions with straight mutants having altered biological properties. Passage on calcofluor white (CFW) resulted in C. jejuni 81-176 isolates with morphology changes: either a straight morphology from frameshift mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in peptidoglycan hydrolase genes pgp1 or pgp2 or a reduction in curvature due a frameshift mutation in cjj81176_1105, a putative peptidoglycan endopeptidase. Shape defects were restored by complementation...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315048/microbial-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer L Pluznick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are byproducts of microbial metabolism which can be absorbed into the bloodstream of the host, where they exert effects on host physiology. SCFAs have been known to influence several aspects of host physiology, including the regulation of blood pressure. In this review, we will consider recent studies linking SCFAs to blood pressure regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have found that changes in blood pressure often coordinate with expected changes in SCFAS...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315039/ecology-and-feeding-habits-drive-infection-of-water-bugs-with-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#10
Solange Meyin A Ebong, Gabriel E García-Peña, Dominique Pluot-Sigwalt, Laurent Marsollier, Philippe Le Gall, Sara Eyangoh, Jean-François Guégan
Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is present in a wide spectrum of environments, including terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in tropical regions. The most promising studies on the epidemiological risk of this disease suggest that some ecological settings may favor infection of animals with MU including human. A species' needs and impacts on resources and the environment, i.e., its ecological niche, may influence its susceptibility to be infected by this microbial form. For example, some Naucoridae may dive in fresh waters to prey upon infected animals and thus may get infected with MU...
March 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304369/the-role-of-adaptive-immunity-as-an-ecological-filter-on-the-gut-microbiota-in-zebrafish
#11
Keaton Stagaman, Adam R Burns, Karen Guillemin, Brendan Jm Bohannan
All animals live in intimate association with communities of microbes, collectively referred to as their microbiota. Certain host traits can influence which microbial taxa comprise the microbiota. One potentially important trait in vertebrate animals is the adaptive immune system, which has been hypothesized to act as an ecological filter, promoting the presence of some microbial taxa over others. Here we surveyed the intestinal microbiota of 68 wild-type zebrafish, with functional adaptive immunity, and 61 rag1(-) zebrafish, lacking functional B- and T-cell receptors, to test the role of adaptive immunity as an ecological filter on the intestinal microbiota...
March 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303123/trichoderma-asperellum-t42-and-pseudomonas-fluorescens-okc-enhances-resistance-of-pea-against-erysiphe-pisi-through-enhanced-ros-generation-and-lignifications
#12
Jai S Patel, Ravindra N Kharwar, Harikesh B Singh, Ram S Upadhyay, Birinchi K Sarma
Plant signaling mechanisms are not completely understood in plant-fungal biotrophic pathogen interactions. Further how such interactions are influenced by compatible rhizosphere microbes are also not well-studied. Therefore, we explored the pea-Erysiphe pisi (obligate biotroph) system to understand the interaction and applied compatible rhizospheric bio-agents Trichoderma asperellum (T42) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (OKC) singly or in combination to assess their influence on the host while under the pathogen challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302675/receptor-kinases-in-plant-pathogen-interactions-more-than-pattern-recognition
#13
Jian-Min Zhou, Dingzhong Tang, Guoxun Wang
Receptor-Like Kinases (RLKs) and Receptor-Like Proteins (RLPs) play crucial roles in plant immunity, growth and development. Plants deploy a large number of RLKs and RLPs as Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) to detect microbe- and host-derived molecular patterns, as the first line of defense. Recent advances have uncovered new PRRs, their corresponding ligands, and mechanisms underlying PRR activation and signaling. In general, PRRs associate with other RLKs and function as part of multi-protein immune complexes at the cell surface...
March 16, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302399/elucidation-of-structural-and-functional-integration-of-a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-from-antheraea-mylitta
#14
Suhrid R Dutta, Samiran S Gauri, Twisa Ghosh, Suman K Halder, Pradeep K DasMohapatra, Keshab C Mondal, Ananta K Ghosh
We report here the amino acid sequence of an antimicrobial peptide of Antheraea mylitta (peptide fraction II) effectively killed urinary tract associated MDR E. coli (Dutta et al., 2016), as Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-His-Leu-Val-Ala. The physicochemical and biological properties of this peptide were evaluated by computational analysis and its isoelectric point, grand average of hydropathicity and Boman index values were found to be 6.74, 0.42 and -1.17kcal/mol, respectively. One valid model of peptide fraction II was constructed, that contains two antiparallel β sheets with a hairpin and appeared as 'U' shaped structure...
March 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#15
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298918/host-parasite-bacteria-triangle-the-microbiome-of-the-parasitic-weed-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-and-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-mill-as-a-host
#16
Lilach Iasur Kruh, Tamar Lahav, Jacline Abu-Nassar, Guy Achdari, Raghda Salami, Shiri Freilich, Radi Aly
Broomrapes (Phelipanche/Orobanche spp.) are holoparasitic plants that subsist on the roots of a variety of agricultural crops, establishing direct connections with the host vascular system. This connection allows for the exchange of various substances and a possible exchange of endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of both plants. To shed some light on bacterial interactions occurring between the parasitic Phelipanche aegyptiaca and its host tomato, we characterized the endophytic composition in the parasite during the parasitization process and ascertained if these changes were accompanied by changes to endophytes in the host root...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298351/community-analysis-of-microbial-sharing-and-specialization-in-a-costa-rican-ant-plant-hemipteran-symbiosis
#17
Elizabeth G Pringle, Corrie S Moreau
Ants have long been renowned for their intimate mutualisms with trophobionts and plants and more recently appreciated for their widespread and diverse interactions with microbes. An open question in symbiosis research is the extent to which environmental influence, including the exchange of microbes between interacting macroorganisms, affects the composition and function of symbiotic microbial communities. Here we approached this question by investigating symbiosis within symbiosis. Ant-plant-hemipteran symbioses are hallmarks of tropical ecosystems that produce persistent close contact among the macroorganism partners, which then have substantial opportunity to exchange symbiotic microbes...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298180/bacterial-protein-meta-interactomes-predict-cross-species-interactions-and-protein-function
#18
J Harry Caufield, Christopher Wimble, Semarjit Shary, Stefan Wuchty, Peter Uetz
BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) can offer compelling evidence for protein function, especially when viewed in the context of proteome-wide interactomes. Bacteria have been popular subjects of interactome studies: more than six different bacterial species have been the subjects of comprehensive interactome studies while several more have had substantial segments of their proteomes screened for interactions. The protein interactomes of several bacterial species have been completed, including several from prominent human pathogens...
March 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294281/mice-exposed-to-infant-formula-enriched-with-polyamines-impact-on-host-transcriptome-and-microbiome
#19
Carlos Gómez-Gallego, María García Romo, Rafael Frías, María Jesús Periago, Gaspar Ros, Seppo Salminen, Maria C Collado
Previous studies using a BALB/cOlaHsd model have shown the impact that the supplementation of infant formula with polyamines has on the modulation of microbial colonization and immune system development. To contribute to deciphering and identifying new complex interactions underlying the host response to polyamines, a systems biology approach integrating data from microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract, lymphocyte populations and immune system gene expression analysis of a lactating mice model fed different diets was carried out...
March 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293292/evaluation-of-environmental-bacterial-communities-as-a-factor-affecting-the-growth-of-duckweed-lemna-minor
#20
Hidehiro Ishizawa, Masashi Kuroda, Masaaki Morikawa, Michihiko Ike
BACKGROUND: Duckweed (family Lemnaceae) has recently been recognized as an ideal biomass feedstock for biofuel production due to its rapid growth and high starch content, which inspired interest in improving their productivity. Since microbes that co-exist with plants are known to have significant effects on their growth according to the previous studies for terrestrial plants, this study has attempted to understand the plant-microbial interactions of a duckweed, Lemna minor, focusing on the growth promotion/inhibition effects so as to assess the possibility of accelerated duckweed production by modifying co-existing bacterial community...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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