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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649293/small-airways-disease-and-severe-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Tara F Carr, Roula Altisheh, Myron Zitt
The small airways of the lungs are commonly affected in pediatric and adult asthma. Small airways disease has been related to asthma control, severity, and risk of exacerbation. Diagnosis of small airways disease can be best made through evaluation of surgical lung specimens. Noninvasive techniques including spirometry, plethysmography, nitrogen washout, impulse oscillometry, and cross-sectional imaging have been utilized to assess and infer the extent of small airways disease in asthma and can be used longitudinally to assess response to treatment...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647745/early-halt-of-a-randomized-controlled-study-with-3-hypertonic-saline-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#2
Ania Carsin, Emilie Sauvaget, Violaine Bresson, Karine Retornaz, Maria Cabrera, Elisabeth Jouve, Romain Truillet, Emmanuelle Bosdure, Jean-Christophe Dubus
BACKGROUND: Albeit not recommended because of contradictory results, nebulized 3% hypertonic saline is widely used for treating acute viral bronchiolitis. Whether clinical differences may be attributed to the type of nebulizer used has never been studied. OBJECTIVES: By modifying the amount of salt deposited into the airways, the nebulizer characteristics might influence clinical response. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial included infants hospitalized in a French university hospital for a first episode of bronchiolitis...
June 24, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647226/inhalation-of-nanoplatelets-theoretical-deposition-simulations
#3
Robert Sturm
Primary objective of the contribution was the theoretical prediction of nanoplatelet deposition in the human respiratory tract. Modeling was founded on the hypothetical inhalation of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) measuring 0.01 and 0.1μm in thickness and adopting a projected area diameter of 1-30μm. Particle uptake was assumed to take place with inhalation flow rates of 250, 500, 750, and 1000cm(3)s(-1), respectively. For an appropriate description of pulmonary particle behavior, transport of GNP in a stochastic lung structure and deposition formulae based on analytical and numerical studies were presupposed...
June 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645995/mepolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Mara N Poulakos, Shawna M Cargill, Melissa F Waineo, Allen L Wolford
PURPOSE: Published data on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy and safety of the interleukin-5 antagonist mepolizumab are reviewed. SUMMARY: Asthma of the eosinophilic phenotype is characterized by persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation promoted primarily by T-helper type 2 cytokines, the key regulator of eosinophils. Patients with severe eosinophilic asthma are burdened by the need to administer high doses of corticosteroids to help manage their symptoms...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643237/small-airway-absorption-and-microdosimetry-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-particles-after-deposition
#5
P Worth Longest, Michael Hindle
PURPOSE: To predict the cellular-level epithelial absorbed dose from deposited inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) particles in a model of an expanding and contracting small airway segment for different particle forms. METHODS: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model of drug dissolution, absorption and clearance occurring in the surface liquid of a representative small airway generation (G13) was developed and used to evaluate epithelial dose for the same deposited drug mass of conventional microparticles, nanoaggregates and a true nanoaerosol...
June 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#6
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626064/monitoring-c3ar-expression-using-a-floxed-tdtomato-c3ar-reporter-knock-in-mouse
#7
Katharina M Quell, Christian M Karsten, Anna Kordowski, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Daria Briukhovetska, Anna V Wiese, Jing Sun, Fanny Ender, Konstantina Antoniou, Torsten Schröder, Inken Schmudde, Johann L Berger, Peter König, Tillman Vollbrandt, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C3a exerts multiple biologic functions through activation of its cognate C3a receptor. C3(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice have been instrumental in defining important roles of the C3a/C3aR axis in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, allergic asthma, autoimmune nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly little is known about C3aR expression and function in immune and stromal cells. To close this gap, we generated a floxed tandem-dye Tomato (tdTomato)-C3aR reporter knock-in mouse, which we used to monitor C3aR expression in cells residing in the lung, airways, lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine, brain, visceral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM), spleen, and the circulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617814/risk-of-pneumonia-in-obstructive-lung-disease-a-real-life-study-comparing-extra-fine-and-fine-particle-inhaled-corticosteroids
#8
Samatha Sonnappa, Richard Martin, Elliot Israel, Dirkje Postma, Wim van Aalderen, Annie Burden, Omar S Usmani, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with obstructive lung diseases has been associated with a higher risk of pneumonia, particularly in COPD. The risk of pneumonia has not been previously evaluated in relation to ICS particle size and dose used. METHODS: Historical cohort, UK database study of 23,013 patients with obstructive lung disease aged 12-80 years prescribed extra-fine or fine-particle ICS. The endpoints assessed during the outcome year were diagnosis of pneumonia, acute exacerbations and acute respiratory events in relation to ICS dose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611336/safety-of-non-anesthesia-provider-administered-propofol-sedation-in-non-advanced-gastrointestinal-endoscopic-procedures-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Basavana Gouda, Gowri Gouda, Anuradha Borle, Akash Singh, Ashish Sinha, Preet M Singh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of non-anesthesia provider (NAPP) administered propofol sedation in patients undergoing non-advanced gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched for prospective observational trials involving non-advanced endoscopic procedures. From a total of 608 publications, 25 [colonoscopy (9), upper GI endoscopy (5), and combined procedures (11)] were identified to meet inclusion criteria and were analyzed...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608951/tumstatin-regulates-the-angiogenic-and-inflammatory-potential-of-airway-smooth-muscle-extracellular-matrix
#10
Louise Margaret Harkness, Markus Weckmann, Matthias Kopp, Tim Becker, Anthony Wayne Ashton, Janette Kay Burgess
The extracellular matrix (ECM) creates the microenvironment of the tissue; an altered ECM in the asthmatic airway may be central in airway inflammation and remodelling. Tumstatin is a collagen IV-derived matrikine reduced in the asthmatic airway wall that reverses airway inflammation and remodelling in small and large animal models of asthma. This study hypothesized that the mechanisms underlying the broad asthma-resolving effects of tumstatin were due to autocrine remodelling of the ECM. Neutrophils and endothelial cells were seeded on decellularized ECM of non-asthmatic (NA) or asthmatic (A) airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells previously exposed to tumstatin in the presence or absence of a broad matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, Marimastat...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608799/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-of-alar-nasal-cartilage-using-autologous-micro-grafts-the-use-of-the-rigenera-%C3%A2-protocol-in-the-treatment-of-an-osteochondral-lesion-of-the-nose
#11
Gabriele Ceccarelli, Pietro Gentile, Marco Marcarelli, Martina Balli, Flavio Lorenzo Ronzoni, Laura Benedetti, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis
Cartilage defects represent a serious problem due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Regarding the nose, nasal valve collapse is associated with nasal blockage and persistent airway obstruction associated with a significant drop in the quality of life for patients. In addition to surgical techniques, several cell-based tissue-engineering strategies are studied to improve cartilage support in the nasal wall, that is, to ameliorate wall insufficiency. Nevertheless, there are no congruent data available on the benefit for patients during the follow-up time...
June 13, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603413/identifying-the-heterogeneity-of-copd-by-v-p-spect-a-new-tool-for-improving-the-diagnosis-of-parenchymal-defects-and-grading-the-severity-of-small-airways-disease
#12
M Bajc, Y Chen, J Wang, X Y Li, W M Shen, C Z Wang, H Huang, A Lindqvist, X Y He
INTRODUCTION: Airway obstruction and possible concomitant pulmonary diseases in COPD cannot be identified conventionally with any single diagnostic tool. We aimed to diagnose and grade COPD severity and identify pulmonary comorbidities associated with COPD with ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent. METHODS: 94 COPD patients (aged 43-86 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages I-IV) were examined with V/P SPECT and spirometry...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603412/in-vitro-dose-comparison-of-respimat-%C3%A2-inhaler-with-dry-powder-inhalers-for-copd-maintenance-therapy
#13
Anna-Maria Ciciliani, Peter Langguth, Herbert Wachtel
BACKGROUND: Combining in vitro mouth-throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. METHODS: The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601047/role-of-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#14
Zahra Alizadeh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian Adcock, Mostafa Moin
Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic airway inflammatory disease with different clinical phenotypes caused by diverse triggers and pathophysiological mechanisms. Asthma heritability has been established in many genetic studies but it is evident that only genetic elements are not responsible for the development of asthma. Increasing rate of asthma incidence during past decades has implicated the role of epigenetics in development of asthma. Environmental factors perform as initiator signals through epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600154/markers-of-successful-extubation-in-extremely-preterm-infants-and-morbidity-after-failed-extubation
#15
Sanjay Chawla, Girija Natarajan, Seetha Shankaran, Benjamin Carper, Luc P Brion, Martin Keszler, Waldemar A Carlo, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Marie G Gantz, Abhik Das, Neil Finer, Ronald N Goldberg, C Michael Cotten, Rosemary D Higgins
OBJECTIVES: To identify variables associated with successful elective extubation, and to determine neonatal morbidities associated with extubation failure in extremely preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network's Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial that included extremely preterm infants born at 24(0/7) to 27(6/7) weeks' gestation...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599052/tccc-updates-two-decades-of-saving-lives-on-the-battlefield-tactical-combat-casualty-care-turns-20
#16
Frank K Butler
BACKGROUND: Twenty years ago, the original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) article was published in this journal. Since TCCC is essentially a set of bestpractice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield, the presence of a journal with a specific focus on military medicine was a profound benefit to the initial presentation of TCCC to the US Military. METHODS: In the two ensuing decades, which included the longest continuous period of armed conflict in our nation's history, TCCC steadily evolved as the prehospital trauma care evidence base was augmented and as feedback from user medics, corpsmen, and pararescuemen was obtained...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598916/protective-lung-ventilation-and-morbidity-after-pulmonary-resection-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#17
David Amar, Hao Zhang, Alessia Pedoto, Dawn P Desiderio, Weiji Shi, Kay See Tan
BACKGROUND: Protective lung ventilation (PLV) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for thoracic surgery is frequently recommended to reduce pulmonary complications. However, limited outcome data exist on whether PLV use during OLV is associated with less clinically relevant pulmonary morbidity after lung resection. METHODS: Intraoperative data were prospectively collected in 1080 patients undergoing pulmonary resection with OLV, intentional crystalloid restriction, and mechanical ventilation to maintain inspiratory peak airway pressure <30 cm H2O...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596492/detection-of-tumor-derived-dna-dispersed-in-the-airway-improves-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-bronchoscopy-for-lung-cancer
#18
Taichiro Goto, Yosuke Hirotsu, Takahiro Nakagomi, Daichi Shikata, Yujiro Yokoyama, Kenji Amemiya, Toshiharu Tsutsui, Yumiko Kakizaki, Toshio Oyama, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Yoshihiro Miyashita, Masao Omata
The diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy for detecting lung cancer, especially peripheral lung cancer with lesions outside the endoscopically visible range, remains unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to perform next-generation sequencing on bronchoscopic specimens to determine whether this improves the accuracy of bronchoscopy for diagnosing lung cancer and to identify factors influencing sensitivity. The bronchoscopic sensitivity for diagnosing lung cancer was initially evaluated in 191 patients who underwent lobectomy after bronchoscopy at our hospital...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596268/application-of-euclidean-distance-mapping-for-assessment-of-basement-membrane-thickness-distribution-in-asthma
#19
Leila B Mostaco-Guidolin, Soheil M Hajimohammadi, Dragos Mihai Vasilescu, Tillie-Louise Hackett
Abnormal thickening of the airway basement membrane is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in asthma. Current protocols for measuring the basement membrane involve the use of stained tissue sections and measurements of the basement membrane thickness at certain intervals, followed by the calculation of the geometric mean thickness for each airway. This report describes an automated, unbiased approach which uses colour segmentation to identify structures of interest on stained sections and euclidean distance mapping to measure the thickness distribution of airway structures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592874/ct-based-local-distribution-metric-improves-characterization-of-copd
#20
Benjamin A Hoff, Esther Pompe, Stefanie Galbán, Dirkje S Postma, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Leo Koenderman, Timothy D Johnson, Stijn E Verleden, Pim A de Jong, Firdaus A A Mohamed Hoesein, Maarten van den Berge, Brian D Ross, Craig J Galbán
Parametric response mapping (PRM) of paired CT lung images has been shown to improve the phenotyping of COPD by allowing for the visualization and quantification of non-emphysematous air trapping component, referred to as functional small airways disease (fSAD). Although promising, large variability in the standard method for analyzing PRM(fSAD) has been observed. We postulate that representing the 3D PRM(fSAD) data as a single scalar quantity (relative volume of PRM(fSAD)) oversimplifies the original 3D data, limiting its potential to detect the subtle progression of COPD as well as varying subtypes...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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