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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822020/polysomnographic-determinants-of-requirement-for-advanced-positive-pressure-therapeutic-options-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Anupama Gupta, Garima Shukla
BACKGROUND: A small percentage of adult patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been recognized to be extraordinarily difficult to treat with conventional continuous or Bi-level positive airway pressure (together referred to as PAP) therapy. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine polysomnographic (PSG) characteristics, which may help predict the requirement for advanced therapeutic options for OSA. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent PAP titration at our sleep laboratory over a 2-year period were included...
August 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821630/il-17a-deficiency-mitigates-bleomycin-induced-complement-activation-during-lung-fibrosis
#2
Ellyse Cipolla, Amanda J Fisher, Hongmei Gu, Elizabeth A Mickler, Manisha Agarwal, Carol A Wilke, Kevin K Kim, Bethany B Moore, Ragini Vittal
Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and complement (C') activation have each been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have reported that IL-17A induces epithelial injury via TGF-β in murine bronchiolitis obliterans; that TGF-β and the C' cascade present signaling interactions in mediating epithelial injury; and that the blockade of C' receptors mitigates lung fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-17A in regulating C' in lung fibrosis. Microarray analyses of mRNA isolated from primary normal human small airway epithelial cells indicated that IL-17A (100 ng/ml; 24 h; n = 5 donor lungs) induces C' components (C' factor B, C3, and GPCR kinase isoform 5), cytokines (IL8, -6, and -1B), and cytokine ligands (CXCL1, -2, -3, -5, -6, and -16)...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820502/oligonucleotides-targeting-periostin-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
A Tomaru, T Kobayashi, J A Hinneh, P B Tonto, C N D' Alessandro-Gabazza, H Fujimoto, K Fujiwara, Y Takahashi, M Ohnishi, T Yasuma, K Nishihama, M Yoshino, K Takao, M Toda, T Totoki, Y Takei, K Yoshikawa, O Taguchi, E C Gabazza
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease with a median survival of 3 to 4 years after diagnosis. It is the most frequent form of a group of interstitial pneumonias of unknown etiology. Current available therapies prevent deterioration of lung function but no therapy has shown to improve survival. Periostin is a matricellular protein of the fasciclin 1 family. There is increased deposition of periostin in lung fibrotic tissues. Here, we evaluated whether small interfering RNA or antisense oligonucleotide against periostin inhibit lung fibrosis by direct administration into the lung by intranasal route...
August 18, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818548/severe-acute-interstitial-lung-disease-after-nivolumab-in-three-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-imaging-findings-of-airway-obstruction-adjacent-to-lung-tumors
#4
Kenji Nakahama, Akihiro Tamiya, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Yumiko Sasaki, Masanori Akira, Shinji Atagi
Nivolumab has been associated with unique adverse events known as immune-related adverse events. Although interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a life-threatening immune-related adverse event, the risk of ILD during nivolumab treatment is unclear. In this report, we encountered three patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer with signs of lung obstruction caused by tumor-mediated compression on imaging who developed acute ILD within 10 days of commencing nivolumab treatment. The first case involved a 74-year-old Japanese female never-smoker, the second a 67-year-old Japanese female never-smoker, and the third a 75-year-old Japanese female current-smoker...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817604/therapeutic-flexible-airway-endoscopy-of-small-children-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-11-years-experience
#5
Wen-Jue Soong, Pei-Chen Tsao, Yu-Sheng Lee, Chia-Feng Yang
OBJECTIVES: Use of therapeutic flexible airway endoscopy (TFAE) is very limited in pediatrics. We report our clinical experiences and long term outcomes of TFAE in small children from a single tertiary referral center. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Small children with their body weight no more than 5.0 kg who had received TFAE between 2005 and 2015 were enrolled. Demographic information and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed from medical charts and TFAE videos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814498/both-ways-at-once-keeping-small-airways-clean
#6
REVIEW
Paul M Quinton
The small airways of the lungs are under constant assault from the pathogens and debris in the air that they must conduct to alveoli. Although hygiene is of paramount importance for respiratory health, the underlying principles of airway clearance have not been well integrated or established. Newly emerging concepts of simultaneous absorption and secretion of airway surface liquid (ASL) and the role of [Formula: see text] in the maturation of mucins have advanced from experimental evidence as well as observations from the congenital disease cystic fibrosis (CF) to present a novel model that integrates microanatomy with organ physiology to meet the constant challenge of cleaning small airways...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802903/role-of-canonical-transient-receptor-potential-channel-3-in-acetylcholine-induced-mouse-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation
#7
Xiao-Xu Chen, Jia-Hua Zhang, Bin-Hua Pan, Hui-Li Ren, Xiu-Ling Feng, Jia-Ling Wang, Jun-Hua Xiao
AIMS: Canonical transient receptor potential channel-3 (TRPC3)-encoded Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel (NSCC) has been proven to be an important native constitutively active channel in airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC), which plays significant roles in physiological and pathological conditions by controlling Ca(2+) homeostasis in ASMC. Acetylcholine (ACh) is generally accepted as a contractile parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airway. Recently studies have revealed the pathological role of ACh in airway remodeling, however, the mechanisms remain unclear...
August 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798252/pollen-induced-oxidative-dna-damage-response-regulates-mirnas-controlling-allergic-inflammation
#8
Leopoldo Aguilera-Aguirre, Wenjing Hao, Lang Pan, Xiaoxue Li, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Attila Bacsi, Zsolt Radak, Sanjiv Sur, Allan R Brasier, Xueqing Ba, Istvan Boldogh
A mucosal oxidative burst is a hallmark response to pollen exposure that promotes allergic inflammatory responses. Reactive species constituents of oxidative stress signal via the modification of cellular molecules including nucleic acids. One of the most abundant oxidative genomic base damage is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), which is removed from DNA by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 (OGG1). OGG1 in complex with 8-oxoG acts as a GDP-GTP exchange factor and induces acute inflammation; however, the mechanism(s) by which OGG1 signaling regulates allergic airway inflammation is not known...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779894/identification-of-novel-cytokine-biomarkers-of-hexanal-exposure-associated-with-pulmonary-toxicity
#9
Yoon Cho, Mi-Kyung Song, Tae Sung Kim, Jae-Chun Ryu
We aimed to investigate whether exposure to low-molecular-weight saturated aliphatic aldehydes induces an airway inflammation related to lung toxicity. In previous studies, we identified that several aldehydes induced inflammatory responses through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we elucidate on whether hexanal exposure induces the lung inflammatory response through the secretion of cytokines. Hexanal is one of the aldehydes, which are major components of indoor environmental irritants. Based on a multiplexed cytokine antibody array, we investigated the cytokine expression profiles to identify the significant biomarkers of hexanal exposure and to predict the possibility of adverse effects on pulmonary toxicity using in vitro and in vivo model systems...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777450/self-management-interventions-including-action-plans-for-exacerbations-versus-usual-care-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Anke Lenferink, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer, Paul Dlpm van der Valk, Peter A Frith, Marlies Zwerink, Evelyn M Monninkhof, Job van der Palen, Tanja W Effing
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease. Exacerbation action plans are considered to be a key component of COPD self-management interventions. Studies assessing these interventions show contradictory results. In this Cochrane Review, we compared the effectiveness of COPD self-management interventions that include action plans for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) with usual care...
August 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775094/x-ray-based-lung-function-measurement-reveals-persistent-loss-of-lung-tissue-elasticity-in-mice-recovered-from-allergic-airway-inflammation
#11
Marietta Andrea Markus, Sergej Borowik, Marius Reichardt, Giuliana Tromba, Frauke Alves, Christian Dullin
Chronic asthma patients experience difficulties even years after the inciting allergen. Although studies in small animal asthma models have enormously advanced progress in uncovering the mechanisms of inception and development of the disease, little is known about the processes involved in the persistence of asthma symptoms in the absence of allergen exposure. Long term asthma mouse models have so far been scarce or not been able to reproduce the findings in patients. Here we used a common ovalbumin induced acute allergic airway inflammation mouse model to study lung function and remodeling after a four months recovery period...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775071/the-acute-effects-of-long-acting-bronchodilators-on-small-airways-detected-in-copd-patients-by-single-breath-n2-test-and-lung-p-v-curve
#12
Matteo M Pecchiari, Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Edgardo Giacomo D'Angelo
Small airways represent the key factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathophysiology. The effect of different classes of bronchodilators on small airways is still poorly understood and difficult to assess. Hence, the acute effects of tiotropium (18 µg) and indacaterol (150 µg) on closing volume (CV) and ventilation inhomogeneity were investigated and compared in 51 stable patients (mean age (SD): 70±7 years; 82% males) with moderate to very severe COPD. Patients underwent body-plethysmography, arterial blood gas-analysis, tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL), dyspnea assessment, and simultaneous recording of single breath nitrogen test (SBN) and transpulmonary pressure-volume curve (PL-V), before and one hour after drug administration...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774947/bayesian-estimation-of-physiological-parameters-governing-a-dynamic-two-compartment-model-of-exhaled-nitric-oxide
#13
Patrick Muchmore, Edward B Rappaport, Sandrah P Eckel
The fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (feNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation with applications in clinical asthma management and environmental epidemiology. feNO concentration depends on the expiratory flow rate. Standard feNO is assessed at 50 mL/sec, but "extended NO analysis" uses feNO measured at multiple different flow rates to estimate parameters quantifying proximal and distal sources of NO in the lower respiratory tract. Most approaches to modeling multiple flow feNO assume the concentration of NO throughout the airway has achieved a "steady-state...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774302/airway-and-parenchyma-immune-cells-in-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viral-and-non-viral-diffuse-alveolar-damage
#14
Monique Buttignol, Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto, Renata Calciolari Rossi E Silva, Marina Ballarin Albino, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Thais Mauad
BACKGROUND: Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), which is the histological surrogate for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), has a multifactorial aetiology. Therefore it is possible that the immunopathology differs among the various presentations of DAD. The aim of this study is to compare lung immunopathology of viral (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09) to non-viral, extrapulmonary aetiologies in autopsy cases with DAD. METHODS: The lung tissue of 44 patients, was divided in the H1N1 group (n = 15) characterized by severe pulmonary injury due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection; the ARDS group (n = 13), characterized by patients with DAD due to non-pulmonary causes; and the Control group (n = 16), consisting of patients with non-pulmonary causes of death...
August 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771734/modified-surgical-approach-to-hypoglossal-nerve-stimulator-implantation-in-the-pediatric-population
#15
Sarah N Bowe, Gillian R Diercks, Christopher J Hartnick
Upper airway stimulation with the hypoglossal nerve stimulator is a promising treatment modality for severe obstructive sleep apnea in carefully selected patients with Down syndrome. The pediatric population presents a greater variety in body habitus, including thorax size. A modified surgical approach, utilizing a medially placed, single chest incision, instead of two separate chest incisions, provides an alternative that is particularly useful for pediatric patients with small stature. As this technology is evaluated for Food and Drug Administration clearance in the pediatric population, it is important to consider modifications in surgical technique, partnering prior surgical experience with the technical support of company representatives...
August 3, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762786/more-than-meets-the-eye-cigarette-smoke-induces-genomic-changes-in-the-small-airway-epithelium-independent-of-histologic-changes
#16
Sabine Bartel, Nirav Bhakta, Stephanie Christenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762062/sequential-rituximab-and-omalizumab-for-the-treatment-of-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-strauss-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
David Aguirre-Valencia, Iván Posso-Osorio, Juan-Carlos Bravo, Fabio Bonilla-Abadía, Gabriel J Tobón, Carlos A Cañas
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), is a small vessel vasculitis associated with eosinophilia and asthma. Clinical manifestations commonly seen in patients presenting with EGPA range from upper airway and lung involvement to neurological, cardiac, cutaneous, and renal manifestations. Treatment for severe presentations includes steroids, cyclophosphamide, plasmapheresis, and recently, rituximab. Rituximab is associated with a good response in the treatment of vasculitis, but a variable response for the control of allergic symptoms...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757521/retrospective-investigation-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-outcome-in-146-exotic-animals
#18
Mamoru Onuma, Hirotaka Kondo, Sadaharu Ono, Akiyoshi Murakami, Tomoko Harada, Tadashi Sano
The outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were retrospectively evaluated in 146 exotic animals including 20 pet birds, 47 rabbits, 34 hamsters, 18 ferrets, 7 turtles, and 20 other small mammals in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) at presentation or during hospitalization at an animal clinic. The rates of return of spontaneous circulation, survival after CPR, and discharge were 9.3%, 2.3%, and 1.2%, respectively. The mean success rate of CPR in animals included in this study was lower than those previously reported in dogs and cats...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756224/treatment-with-a-programmed-cell-death-1-specific-antibody-has-little-effect-on-afatinib-and-naphthalene-induced-acute-pneumonitis-in-mice
#19
Naoki Hamada, Toyoshi Yanagihara, Kunihiro Suzuki, Saiko Ogata-Suetsugu, Eiji Harada, Hironori Mikumo, Masako Arimura-Omori, Yoichi Nakanishi
Although several antibodies developed to target programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) have demonstrated great promise for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and other malignancies, these therapeutic antibodies can cause pneumonitis. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI)-induced pneumonitis was reported after treatment with anti PD-1 antibodies. We previously demonstrated that mice with naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury developed severe gefitinib-induced pneumonitis through a neutrophil-dependent mechanism...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748646/small-airway-dysfunction-in-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#20
Selene Guerrero Zúñiga, Julia Sánchez Hernández, Heidegger Mateos Toledo, Mayra Mejía Ávila, Laura Gochicoa-Rangel, José Luis Miguel Reyes, Moisés Selman, Luis Torre-Bouscoulet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung biopsies from patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) have demonstrated small airway (SA) involvement, but there is no information concerning SA function in HP, and it is unknown whether pharmacological treatment could modify its function. SA function in patients with chronic HP using ultrasonic pneumography (UPG) and impulse oscillometry (IOS) was explored. We also compared initial results with those obtained after 4 weeks of standardized treatment with azathioprine and prednisone...
July 26, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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