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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931869/a-genetic-overview-of-atlantic-coastal-populations-from-europe-and-north-west-africa-based-on-a-17-x-str-panel
#1
Endika Prieto-Fernández, Ana Díaz-de Usera, Miriam Baeta, Carolina Núñez, Faiza Chbel, Sellama Nadifi, Karen Rouault, Claude Férec, Orla Hardiman, Fátima Pinheiro, Marian M de Pancorbo
The forensic use of X-STRs requires the creation of allele and haplotype frequency databases in the populations where they are going to be used. Recently, an updated Spanish allele and haplotype frequency database for the new 17 X-STR panel has been created, being the only database available up to now for this new multiplex. In order to broaden the forensic applicability of the 17 X-STR panel, 513 individuals from four different populations located on the Atlantic Coast of Europe and North-West Africa have been studied, i...
November 30, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930675/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-the-2014-ebola-epidemic-in-west-africa
#2
Jantien A Backer, Jacco Wallinga
In 2014-2016, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa experienced the largest and longest Ebola epidemic since the discovery of the virus in 1976. During the epidemic, incidence data were collected and published at increasing resolution. To monitor the epidemic as it spread within and between districts, we develop an analysis method that exploits the full spatiotemporal resolution of the data by combining a local model for time-varying effective reproduction numbers with a gravity-type model for spatial dispersion of the infection...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930540/invasive-bacterial-infections-in-gambians-with-sickle-cell-anemia-in-an-era-of-widespread-pneumococcal-and-hemophilus-influenzae-type-b-vaccination
#3
Germander Soothill, Saffiatou Darboe, Gibril Bah, Lawal Bolarinde, Aubrey Cunnington, Suzanne T Anderson
There is relatively little data on the etiology of bacterial infections in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in West Africa, and no data from countries that have implemented conjugate vaccines against both Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).We conducted a retrospective analysis of SCA patients admitted to the Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia, during a 5-year period when there was high coverage of Hib and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. We evaluated 161 admissions of 126 patients between April 2010 and April 2015...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928086/barriers-to-linkage-to-care-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-qualitative-analysis-in-burkina-faso-west-africa
#4
Tamara Giles-Vernick, Fabienne Hejoaka, Armande Sanou, Yusuke Shimakawa, Issiaka Bamba, Abdoulaye Traoré
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a critical global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently developed a global elimination strategy for HBV infection. Increasing access to screening, liver assessment, and antiviral treatment are crucial steps in achieving this goal. Little is known, however, about obstacles to linkage to care in low- and middle-income countries. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study sought to characterize the diagnostic itineraries of people with chronic HBV infection in Burkina Faso, a west African country with high HBV prevalence, to identify barriers to linkage from screening to specialist care with hepatic assessment (alanine transaminase and hepatitis B e antigen or HBV DNA)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926927/male-circumcision-and-the-epidemic-emergence-of-hiv-2-in-west-africa
#5
João Dinis Sousa, Marina Padrão Temudo, Barry Stephen Hewlett, Ricardo Jorge Camacho, Viktor Müller, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
BACKGROUND: Epidemic HIV-2 (groups A and B) emerged in humans circa 1930-40. Its closest ancestors are SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys from southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. The earliest large-scale serological surveys of HIV-2 in West Africa (1985-91) show a patchy spread. Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau had the highest prevalence rates by then, and phylogeographical analysis suggests they were the earliest epicenters. Wars and parenteral transmission have been hypothesized to have promoted HIV-2 spread...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926917/implementation-of-syndromic-surveillance-systems-in-two-rural-villages-in-senegal
#6
Cédric Abat, Philippe Colson, Hervé Chaudet, Jean-Marc Rolain, Hubert Bassene, Aldiouma Diallo, Oleg Mediannikov, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Cheikh Sokhna
Infectious diseases still represent a major challenge for humanity. In this context, their surveillance is critical. From 2010 to 2016, two Point-Of-Care (POC) laboratories have been successfully implemented in the rural Saloum region of Senegal. In parallel, a homemade syndromic surveillance system called EPIMIC was implemented to monitor infectious diseases using data produced by the POC laboratory of the Timone hospital in Marseille, France. The aim of this study is to describe the steps necessary for implementing EPIMIC using data routinely produced by two POC laboratories (POC-L) established in rural Senegal villages...
December 7, 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925844/a-two-dose-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-eliciting-sustained-immune-responses-to-ebola-zaire-could-support-a-preventive-strategy-for-future-outbreaks
#7
Georgi Shukarev, Benoit Callendret, Kerstin Luhn, Macaya Douoguih, The Ebovac Consortium
The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination programme for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921381/cost-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-west-africa
#8
Sheila Isanaka, Nicolas A Menzies, Jessica Sayyad, Mudasiru Ayoola, Rebecca F Grais, Stéphane Doyon
We present an updated cost analysis to provide new estimates of the cost of providing community-based treatment for severe acute malnutrition, including expenditure shares for major cost categories. We calculated total and per child costs from a provider perspective. We categorized costs into three main activities (outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and management/administration) and four cost categories within each activity (personnel; therapeutic food; medical supplies; and infrastructure and logistical support)...
December 5, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920169/chikungunya-its-history-in-africa-and-asia-and-its-spread-to-new-regions-in-2013-2014
#9
Herve Zeller, Wim Van Bortel, Bertrand Sudre
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. There are 3 circulating CHIKV genotypes, Asia, East/Central/South Africa, and West Africa. CHIKV was first reported in 1953 in Tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of CHIKV were mainly reported in Africa and Asia. However, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from Kenya over to the southwestern Indian Ocean region, India, and Southeast Asia...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917973/institutional-development-from-legal-pluralism-to-institutional-bricolage-in-west-african-pastoralism
#10
G Fokou, B Bonfoh
Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917963/mobile-pastoralists-in-central-and-west-africa-between-conflict-mobile-telephony-and-im-mobility
#11
M De Bruijn, A Amadou, E Lewa Doksala, B Sangaré
The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917961/trends-in-health-surveillance-and-joint-service-delivery-for-pastoralists-in-west-and-central-africa
#12
M F Abakar, E Schelling, M Béchir, B N Ngandolo, K Pfister, I O Alfaroukh, H M Hassane, J Zinsstag
In most sub-Saharan African countries, pastoralism represents an important economic resource and contributes significantly to national growth; however, challenges remain, particularly in providing social services to pastoralists (especially health and education) and in avoiding conflict with local sedentary communities and local authorities. All of this takes place while pastoralists try to maintain their mobile lifestyle within a rapidly changing ecosystem. Transdisciplinary approaches, such as 'One Health', which covers both human and animal health, have proven effective in delivering services and reaching mobile pastoralists in remote areas...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#13
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917201/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections-among-school-children-in-capital-areas-of-the-democratic-republic-of-s%C3%A3-o-tom%C3%A3-and-pr%C3%A3-ncipe-west-africa
#14
Chien-Wei Liao, Chung-Jung Fu, Cheng-Yan Kao, Yueh-Lun Lee, Po-Ching Chen, Ting-Wu Chuang, Toshio Naito, Chia-Mei Chou, Ying-Chie Huang, Idalina Bonfim, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND: Although the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) has undertaken school children-based deworming programs against intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) using a single dose of mebendazole annually since 2005, it remains unclear as to the outcome to date. The present study intends to investigate the recent IPIs status among school children living in capital areas of the DRSTP. METHODS: A total of 252 school children (121 boys and 131 girls) of grades 4 and 5 from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas participated in the present study and their fresh fecal specimens were examined for the presence of any parasites using the merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method as conducted...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914832/ophthalmic-manifestations-and-causes-of-vision-impairment-in-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-in-monrovia-liberia
#15
Jessica G Shantha, Ian Crozier, Brent R Hayek, Beau B Bruce, Catherine Gargu, Jerry Brown, John Fankhauser, Steven Yeh
PURPOSE: To describe the ocular findings, visual impairment, and association of structural complications of uveitis with visual impairment in a cohort of survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Monrovia, Liberia. DESIGN: Retrospective, uncontrolled, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Survivors of EVD who were evaluated in an ophthalmology clinic at Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. METHODS: A cohort of EVD survivors who underwent baseline ophthalmic evaluation at ELWA Hospital were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, length of Ebola treatment unit (ETU) stay, visual acuity (VA), and ophthalmic examination findings...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914203/multiple-processes-drive-genetic-structure-of-humpback-whale-megaptera-novaeangliae-populations-across-spatial-scales
#16
Francine Kershaw, Inês Carvalho, Jacqueline Loo, Cristina Pomilla, Peter B Best, Ken P Findlay, Salvatore Cerchio, Tim Collins, Marcia H Engel, Gianna Minton, Peter Ersts, Jaco Barendse, P G H Kotze, Yvette Razafindrakoto, Solange Ngouessono, Michael Meÿer, Meredith Thorton, Howard C Rosenbaum
Elucidating patterns of population structure for species with complex life histories, and disentangling the processes driving such patterns, remains a significant analytical challenge. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations display complex genetic structures that have not been fully resolved at all spatial scales. We generated a data set of nuclear markers for 3,575 samples spanning the seven breeding stocks and substocks found in the South Atlantic and western and northern Indian Oceans. For the total sample, and males and females separately, we assessed genetic diversity, tested for genetic differentiation between putative populations and isolation by distance, estimated the number of genetic clusters without a priori population information, and estimated rates of gene flow using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912126/evaluation-of-the-inactivation-effect-of-triton-x-100-on-ebola-virus-infectivity
#17
Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Daniele Lapa, Silvia Meschi, Antonella Vulcano, Antonietta Toffoletti, Eugenio Bordi, Maria Grazia Paglia, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Concetta Castilletti
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in West Africa since December 2013 highlighted the need of appropriate virus inactivation procedures to be set up to allow the necessary processing of specimens outside BSL-4 facilities and to perform laboratory tests without affecting clinical decisions. For this purpose, international guidelines suggest the pre-treatment of the samples with Triton X-100. OBJECTIVES: Due to the limited scientific evidence about the efficacy of Triton X-100 on enveloped-viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Triton X-100 on the virus infectivity and to establish the optimal conditions for its use...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910909/the-disinfection-characteristics-of-ebola-virus-outbreak-variants
#18
Bradley W M Cook, Todd A Cutts, Aidan M Nikiforuk, Anders Leung, Darwyn Kobasa, Steven S Theriault
The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has forced experts to re-evaluate their understanding of how to best disinfect areas contaminated with infectious bodily fluids. Recent research has found that Ebola virus remains viable in blood for 7-10 days making appropriate disinfection crucial to infection control. We sought to determine if the three most important outbreak variants of Zaire ebolavirus (Mayinga, Kikwit and Makona) exhibit separate phenotypes when challenged with a range of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentrations or 70% ethanol (EtOH) at average West African temperature...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910805/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#19
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
December 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909582/ebola-research-funding-a-systematic-analysis-1997-2015
#20
Joseph Ra Fitchett, Amos Lichtman, Damilola T Soyode, Ariel Low, Jimena Villar de Onis, Michael G Head, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. METHODS: We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
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