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Small airway

Erica Lin, Andrew H Limper, Teng Moua
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune condition characterized by erosive inflammation of the joints. One rare pulmonary manifestation is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), a small airways disease characterized by the destruction of bronchiolar epithelium and airflow obstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated obliterative bronchiolitis (RA-OB) from 01/01/2000 to 12/31/2015...
June 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Paul E Wischmeyer, Michelle M McMoon, Nathan H Waldron, Elizabeth J Dye
BACKGROUND: Enteral feeding via feeding tube (FT) provides essential nutrition support to critically ill patients or those who cannot intake adequate nutrition via the oral route. Unfortunately, 1%-2% of FTs placed blindly at bedside enter the airway undetected (as confirmed by x-ray), where they could result in adverse events. Misplaced FTs can cause complications including pneumothorax, vocal cord injury, bronchopleural fistula, pneumonia, and death. X-ray is typically performed to confirm FT placement before feeding, but may delay nutrition intake, may not universally identify misplacement, and adds cost and radiation exposure...
June 20, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Zsófia Lázár, Péter Horváth, Rita Puskás, Gabriella Gálffy, György Losonczy, Ildikó Horváth, András Bikov
OBJECTIVE: Extended nitric oxide (NO) analysis offers the partitioned monitoring of inflammation in central and peripheral airways. Different mathematical models are used to estimate pulmonary NO dynamics in asthma with variable results and limitations. We aimed to establish a protocol for extended NO analysis in patients with differing asthma severity. METHODS: Forty patients with stable asthma and twenty-five matched control subjects were recruited. Exhaled NO was measured at constant flow rates between 10 and 300 mL/s...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
S du Preez, S L Raidal, G S Doran, M Prescott, K J Hughes
BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a non-invasive method to assess the lower respiratory tract. In humans, EBC hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), pH and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) are useful for detection and monitoring of inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between EBC biomarkers and cytological and endoscopic definitions of lower airway inflammation whilst controlling for sampling and environmental variables...
June 19, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Inês N Silva, Filipa D Pessoa, Marcelo J Ramires, Mário R Santos, Jörg D Becker, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex grow in different natural and man-made environments and are feared opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Previous studies showed that Burkholderia mucoid clinical isolates grown under stress conditions give rise to nonmucoid variants devoid of the exopolysaccharide cepacian. Here, we have determined that a major cause of the nonmucoid morphotype involves nonsynonymous mutations and small indels in the ompR gene encoding a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
J Valverde-Molina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Ladislav Bumba, Jiri Masin, Adriana Osickova, Radim Osicka, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT, or AC-Hly) plays a crucial role in virulence and airway colonization capacity of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis . The toxin penetrates target cell membranes and exhibits three distinct biological activities. A population of CyaA conformers forms small cation-selective pores that permeabilize the cell membrane for potassium efflux, which can provoke colloid-osmotic (oncotic) cell lysis. The other two activities are due to CyaA conformers that transiently form calcium influx conduits in the target cell membrane and translocate the adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme into cytosol of cells...
June 16, 2018: Toxins
Meiping Lu, Chengyun Xu, Qin Zhang, Xiling Wu, Lanfang Tang, Xiangzhi Wang, Junsong Wu, Ximei Wu
Dendritic cell (DC) trafficking from lung to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) is a key step for initiation of T cell responses in allergic asthma. In the present study, we investigate the role of DC-mediated airway inflammation after inhibition of p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1), an effector of Rac and Cdc42 small GTPases, in the allergen-induced mouse models of asthma. Systemic administration of PAK1 specific inhibitor IPA-3 significantly attenuates not only the airway inflammation but also the airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Puay-Wah Phuan, Jung-Ho Son, Joseph-Anthony Tan, Clarabella Li, Ilaria Musante, Lorna Zlock, Dennis W Nielson, Walter E Finkbeiner, Mark J Kurth, Luis J Galietta, Peter M Haggie, Alan S Verkman
BACKGROUND: Current modulator therapies for some cystic fibrosis-causing CFTR mutants, including N1303K, have limited efficacy. We provide evidence here to support combination potentiator (co-potentiator) therapy for mutant CFTRs that are poorly responsive to single potentiators. METHODS: Functional synergy screens done on N1303K and W1282X CFTR, in which small molecules were tested with VX-770, identified arylsulfonamide-pyrrolopyridine, phenoxy-benzimidazole and flavone co-potentiators...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Sarah L O'Beirne, Sushila A Shenoy, Jacqueline Salit, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Robert J Kaner, Sudha Visvanathan, Jay S Fine, Jason G Mezey, Ronald G Crystal
RATIONALE: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to particulate matter ambient pollution has adverse effects on lung health, exacerbated by cigarette smoking. Fine air-borne particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5) are among the most harmful urban pollutants, and are closely linked to respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: Based on the knowledge that the small airway epithelium (SAE) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of smoking-related lung disease, we hypothesized that elevated PM2...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Shakir Hasan, Peter Sebo, Radim Osicka
Mammalian lungs are organs exhibiting cellular and spatial complexity required for gas exchange to support life. The respiratory epithelium internally lining the airways is susceptible to infections due to constant exposure to inhaled microbes. Biomedical research into respiratory bacterial infections in humans has been mostly carried out using small mammalian animal models or undifferentiated, two dimensional, submerged cultures of epithelial cells. These experimental model systems have considerable limitations due to host specificity of bacterial pathogens and lack of cellular and morphological complexity...
June 13, 2018: FEBS Journal
Jessica Green, Francis J Gilchrist, Will Carroll
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, life-limiting, genetically inherited disease. It affects multiple organs, particularly the respiratory system. However, gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) are also important and well-recognised complications in CF. They share similar symptoms e.g. bloating, abdominal pain, but are distinct conditions. Constipation occurs when there is gradual faecal impaction of the colon, but DIOS occurs when there is an accumulation of faeces and sticky mucus, forming a mass in the distal part of the small intestine...
June 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer Vandooren, Pieter Goeminne, Lise Boon, Estefania Ugarte-Berzal, Vasily Rybakin, Paul Proost, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar, Ghislain Opdenakker
Antileukoproteinase or secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor is a small protein which protects the mucosal linings against excessive proteolysis, inflammation, and microbial infection. We discovered that gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a secreted zinc-dependent endopeptidase typically found at sites of inflammation, destroys antileukoproteinase by cleavages within both of its two functional domains: the anti-microbial N-terminal and the anti-proteolytic C-terminal domains. Cleaved antileukoproteinase possessed a significantly lower ability to bind lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and a reduced capacity to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE) activity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jing Pan, Donghai Xiong, Qi Zhang, Eva Szabo, Mark Steven Miller, Ronald A Lubet, Yian Wang, Ming You
As a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants, a "field cancerization" effect occurs in the lung, resulting in the development of a field of initiated, but morphologically normal appearing cells within a damaged epithelium containing mutations in oncogene or tumor suppressor genes. Unlike humans, whose airway field of injury associated with lung cancer has long been investigated with airway brushings obtained via bronchoscopy, no methods are available for similar studies in the mouse due to the small size of the murine airways...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pastora Gallego, María José Rodríguez-Puras, Pilar Serrano Gotarredona, Israel Valverde, Begoña Manso, Antonio González-Calle, Alejandro Adsuar, Jose M Cubero, Luis Díaz de la Llera, Antonio Ordoñez, Amir-Reza Hosseinpour
BACKGROUND: Prevalence and prognostic significance of pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation in congenital heart disease (CHD) have never been studied systematically. METHODS: Chest X-rays of 1192 consecutive adults with CHD were reviewed. Major diameter of the PA was determined by imaging techniques in those with PA dilatation. A value >29 mm was considered abnormal. Data on anatomy, hemodynamics, residual lesions and outcomes were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of PA dilatation was 18%...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Diogo Silva Pellosi, Ivana d'Angelo, Sara Maiolino, Emma Mitidieri, Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Raffaella Sorrentino, Fabiana Quaglia, Francesca Ungaro
In this paper, we shed light on the potential of Pluronic® mixed micelles in lung delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. To this purpose, Pluronic® P123/F127 mixed micelles (PMM), exhibiting superior stability in biological fluids, were loaded with budesonide (BUD), a model hydrophobic corticosteroid, and fully investigated focusing on their stability in pulmonary-relevant media, transport through the mucus barrier and aerodynamic behaviour in vitro. Then, lung bio-distribution and efficacy were evaluated in vivo, after intra-tracheal administration in rats...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Lambert M Felix, Seamus Grundy, Stephen J Milan, Ross Armstrong, Haley Harrison, Dave Lynes, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the smaller airways and associated with a mortality rate greater than twice that of the general population. Antibiotics serve as front-line therapy for managing bacterial load, but their use is weighed against the development of antibiotic resistance. Dual antibiotic therapy has the potential to suppress infection from multiple strains of bacteria, leading to more successful treatment of exacerbations, reduced symptoms, and improved quality of life...
June 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joseph W Song, Jungwook Paek, Kyu-Tae Park, Jeongyun Seo, Dongeun Huh
Occlusion of distal airways due to mucus plugs is a key pathological feature common to a wide variety of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Breathing-induced movement of airway mucus plugs along the respiratory tract has been shown to generate abnormally large mechanical stresses, acting as an insult that can incite acute injury to the airway epithelium. Here, we describe a unique microengineering strategy to model this pathophysiological process using a bioinspired microfluidic device. Our system combines an air-liquid interface culture of primary human small airway epithelial cells with a microengineered biomimetic platform to replicate the process of mucus exudation induced by airway constriction that leads to the formation of mucus plugs across the airway lumen...
July 2018: Biomicrofluidics
James Jordan Johnston, Richard Douglas
Pathogenic bacteria associated with the adenoids and tonsils cause much morbidity in the paediatric population. Hyperplasia of the adenoids is associated with otitis media with effusion and hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils is associated with both recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnoea. Most current knowledge of the microbiology of the upper airways has been derived from culture-based studies, which usually reflect only a small fraction of the bacteria present on the mucosal surface. Culture-independent molecular surveys based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing are now being employed to determine the microbiota on the surface and within the tissue of adenoids and palatine tonsils...
June 8, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Wouter H van Geffen, Bita Hajian, Wim Vos, Jan De Backer, Anthony Cahn, Omar S Usmani, Cedric Van Holsbeke, Massimo Pistolesi, Huib Am Kerstjens, Wilfried De Backer
Background: Exacerbations of COPD are a major burden to patients, and yet little is understood about heterogeneity. It contributes to the current persistent one-size-fits-all treatment. To replace this treatment by more personalized, precision medicine, new insights are required. We assessed the heterogeneity of exacerbations by functional respiratory imaging (FRI) in 3-dimensional models of airways and lungs. Methods: The trial was designed as a multicenter trial of patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD who were assessed by FRI, pulmonary function tests, and patient-reported outcomes, both in the acute stage and during resolution...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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