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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#1
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212875/genotyping-by-sequencing-provides-the-first-well-resolved-phylogeny-for-coffee-coffea-and-insights-into-the-evolution-of-caffeine-content-in-its-species-gbs-coffee-phylogeny-and-the-evolution-of-caffeine-content
#2
Perla Hamon, Corrinne E Grover, Aaron P Davis, Jean-Jacques Rakotomalala, Nathalie E Raharimalala, Victor A Albert, Hosahalli L Sreenath, Piet Stoffelen, Sharon E Mitchell, Emmanuel Couturon, Serge Hamon, Alexandre de Kochko, Dominique Crouzillat, Michel Rigoreau, Ucu Sumirat, Sélastique Akaffou, Romain Guyot
A comprehensive and meaningful phylogenetic hypothesis for the commercially important coffee genus (Coffea) has long been a key objective for coffee researchers. For molecular studies, progress has been limited by low levels of sequence divergence, leading to insufficient topological resolution and statistical support in phylogenetic trees, particularly for the major lineages and for the numerous species occurring in Madagascar. We report here the first almost fully resolved, broadly sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for coffee, the result of combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology with a newly developed, lab-based workflow to integrate short read next-generation sequencing for low numbers of additional samples...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#3
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211461/a-xandarellid-artiopodan-from-morocco-a-middle-cambrian-link-between-soft-bodied-euarthropod-communities-in-north-africa-and-south-china
#4
Javier Ortega-Hernández, Abdelfattah Azizi, Thomas W Hearing, Thomas H P Harvey, Gregory D Edgecombe, Ahmid Hafid, Khadija El Hariri
Xandarellida is a well-defined clade of Lower Palaeozoic non-biomineralized artiopodans that is exclusively known from the early Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang biota of South China. Here we describe a new member of this group, Xandarella mauretanica sp. nov., from the middle Cambrian (Stage 5) Tatelt Formation of Morocco, making this the first non-trilobite Cambrian euarthropod known from North Africa. X. mauretanica sp. nov. represents the youngest occurrence of Xandarellida - extending its stratigraphic range by approximately 10 million years - and expands the palaeobiogeographic distribution of the group to the high southern palaeolatitudes of West Gondwana...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208885/study-on-distribution-of-scorpions-to-provide-prevention-and-interventions-in-combating-scorpionism-in-poldokhtar-county-lorestan-province-iran
#5
Mansour Nazari, Rastgar Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Scorpions are arthropods of medical importance classified in the class Arachnida, inhabiting hot and dry environments. All scorpions have a venomous sting and several thousand people die each year from scorpion stings, but this mortality is due to the venom of about 25 species located in northern Africa, the Middle East, India, Mexico and parts of South America. Poldokhtar County belongs to one of the southern cities of Lorestan Province, providing suitable habitats for many different species of scorpions due to its specific climatic conditions...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208277/ultrasensitive-ebola-virus-detection-based-on-electroluminescent-nanospheres-and-immunomagnetic-separation
#6
Zhen Wu, Jiao Hu, Tao Zeng, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Jianjun Chen, Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Yuhai Bi, Dai-Wen Pang
The 2014-16 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa has attracted widespread concern. Rapid and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Here, we propose a novel method for EBOV detection based on efficient amplification of electroluminescent nanospheres (ENs) coupled with immunomagnetic separation. Uniform ENs are made by embedding abundant amounts of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) into copolymer nanospheres through simple ultrasound. Compared to QDs, ENs can enhance electroluminescence (ECL) signals by approximately 85-fold, achieving a signal-to-background ratio high enough for EBOV detection...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205617/an-empirical-analysis-of-the-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa
#7
Abdul Khaleque, Parongama Sen
The data for the Ebola outbreak that occurred in 2014-2016 in three countries of West Africa are analysed within a common framework. The analysis is made using the results of an agent based Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model on a Euclidean network, where nodes at a distance l are connected with probability P(l) ∝ l(-δ), δ determining the range of the interaction, in addition to nearest neighbors. The cumulative (total) density of infected population here has the form , where the parameters depend on δ and the infection probability q...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205221/bight-of-benin-a-maternal-perspective-of-four-beninese-populations-and-their-genetic-implications-on-the-american-populations-of-african-ancestry
#8
Giuseppina Primativo, Claudio Ottoni, Gianfranco Biondi, Sara Serafino, Cristina Martínez-Labarga, Maarten H D Larmuseau, Michele Scardi, Ronny Decorte, Olga Rickards
The understanding of the first movements of the ancestral populations within the African continent is still unclear, particularly in West Africa, due to several factors that have shaped the African genetic pool across time. To improve the genetic representativeness of the Beninese population and to better understand the patterns of human settlement inside West Africa and the dynamics of peopling of the Democratic Republic of Benin, we analyzed the maternal genetic variation of 193 Beninese individuals belonging to Bariba, Berba, Dendi, and Fon populations...
March 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203645/saharan-dust-detection-using-multi-sensor-satellite-measurements
#9
Sriharsha Madhavan, John J Qu, X Hao
Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202101/berber-genealogy-and-the-politics-of-prehistoric-archaeology-and-craniology-in-french-algeria-1860s-1880s
#10
Bonnie Effros
Following the conquest of Algiers and its surrounding territory by the French army in 1830, officers noted an abundance of standing stones in this region of North Africa. Although they attracted considerably less attention among their cohort than more familiar Roman monuments such as triumphal arches and bridges, these prehistoric remains were similar to formations found in Brittany and other parts of France. The first effort to document these remains occurred in 1863, when Laurent-Charles Féraud, a French army interpreter, recorded thousands of dolmens and stone formations south-west of Constantine...
February 16, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199720/avoiding-a-massive-spin-off-effect-in-west-africa-and-beyond-the-tobacco-industry-stymies-tobacco-control-in-nigeria
#11
Catherine O Egbe, Stella A Bialous, Stanton A Glantz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198788/high-rates-of-baseline-drug-resistance-and-virologic-failure-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-children-in-mali
#12
Claudia S Crowell, Almoustapha I Maiga, Mariam Sylla, Babafemi Taiwo, Niaboula Kone, Assaf P Oron, Robert L Murphy, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Ban Traore, Djeneba B Fofana, Gilles Peytavin, Ellen G Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on drug resistance and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in HIV-1 infected children in West Africa. We determined the prevalence of baseline resistance and correlates of virologic failure (VF) in a cohort of ART naïve HIV-1 infected children <10 years of age initiating ART in Mali. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase and protease genes were sequenced at baseline (before ART) and at 6 months. Resistance was defined according to the Stanford HIV Genotypic Resistance database...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198655/study-of-an-educational-hand-sorting-intervention-for-reducing-aflatoxin-b1-in-groundnuts-in-rural-gambia
#13
Y A Xu, Andrew Doel, Sinead Watson, Michael N Routledge, Christopher T Elliott, Sophie E Moore, Yun Yun Gong
Aflatoxin, a human liver carcinogen, frequently contaminates groundnuts, maize, rice, and other grains, especially in Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention that involved training rural Gambian women on how to identify and remove moldy groundnuts to reduce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination. In total, 25 women, recruited from the West Kiang region of The Gambia, were trained on how to recognize and remove moldy groundnuts. Market-purchased groundnuts were hand sorted by the women...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197401/lack-of-cultural-competency-in-international-aid-responses-the-ebola-outbreak-in-liberia
#14
Hannah Grace Southall, Sarah E DeYoung, Curt Andrew Harris
A cornerstone of effective disaster management is that response should always begin and end at the local level (1). The response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia, West Africa, was a combination of independent efforts by many nations and organizations. Many of these independent efforts ignored or were not able to work with the local levels of emergency management in Liberia. This oversight occurred because of the Liberian's mistrust of both their government and foreign aid groups, as well as the lack of cultural competency demonstrated by the aid groups...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197154/cowpea-and-groundnut-haulms-fodder-trading-and-its-lessons-for-multidimensional-cowpea-improvement-for-mixed-crop-livestock-systems-in-west-africa
#15
Anandan Samireddypalle, Ousmane Boukar, Elaine Grings, Christian A Fatokun, Prasad Kodukula, Ravi Devulapalli, Iheanacho Okike, Michael Blümmel
Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196630/preterm-birth-associated-with-maternal-fine-particulate-matter-exposure-a-global-regional-and-national-assessment
#16
Christopher S Malley, Johan C I Kuylenstierna, Harry W Vallack, Daven K Henze, Hannah Blencowe, Mike R Ashmore
Reduction of preterm births (<37 completed weeks of gestation) would substantially reduce neonatal and infant mortality, and deleterious health effects in survivors. Maternal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been identified as a possible risk factor contributing to preterm birth. The aim of this study was to produce the first estimates of ambient PM2.5-associated preterm births for 183 individual countries and globally. To do this, national, population-weighted, annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration, preterm birth rate and number of livebirths were combined to calculate the number of PM2...
February 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196496/molecular-evidence-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-in-duffy-negative-symptomatic-individuals-from-dschang-west-cameroon
#17
Gianluca Russo, Giovanni Faggioni, Giacomo Maria Paganotti, Ghyslaine Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Alice Pomponi, Riccardo De Santis, Gianpiero Tebano, Mpoame Mbida, Martin Sanou Sobze, Vincenzo Vullo, Giovanni Rezza, Florigio Romano Lista
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infection is known to be rare in West/Central Africa, the most accepted explanation being the lack of expression of erythroid Duffy antigen in the local human populations. Duffy negativity prevents the parasite to exploit the entry mechanism on the red blood cell surface. However, there are a growing number of reported vivax infections in Duffy-negative individuals. Data on P. vivax circulation in Cameroon are limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate the P...
February 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195145/the-nexus-between-forest-fragmentation-in-africa-and-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks
#18
Maria Cristina Rulli, Monia Santini, David T S Hayman, Paolo D'Odorico
Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004-2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193880/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-superspreading-events-in-the-2014-2015-west-africa-ebola-epidemic
#19
Max S Y Lau, Benjamin Douglas Dalziel, Sebastian Funk, Amanda McClelland, Amanda Tiffany, Steven Riley, C Jessica E Metcalf, Bryan T Grenfell
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola outbreak in Western Africa (2014-2015) has prompted an explosion of efforts to understand the transmission dynamics of the virus and to analyze the performance of possible containment strategies. Models have focused primarily on the reproductive numbers of the disease that represent the average number of secondary infections produced by a random infectious individual. However, these population-level estimates may conflate important systematic variation in the number of cases generated by infected individuals, particularly found in spatially localized transmission and superspreading events...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192745/accepted-monitoring-or-endured-quarantine-ebola-contacts-perceptions-in-senegal
#20
Alice Desclaux, Dioumel Badji, Albert Gautier Ndione, Khoudia Sow
During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level...
February 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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