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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667580/severe-asthma-phenotypes-classified-by-site-of-airway-involvement-and-remodeling-via-chest-ct-scan
#1
S Kim, K Nam Jin, S H Cho, C Hyun Lee, H R Kang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish a system that can classify severe asthma on the basis of airway remodeling patterns visualized by computed tomography (CT) images and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of individual image-based subtypes. METHODS: Chest CT images of severe asthma patients were retrospectively evaluated to classify phenotypes by site of airway involvement and remodeling. The association between radiologic subtypes and clinical characteristics was assessed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660253/airway-stenting-for-patients-with-airway-stenosis-due-to-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Masahide Oki, Hideo Saka
BACKGROUND: Airway stenting has been reported to be useful for patients with malignant airway stenosis as a bridge to tumor-specific therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, as well as palliative therapy. However, its role in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive lung cancer subtype, is unclear. We investigated the efficacy of airway stenting for patients with airway stenosis resulting from SCLC. METHODS: All stenting procedures were performed using both rigid and flexible bronchoscopes under general anesthesia...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660251/the-association-of-nasal-patency-with-small-airway-resistance-in-children-with-allergic-and-nonallergic-rhinitis
#3
Joo Young Song, Eun Kyo Ha, Yoon Ho Sheen, Mi-Ae Kim, Seung Won Lee, Jung Won Yoon, Seung Jin Lee, Young-Ho Jung, Kyung Suk Lee, Jae-Cheul Ahn, Hye Mi Jee, Man Yong Han
INTRODUCTION: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is immunologically and morphologically related to disorders in the lower airway. We investigated the relationship between the anatomy of the intranasal cavity and small airway resistance in subjects with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR). METHODS: We enrolled 226 children who were 7 years old and participated in the Seongnam Atopy Project 2016. We evaluated nasal patency using acoustic rhinometry to measure the volume of the nasal cavity at 0 to 5 cm, and measured lung function of the lower airway using an impulse oscillometry system (IOS) and spirometry...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659421/air-splinting-maneuver-during-flexible-bronchoscopy-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Rahul Magazine, Bharti Chogtu
BACKGROUND: Magazine's maneuver was developed for ease of insertion of the flexible bronchoscope, on encountering a closed lumen at the nasopharynx-oropharynx junction. The purposes of this study were to find the frequency of occurrence of such luminal closures and to compare the efficacy of Magazine's maneuver, with other variations of the maneuver, in improving visualization of the upper airway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients aged 18 years and above who were undergoing flexible bronchoscopy were included, and their demographic and clinical data were noted...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652758/is-inspiratory-muscle-weakness-a-determinant-of-endurance-exercise-tolerance-during-niv-supported-exercise-in-patients-with-copd
#5
Rodrigo Koch, Gabriel Victor Guimarães Rapello, Paulo de Tarso Müller
PURPOSE: Previous research has reported that inspiratory muscle weakness is critical to decreased exercise tolerance and exercise tolerance improves with 10 cmH2O pressure support ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of proportional assist ventilation (PAV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with sham on exercise tolerance in patients with and without inspiratory muscle weakness...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652577/lung-cancers-associated-with-cystic-airspaces-underrecognized-features-of-early-disease
#6
Sarah Sheard, Joanna Moser, Charlie Sayer, Konstantinos Stefanidis, Anand Devaraj, Ioannis Vlahos
Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650006/beclomethasone-dipropionate-and-formoterol-fumarate-synergistically-interact-in-hyperresponsive-medium-bronchi-and-small-airways
#7
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Francesco Facciolo, Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids increase the expression of β2 -adrenoceptors (β2 -ARs) and protect them against down-regulation. Conversely, β2 -AR agonists improve the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain whether adding a long-acting β2 -AR agonist (LABA) to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) results in an additive effect, or there is true synergy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to pharmacologically characterize the interaction between the ICS beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) and the LABA formoterol fumarate (FF) in a validated human ex vivo model of bronchial asthma...
April 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649741/discovery-of-potent-and-selective-brd4-inhibitors-capable-of-blocking-tlr3-induced-acute-airway-inflammation
#8
Zhiqing Liu, Bing Tian, Haiying Chen, Pingyuan Wang, Allan R Brasier, Jia Zhou
A series of diverse small molecules have been designed and synthesized through structure-based drug design by taking advantage of fragment merging and elaboration approaches. Compounds ZL0420 (28) and ZL0454 (35) were identified as potent and selective BRD4 inhibitors with nanomolar binding affinities to bromodomains (BDs) of BRD4. Both of them can be well docked into the acetyl-lysine (KAc) binding pocket of BRD4, forming key interactions including the critical hydrogen bonds with Asn140 directly and Tyr97 indirectly via a H2 O molecule...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644902/interleukin-il-36-gamma-induces-mucin-5ac-oligomeric-mucus-gel-forming-expression-via-il-36-receptor-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-and-2-and-p38-nuclear-factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer-of-activated-b-cells-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#9
Chang Hoon Bae, Yoon Seok Choi, Hyung Gyun Na, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
BACKGROUND: Mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) expression is significantly increased in allergic and inflammatory airway diseases. Interleukin (IL) 36 gamma is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells and plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-36 gamma is induced by many inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and bacterial and viral infections. However, the association between IL-36 gamma and mucin secretion in human airway epithelial cells has not yet been fully investigated...
March 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627118/alveolar-and-bronchial-nitric-oxide-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-copd-overlap
#10
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete, Francisca Castellano Miñán, Pablo Santiago Díaz, Oliveiro Ruiz Rodríguez, Pedro J Romero Palacios
INTRODUCTION: Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO ) measurements differentiate COPD phenotypes from asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). To date, no study has been conducted to determine whether alveolar and bronchial components differ in this group of patients. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting ambulatory COPD patients. FENO was measured, differentiating alveolar (CANO ) from bronchial (JawNO ) components using a multiple-flow technique. CANO and JawNO values were compared between eosinophilic COPD patients (defined as ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in peripheral blood test, or ≥ 2% eosinophils or ≥ 3% eosinophils), and a linear regression analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological variables related to these measurements...
April 4, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626716/pharmacological-mechanisms-leading-to-synergy-in-fixed-dose-dual-bronchodilator-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
Long-acting β2 adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) can elicit functional and clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LABA/LAMA combinations synergistically relax human isolated airways at the level of the medium and small bronchi. LABAs and LAMAs both modulate the bronchial tone via different pathways localized at the level of presynaptic parasympathetic fibers and airway smooth muscle cells. The exact nature of the interactions between these pathways is not completely understood, but there is cross-talk at many levels in airway smooth muscle cells that is also regulated by the activity of calcium-activated potassium channels and protein tyrosine kinases...
April 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626633/serum-lipoproteins-are-not-associated-with-the-severity-of-asthma
#12
Federica Scaduto, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Alida Benfante, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo, Nicola Scichilone
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchi with a complicated and largely unknown pathogenesis. In this context, an emerging role is attributed to the apolipoproteins which serve as structural components of plasma lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be involved in the inflammatory pathways of the asthmatic airways; in particular, small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles were associated with increased oxidative susceptibility compared to medium and large sized LDL...
April 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620002/assessment-of-dermal-uptake-of-diphenylmethane-4-4-diisocyanate-using-tape-stripping-and-biological-monitoring
#13
Haneen Hamada, Ingrid Liljelind, Magnus Bruze, Malin Engfeldt, Marléne Isaksson, Bo Jönsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Christian Lindh, Sara Axelsson, Erik Zimerson
Very little is known about the dermal uptake of isocyanates, and dermal exposure to isocyanates has been discussed as a factor involved in the induction of respiratory diseases. To investigate the dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI). Four volunteers were dermally exposed to 10, 25, 49 and 50 mg 4,4'-MDI, respectively, for eight hours. The exposed areas were tape stripped. Urine and blood were biologically monitored for 48 hours. Tape strips, plasma, and urine were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619075/in-vitro-toxicological-evaluation-of-surgical-smoke-from-human-tissue
#14
Jennifer D Sisler, Justine Shaffer, Jhy-Charm Soo, Ryan F LeBouf, Martin Harper, Yong Qian, Taekhee Lee
Background: Operating room personnel have the potential to be exposed to surgical smoke, the by-product of using electrocautery or laser surgical device, on a daily basis. Surgical smoke is made up of both biological by-products and chemical pollutants that have been shown to cause eye, skin and pulmonary irritation. Methods: In this study, surgical smoke was collected in real time in cell culture media by using an electrocautery surgical device to cut and coagulate human breast tissues...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616282/a-large-lung-gene-expression-study-identifying-il1b-as-a-novel-player-in-airway-inflammation-in-copd-airway-epithelial-cells
#15
Gao Yi, Min Liang, Ming Li, Xiangming Fang, Jifang Liu, Yuxiong Lai, Jitao Chen, Wenxia Yao, Xiao Feng, La Hu, Chunyi Lin, Xinke Zhou, Zhaoyu Liu
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by a mixture of small airway disease and lung tissue parenchymal destruction. Abnormal inflammatory responses to cigarette smoking and other noxious particles are generally thought to be responsible for causing of COPD. Since airway inflammation is a key factor in COPD progress, it is crucial to unravel its underlying molecular mechanisms. Unbiased analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung small airway epithelial cells provides a powerful tool to investigate this...
April 3, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614507/renoprotective-postoperative-monitoring-what-is-the-best-method-for-computing-renal-perfusion-pressure-an-observational-prospective-multicentre-study
#16
Csaba Kopitko, Laszlo Medve, Tibor Gondos
BACKGROUND: Low mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a well-known risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), but probably it is not the sole hemodynamic parameter that can influence the development of renal failure. There are data in cardiac patients supporting the role of renal venous congestion in the development of AKI. The aim of our study was to determine a combination of factors best predicting the development of AKI. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for adult patients admitted after major abdominal surgery to 9 Hungarian intensive care units...
April 3, 2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611767/impulse-oscillometry-and-nitrogen-washout-test-in-the-assessment-of-small-airway-dysfunction-in-asthma-correlation-with-quantitative-computed-tomography
#17
Leonello Fuso, Giuseppe Macis, Carola Condoluci, Martina Sbarra, Chiara Contu, Emanuele G Conte, Giulia Angeletti, Paolo Montuschi
OBJECTIVE: Small airway dysfunction (SAD) and airway remodeling influence the disease control and progression in asthma. We investigated whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) and single breath nitrogen washout (SBN2 W) could be reliable tests in evaluating SAD and airway remodeling by correlating their data with radiological parameters derived from quantitative chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging. METHODS: Lung function tests were performed before and after bronchodilator...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609727/medical-cannabis-and-the-treatment-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-an-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-position-statement
#18
Kannan Ramar, Ilene M Rosen, Douglas B Kirsch, Ronald D Chervin, Kelly A Carden, R Nisha Aurora, David A Kristo, Raman K Malhotra, Jennifer L Martin, Eric J Olson, Carol L Rosen, James A Rowley
The diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is an urgent health priority. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the most effective treatment for OSA, although other treatment options continue to be explored. Limited evidence citing small pilot or proof of concept studies suggest that the synthetic medical cannabis extract dronabinol may improve respiratory stability and provide benefit to treat OSA. However, side effects such as somnolence related to treatment were reported in most patients, and the long-term effects on other sleep quality measures, tolerability, and safety are still unknown...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604272/resistin-upregulates-muc5ac-b-mucin-gene-expression-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#19
Soyoung Kwak, Yong-Dae Kim, Hyung Gyun Na, Chang Hoon Bae, Si-Youn Song, Yoon Seok Choi
Adipokines, a group of proteins including leptin, visfatin, resistin, and adiponectin, are produced by adipocytes. Among adipokines, resistin is implicated in insulin resistance and inflammatory response modulation. Mucus hypersecretion has been greatly linked to airway diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rhinosinusitis. Increasing evidence has indicated that adipokines, such as leptin and visfatin, play important regulatory roles in various biological processes involved in mucus secretion...
March 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599209/optimal-ventilator-strategies-for-trauma-related-ards
#20
REVIEW
Giles Goatly, N Guidozzi, M Khan
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described in the 1960s and has become a major area of research due to the mortality and morbidity associated with it. ARDS is currently defined using the Berlin Consensus; however, this is not wholly applicable for trauma-related ARDS. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses methodology. The Ovid Medline, Web of Science and PubMed online databases were interrogated for papers published between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2017...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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