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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731210/ecological-guild-and-enzyme-activities-of-rhizosphere-soil-microbial-communities-associated-with-bt-maize-cultivation-under-field-conditions-in-north-west-province-of-south-africa
#1
Deidré A B van Wyk, Rasheed Adeleke, Owen H J Rhode, Carlos C Bezuidenhout, Charlotte Mienie
Insecticidal proteins expressed by genetically modified Bt maize may alter the enzymatic and microbial communities associated with rhizosphere soil. This study investigated the structure and enzymatic activity of rhizosphere soil microbial communities associated with field grown Bt and non-Bt maize. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from Bt and non-Bt fields under dryland and irrigated conditions. Samples were subjected to chemical tests, enzyme analyses, and next generation sequencing. Results showed that nitrate and phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher in non-Bt maize dryland soils, while organic carbon was significantly higher in non-Bt maize irrigated field soil...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730067/practices-and-discourses-of-ubuntu-implications-for-an-african-model-of-disability
#2
Maria Berghs
BACKGROUND: Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. OBJECTIVES: Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. METHOD: Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#3
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726603/clinical-laboratory-values-as-early-indicators-of-ebola-virus-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Ronald B Reisler, Chenggang Yu, Michael J Donofrio, Travis K Warren, Jay B Wells, Kelly S Stuthman, Nicole L Garza, Sean A Vantongeren, Ginger C Donnelly, Christopher D Kane, Mark G Kortepeter, Sina Bavari, Anthony P Cardile
The Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa during 2013-2016 demonstrated the need to improve Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnostics and standards of care. This retrospective study compared laboratory values and clinical features of 3 nonhuman primate models of lethal EVD to assess associations with improved survival time. In addition, the study identified laboratory values useful as predictors of survival, surrogates for EBOV viral loads, and triggers for initiation of therapeutic interventions in these nonhuman primate models...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726467/the-importance-of-the-neighborhood-in-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-the-united-states-distress-worry-and-functioning
#5
Rupa Jose, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
OBJECTIVE: Ebola media coverage directed public attention to potential disease carriers: residents or travelers from West Africa. We investigated the role of neighborhood population factors (i.e., the concentration of West African foreigners, non-West African foreigners, non-Hispanic Blacks) on individual responses to the Ebola outbreak in the United States. The role of these community-level factors in emotional responses to this public health crisis is poorly understood. METHOD: Demographic factors, mental health, and stressful event history, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of residents from 2 metropolitan communities (New York City and Boston, total N = 1,346), were combined with neighborhood data from the U...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725019/high-dose-sertraline-monotherapy-fails-to-protect-rhesus-macaques-from-lethal-challenge-with-ebola-virus-makona
#6
Anna N Honko, Joshua C Johnson, Jonathan S Marchand, Louis Huzella, Ricky D Adams, Nicholas Oberlander, Lisa M Torzewski, Richard S Bennett, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Gene G Olinger
The recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa resulted in an unprecedented number of cases and deaths. Due to the scope of the outbreak combined with the lack of available approved treatment options, there was strong motivation to investigate any potential drug which had existing data reporting anti-Ebola activity. Drugs with demonstrated antiviral activity in the nonhuman primate models already approved for another indication or for which there was existing safety data were considered to be priorities for evaluation by the World Health Organization...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723945/haematological-and-cd4-t-cells-reference-ranges-in-healthy-adult-populations-in-gojjam-zones-in-amhara-region-ethiopia
#7
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Zewdie Mekonnen, Yesuf Adem, Mulat Yimer, Yohannes Zenebe, Asmare Amuamuta, Wondimu Gebeyehu
INTRODUCTION: Establishing national population haematological and immunological reference ranges are essential for clinical management of patients. However, there is scarcity of information on community based haematological reference ranges established from Ethiopian population. Therefore, this study aimed at determining haematological and CD4+ T cells reference ranges in healthy adults from East and West Gojjam zones, Ethiopia. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to December 2015 in healthy adult residents of Gojjam zone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723941/heat-treatment-as-a-universal-technical-solution-for-silcrete-use-a-comparison-between-silcrete-from-the-western-cape-south-africa-and-the-kalahari-botswana
#8
Patrick Schmidt, David J Nash, Sheila Coulson, Matthias B Göden, Graeme J Awcock
Heat treatment was one of the first transformative technologies in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA), with many studies in the Cape coastal zone of South Africa identifying it as an essential step in the preparation of silcrete prior to its use in stone tool manufacture. To date, however, no studies have investigated whether heat treatment is necessary for all silcrete types, and how geographically widespread heat treatment was in the subcontinent. The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally whether heat treatment continued further north into the Kalahari Desert of Botswana and northernmost South Africa, the closest area with major silcrete outcrops to the Cape...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723900/the-natural-history-of-acute-ebola-virus-disease-among-patients-managed-in-five-ebola-treatment-units-in-west-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Kelly Skrable, Reshma Roshania, Michaela Mallow, Vanessa Wolfman, Matthew Siakor, Adam C Levine
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have focused on clinical symptoms and Ebola virus (EBOV) cycle threshold (CT) values recorded at patient triage. Our study explores EVD symptoms and EBOV CT values from onset of illness to recovery or death in a diverse population of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed clinical care data from EBOV positive patients admitted to five Ebola treatment units in West Africa from 2014-2015. Prevalence of clinical signs/symptoms and CT values were explored using descriptive statistics...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722621/health-care-access-during-the-ebola-virus-epidemic-in-liberia
#10
Patricia A McQuilkin, Kanagasabai Udhayashankar, Michelle Niescierenko, Louise Maranda
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic, which began in West Africa in December 2013, claimed more than 11,000 lives, with more than 4,800 of these deaths occurring in Liberia. The epidemic had an additional effect of paralyzing the health-care systems in affected countries, which led to even greater mortality and morbidity. Little is known about the impact that the epidemic had on the provision of basic health care. During the period from March to May 2015, we undertook a nationwide, community-based survey to learn more about health-care access during the EVD epidemic in Liberia...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722587/lack-of-geospatial-population-structure-yet-significant-linkage-disequilibrium-in-the-reservoir-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-bongo-district-ghana
#11
Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Kathryn E Tiedje, Mary M Rorick, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Abraham Oduro, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Malaria control in West Africa is impeded by the large reservoir of chronic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in the human population. This study aimed to assess the extent of diversity in the P. falciparum reservoir in Bongo District (BD), Ghana, at the end of the dry season, the lowest point in malaria transmission over the course of the year. Analysis of the variation in 12 microsatellite loci was completed for 200 P. falciparum isolates collected from a cross-sectional survey of residents of all ages from two catchment areas in BD...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722561/the-quality-of-free-antenatal-and-delivery-services-in-northern-sierra-leone
#12
Manso M Koroma, Samuel S Kamara, Evelyn A Bangura, Mohamed A Kamara, Virgil Lokossou, Namoudou Keita
BACKGROUND: The number of maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be overwhelmingly high. In West Africa, Sierra Leone leads the list, with the highest maternal mortality ratio. In 2010, financial barriers were removed as an incentive for more women to use available antenatal, delivery and postnatal services. Few published studies have examined the quality of free antenatal services and access to emergency obstetric care in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in all 97 peripheral health facilities and three hospitals in Bombali District, Northern Region...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722559/free-versus-subsidised-healthcare-options-for-fee-exemptions-access-to-care-for-vulnerable-groups-and-effects-on-the-health-system-in-burkina-faso
#13
Maurice Yaogo
BACKGROUND: The many forms of healthcare fee exemptions implemented in Burkina Faso since the 2000s have varied between total exemption (free) and cost subsidisation. This article examines both options, their contextual variations and the ways in which they affect access to healthcare for vulnerable people as well as the operation of the health system. This research is part of an interdisciplinary regional program on the elimination of user fees for health services in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger)...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722556/spanning-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-mnch-and-health-systems-research-boundaries-conducive-and-limiting-health-systems-factors-to-improving-mnch-outcomes-in-west-africa
#14
Irene Akua Agyepong, Aku Kwamie, Edith Frimpong, Selina Defor, Abdallah Ibrahim, Genevieve C Aryeetey, Virgil Lokossou, Issiaka Sombie
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements over time, West Africa lags behind global as well as sub-Saharan averages in its maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. This is despite the availability of an increasing body of knowledge on interventions that improve such outcomes. Beyond our knowledge of what interventions work, insights are needed on others factors that facilitate or inhibit MNCH outcome improvement. This study aimed to explore health system factors conducive or limiting to MNCH policy and programme implementation and outcomes in West Africa, and how and why they work in context...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722555/understanding-the-state-of-health-policy-and-systems-research-in-west-africa-and-capacity-strengthening-needs-scoping-of-peer-reviewed-publications-trends-and-patterns-1990-2015
#15
Selina Defor, Aku Kwamie, Irene Akua Agyepong
BACKGROUND: The need for locally-driven, locally-generated evidence to guide health policy and systems decision-making and implementation in West Africa remains urgent. Thus, health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a field with great potential for addressing many of the sub-region's intransigent health challenges. This paper presents an analysis of trends and patterns of peer-reviewed HPSR publications across the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), to help understand trends and patterns of HPSR publication and the degree of involvement of West African researchers in HPSR evidence generation in the sub-region...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722552/evaluation-of-regional-project-to-strengthen-national-health-research-systems-in-four-countries-in-west-africa-lessons-learned
#16
Issiaka Sombié, Jude Aidam, Gabriela Montorzi
BACKGROUND: Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. METHODS: The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722551/promoting-research-to-improve-maternal-neonatal-infant-and-adolescent-health-in-west-africa-the-role-of-the-west-african-health-organisation
#17
Issiaka Sombie, Aissa Bouwayé, Yves Mongbo, Namoudou Keita, Virgil Lokossou, Ermel Johnson, Laurent Assogba, Xavier Crespin
West Africa has adopted numerous strategies to counter maternal and infant mortality, provides national maternal and infant health programmes, and hosts many active technical and financial partners and non-governmental organisations. Despite this, maternal and infant morbidity and mortality indicators are still very high. In this commentary, internal actors and officials of the West African Health Organisation (WAHO) examine the regional organisation's role in promoting research as a tool for strengthening maternal and infant health in West Africa...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722548/the-change-makers-of-west-africa
#18
EDITORIAL
Sue Godt, Sharmila Mhatre, Anne-Marie Schryer-Roy
West Africa was the focus of global attention during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, when systemic health system weaknesses compounded a serious emergency and complicated response efforts. Following the crisis, calls were made to strengthen health systems, but investments to date have fallen short of delivering the support needed to build strong health systems able to prevent and manage future outbreaks.In part, this reality serves to highlight the shortcomings of the solutions being repeatedly prioritised by external funders and experts, solutions that often fail to consider the wealth of West African evidence and actors actively working to strengthen the leadership and health systems needed to drive and sustainably improve national health outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721471/evaluations-of-interventions-using-mathematical-models-with-exponential-and-non-exponential-distributions-for-disease-stages-the-case-of-ebola
#19
Xiaojing Wang, Yangyang Shi, Zhilan Feng, Jingan Cui
Many mathematical models for the disease transmission dynamics of Ebola have been developed and studied, particularly during and after the 2014 outbreak in West Africa. Most of these models are systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). One of the common assumptions made in these ODE models is that the duration of disease stages, such as latent and infectious periods, follows an exponential distribution. Gamma distributions have also been used in some of these models. It has been demonstrated that, when the models are used to evaluate disease control strategies such as quarantine or isolation, the models with exponential and Gamma distribution assumptions may generate contradictory results (Feng et al...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721176/from-one-to-the-other-responding-to-ebola-cases-on-either-side-of-the-line
#20
Rebecca Day Merrill, Sadie Elizabeth Ward, Marydale Cauble Oppert, Dana Allison Schneider
This case study is adapted from events that occurred along the Sierra Leone and Guinea land border during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. The response activities involved Sierra Leone and Guinea officials, along with assistance from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). This case study builds upon an understanding of basic surveillance systems and outbreak response activities. Through this exercise, students will understand how to incorporate communication and coordination into surveillance and response efforts with counterparts across the border in neighbouring countries...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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