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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035132/hybrid-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-sirna-development-and-fate-upon-in-vitro-deposition-on-the-human-epithelial-airway-barrier
#1
Ivana d'Angelo, Gabriella Costabile, Estelle Durantie, Paola Brocca, Valeria Rondelli, Annapina Russo, Giulia Russo, Agnese Miro, Fabiana Quaglia, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Francesca Ungaro
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. METHODS: A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032316/fiber-reinforced-silicone-for-tracheobronchial-stents-an-experimental-study
#2
Samanta Bianchi Vearick, Kétner Bendo Demétrio, Rogério Gastal Xavier, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, André Frotta Muller, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Luis Alberto Loureiro Dos Santos
A trachea is a tubular structure composed of smooth muscle that is reinforced with cartilage rings. Some diseases can cause sagging in smooth muscle and cartilaginous tissue. The end result is reduction (narrowing) of the trachea diameter. A solution to this problem is the use of tracheal stents, which are small tubular devices made of silicone. One is inserted into the trachea to prevent or correct its constriction. The purpose of tracheal stent use is to maintain cartilage support that would otherwise be lost in the airway...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#3
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Pa ) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita ® system or standard PARI-LC ® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028951/big-data-small-airways-big-problems
#4
M Aziz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026127/controlled-delivery-and-minimally-invasive-imaging-of-stem-cells-in-the-lung
#5
Jinho Kim, Brandon Guenthart, John D O'Neill, N Valerio Dorrello, Matthew Bacchetta, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Intratracheal delivery of stem cells into injured or diseased lungs can provide a variety of therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects for the treatment of acute lung injury and chronic lung disease. While the efficacy of this approach depends on delivering the proper cell dosage into the target region of the airway, tracking and analysis of the cells have been challenging, largely due to the limited understanding of cell transport and lack of suitable cell monitoring techniques. We report on the transport and deposition of intratracheally delivered stem cells as well as strategies to modulate the number of cells (e...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025711/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-have-opposing-roles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Tatt Jhong Haw, Malcolm R Starkey, Stelios Pavlidis, Michael Fricker, Anya L Arthurs, Prema Mono Nair, Gang Liu, Irwan Hanish, Richard Y Kim, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat, Ian M Adcock, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and death and imposes major socioeconomic burdens globally. It is a progressive and disabling condition that severely impairs breathing and lung function. There is a lack of effective treatments for COPD, which is a direct consequence of the poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in driving the pathogenesis of the disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are implicated in chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020926/a-comparison-of-the-use-of-propofol-alone-and-propofol-with-midazolam-for-pediatric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-sedation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
RyungA Kang, Young Hee Shin, Nam-Su Gil, Ki Yoon Kim, Hyean Yeo, Ji Seon Jeong
BACKGROUND: Pediatric MRI sedation performed by a variety of specialists such as sedationists and anesthesiologists commonly uses propofol, which has similar effects to an ideal sedative agent for maintaining deep sedation. However, when propofol is used, adverse airway events are relatively more common than when using other sedative agents. The concomitant administration of midazolam and propofol can reduce the dose of propofol needed for adequate sedation and might also reduce the frequency of airway obstruction without affecting the patient's recovery profile...
October 11, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984368/autogenic-drainage-for-airway-clearance-in-cystic-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Pamela McCormack, Paul Burnham, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Autogenic drainage is an airway clearance technique that was developed by Jean Chevaillier in 1967. The technique is characterised by breathing control using expiratory airflow to mobilise secretions from smaller to larger airways. Secretions are cleared independently by adjusting the depth and speed of respiration in a sequence of controlled breathing techniques during exhalation. The technique requires training, concentration and effort from the individual. It is important to systematically review the evidence demonstrating that autogenic drainage is an effective intervention for people with cystic fibrosis...
October 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978111/tbx2-subfamily-suppression-in-lung-cancer-pathogenesis-a-high-potential-marker-for-early-detection
#9
Athar A Khalil, Smruthy Sivakumar, Frances Anthony San Lucas, Tina McDowell, Wenhua Lang, Kazuhiro Tabata, Junya Fujimoto, Yasushi Yatabe, Avrum Spira, Paul Scheet, Georges Nemer, Humam Kadara
The TBX2 subfamily (TBXs 2, 3, 4 and 5) transactivates or represses genes involved in lung organogenesis. Yet TBX2 subfamily expression in pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common lung malignancy, remains elusive. We sought to probe the expression profile of the TBX2 subfamily in early phases of NSCLC. Expression of TBX2 subfamily was analyzed in datasets of pan-normal specimens as well as NSCLCs and normal lung tissues. TBX2 subfamily expression in matched normal lungs, premalignant hyperplasias and NSCLCs was profiled by transcriptome sequencing...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974420/the-nuclear-receptor-and-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-regulates-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-inflammation
#10
Isaac K Sundar, Kahkashan Rashid, Michael T Sellix, Irfan Rahman
REV-ERBα is a nuclear heme receptor, transcriptional repressor and critical component of the molecular clock that drives daily rhythms of metabolism. Evidence reveals that REV-ERBα also plays an important regulatory role in clock-dependent lung physiology and inflammatory responses. We hypothesize that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure influences REV-ERBα abundance in the lungs, facilitating a pro-inflammatory phenotype. To determine the impact of REV-ERBα activation in the CS-induced inflammatory response we treated primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) with CS extract (CSE) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of pre-treatment with the REV-ERBα agonist GSK 4112...
September 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971976/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-of-late-lung-development-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#11
David Emanuel Surate Solaligue, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty
The objective of lung development is to generate an organ of gas exchange that provides both a thin gas diffusion barrier and a large gas diffusion surface area, which concomitantly generates a steep gas-diffusion concentration gradient. As such, the lung is perfectly structured to undertake the function of gas exchange: a large number of small alveoli provide extensive surface area within the limited volume of the lung, and a delicate alveolo-capillary barrier brings circulating blood into close proximity to the inspired air...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971000/successful-treatment-of-suspected-organizing-pneumonia-in-a-patient-without-typical-imaging-and-pathological-characteristic-a-case-report
#12
Liu Ailing, Xu Ning, Qu Tao, Li Aijun
INTRODUCTION: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by granulation tissue plugs in the lumen of small airways, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Diagnosis of OP needs the combination of clinical features, imaging and pathology. But it occurs often that there are no typical pathological features to support the diagnosis, which poses a challenge for clinicians' diagnosis and treatment. We diagnosed a case of OP without typical imaging and pathological characteristic and treated successfully...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962156/pilot-application-of-lipoxin-a4-analog-and-lipoxin-a4-receptor-agonist-in-asthmatic-children-with-acute-episodes
#13
Xia Kong, Sheng-Hua Wu, Li Zhang, Xiao-Qing Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) analogs blocked both airway hyper-responsiveness and pulmonary inflammation in a murine model of asthma. The present pilot study investigated the initial efficacy and safety of inhaled 5(S),6(R)-LXA4 methyl ester and BML-111, a LXA4 agonist, in the treatment of asthmatic children with acute episodes. A total of 50 asthmatic children diagnosed with acute moderate asthma were randomly assigned into groups and subjected to an inhalation challenge with pulmicort (n=10), ventolin (n=10), 5(S),6(R)-LXA4 methyl ester (n=10), BML-111 (n=10) or normal saline as a placebo (n=10)...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960857/rheological-properties-of-synthetic-mucus-for-airway-clearance
#14
O Lafforgue, I Seyssiecq, S Poncet, J Favier
In this work, a complete rheological characterization of bronchial mucus simulants based on the composition proposed by Zahm et al. [1] is presented. Dynamic Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (SAOS) experiments, Steady State (SS) flow measurements and three Intervals Thixotropy Tests (3ITT), are carried out to investigate the global rheological complexities of simulants (viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, shear - thinning and thixotropy) as a function of scleroglucan concentrations (0.5 to 2wt%) and under temperatures of 20 and 37°C...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960660/conservative-post-natal-management-of-antenatally-diagnosed-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformations
#15
Allya V Makhijani, Flora Y Wong
AIM: Management of congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) is controversial, especially for asymptomatic patients. We aim to describe the clinical manifestations and management of CPAM at a tertiary paediatric hospital using a retrospective audit. METHODS: Infants with CPAM were identified on the Fetal Diagnostic Unit database from 2007 to 2014. Information on antenatal and post-natal management was collected from medical record. RESULTS: Thirty-five infants with antenatally diagnosed CPAM were included...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960179/effects-of-orally-ingested-arsenic-on-respiratory-epithelial-permeability-to-bacteria-and-small-molecules-in-mice
#16
Michael W Henderson, Jennifer H Madenspacher, Gregory S Whitehead, Seddon Y Thomas, Jim J Aloor, Kymberly M Gowdy, Michael B Fessler
BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure via drinking water impacts millions of people worldwide. Although arsenic has been associated epidemiologically with increased lung infections, the identity of the lung cell types targeted by peroral arsenic and the associated immune mechanisms remain poorly defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of peroral arsenic on pulmonary antibacterial host defense. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were administered drinking water with 0, 250 ppb, or 25 ppm sodium arsenite for 5 wk and then challenged intratracheally with Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or lipopolysaccharide...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959487/current-management-of-spontaneous-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#17
REVIEW
Cyrus K Dastur, Wengui Yu
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating and disabling type of stroke. Uncontrolled hypertension (HTN) is the most common cause of spontaneous ICH. Recent advances in neuroimaging, organised stroke care, dedicated Neuro-ICUs, medical and surgical management have improved the management of ICH. Early airway protection, control of malignant HTN, urgent reversal of coagulopathy and surgical intervention may increase the chance of survival for patients with severe ICH. Intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure to <140 mm Hg is proven safe by two recent randomised trials...
March 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959443/effects-of-combination-therapy-indacaterol-glycopyrronium-versus-tiotropium-on-moderate-to-severe-copd-evaluation-of-impulse-oscillometry-and-exacerbation-rate
#18
Antonio Molino, Francesca Simioli, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Mauro Mormile, Maria Martino, Maria D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Small airways are considered the major site of airflow limitation in COPD. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a forced oscillation technique, which provides passive measurement of lung mechanics. It can differentiate small airway from large airway obstruction and is more sensitive than spirometry for peripheral airway disease. In this study the efficacy of the combination of Indacaterol/Glycopirronium (IND/GLY) versus Tiotropium on airway resistance (R5, R20, R5-20), lung reactance (X) and resonant frequency in moderate to severe COPD patients has been evaluated...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953501/neostigmine-administration-after-spontaneous-recovery-to-a-train-of-four-ratio-of-0-9-to-1-0-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-effect-on-neuromuscular-and-clinical-recovery
#19
Glenn S Murphy, Joseph W Szokol, Michael J Avram, Steven B Greenberg, Torin D Shear, Mark A Deshur, Jessica Benson, Rebecca L Newmark, Colleen E Maher
BACKGROUND: When a muscle relaxant is administered to facilitate intubation, the benefits of anticholinesterase reversal must be balanced with potential risks. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized noninferiority trial was to evaluate the effect of neostigmine administration on neuromuscular function when given to patients after spontaneous recovery to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9 or greater. METHODS: A total of 120 patients presenting for surgery requiring intubation were given a small dose of rocuronium...
September 27, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953074/constrictive-bronchiolitis-attributable-to-inhalation-of-toxic-agents-considerations-for-a-case-definition
#20
Daniel E Banks, Caroline A Bolduc, Sayed Ali, Michael J Morris
OBJECTIVE: We identified cases of Constrictive Bronchiolitis (CB), an inflammatory injury obliterating the small airways, in adults caused by inhalational exposure to determine an appropriate case definition. METHODS: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis for these cases from 1990 to 2017. Publications were included if there was 1) inhalational exposure; 2) respiratory symptoms/signs; 3) pulmonary function test results; and 4) computerized tomographic chest imaging...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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