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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106744/oligonucleotide-therapy-for-obstructive-and-restrictive-respiratory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102056/asthma-related-outcomes-in-patients-initiating-extrafine-ciclesonide-or-fine-particle-inhaled-corticosteroids
#2
Dirkje S Postma, Richard Dekhuijzen, Thys van der Molen, Richard J Martin, Wim van Aalderen, Nicolas Roche, Theresa W Guilbert, Elliot Israel, Daniela van Eickels, Javaria Mona Khalid, Ron M C Herings, Jetty A Overbeek, Cristiana Miglio, Victoria Thomas, Catherine Hutton, Elizabeth V Hillyer, David B Price
PURPOSE: Extrafine-particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have greater small airway deposition than standard fine-particle ICS. We sought to compare asthma-related outcomes after patients initiated extrafine-particle ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS (fluticasone propionate or non-extrafine beclomethasone). METHODS: This historical, matched cohort study included patients aged 12-60 years prescribed their first ICS as ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS. The 2 cohorts were matched 1:1 for key demographic and clinical characteristics over the baseline year...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102053/size-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-and-small-airway-inflammation-in-asthma
#3
EDITORIAL
Choon Sik Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099988/exercise-based-rehabilitation-programmes-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Norman R Morris, Fiona D Kermeen, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND: Individuals with pulmonary hypertension (PH) have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Despite initial concerns that exercise training may worsen symptoms in this group, several studies have reported improvements in functional capacity and well-being following exercise-based rehabilitation in PH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of exercise-based rehabilitation for people with PH. Primary outcomes were exercise capacity, adverse events during the intervention period and health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099335/micronodular-pattern-of-organizing-pneumonia-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#5
François Lebargy, Davy Picard, Jean Hagenburg, Olivier Toubas, Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Sebastian Sandu, Gaëtan Deslee, Sandra Dury
RATIONALE: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by granulation tissue plugs in the lumen of small airways, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. OP can be cryptogenic (primary) (COP) or secondary to various lung injuries. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 38-year-old male smoker with COP presenting in the form of diffuse micronodules on computed tomography (CT) scan and describe the clinical, radiological, and functional characteristics of micronodular pattern of organizing pneumonia (MNOP) based on a review of the literature including 14 cases...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095826/non-invasive-respiratory-support-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-national-survey-of-practice
#6
H Turnham, R S Agbeko, J Furness, J Pappachan, A G Sutcliffe, P Ramnarayan
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory illness of early childhood. For most children it is a mild self-limiting disease but a small number of children develop respiratory failure. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) has traditionally been used to provide non-invasive respiratory support in these children, but there is little clinical trial evidence to support its use. More recently, high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has emerged as a novel respiratory support modality...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095128/safety-and-benefits-of-inhaled-hypertonic-saline-following-airway-challenges-with-endotoxin-and-allergen-in-asthmatics
#7
Neil E Alexis, William D Bennett, David B Peden
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether induced sputum (IS) with hypertonic saline inhalation is safe to use in asthmatics within 24 hours of two commonly used airway challenges, namely endotoxin and dust mite allergen, and to assess whether IS can enhance mucociliary clearance (MCC) rates in asthmatics. METHODS: IS (three 7 minute inhalation periods of 3, 4, 5% hypertonic saline) was employed before (N = 29) and within 24 hours of inhaled challenges with endotoxin (N = 13) and dust mite allergen (N = 12) in a cohort of mild to moderate asthmatics...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094032/the-airway-approach-to-a-neonate-with-treacher-collins-syndrome-case-report
#8
R Marques-Pires, H Trindade
Neonates and small infants with syndromes characterized by the presence of craniofacial abnormalities may represent great challenges regarding the management of the airway. We describe the case of a 9-day-old neonate with Treacher Collins syndrome, in which a laryngeal mask was essential to improve the airway obstruction, ventilate the patient and serve as an airway conduit for a fiberoptic intubation. By presenting this case, we intend to show that in neonates with Treacher Collins syndrome, in whom difficulties ventilation and intubation are expected, a thoughtful airway management planning is mandatory...
January 13, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088960/-role-and-mechanism-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-related-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-rats
#9
M X Li, Y H Chen, C C Liao, F Lin, Y Bai, W J Mi, Y Sun, Y F Qi
Objective: To investigate the role and mechanism of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related pulmonary vascular remodeling. Methods: Twenty four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, cigarette smoke (CS) group, CS+ Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group and CS+ DL-propargylglycine (PPG) group. Rats in control group were fed normally and breathed clear air, and for the rest groups, passive cigarette smoke inhalation method were adopted to establish COPD model...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087917/-reasearch-progress-on-the-role-of-neutrophils-in-asthma
#10
Tingting Li, Yuehai Ke, Hongqiang Cheng
Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways. Studies have found that neutrophils are crucial to airway inflammation in acute asthma, persistent asthma, particularly in asthma of poor response to glucocorticoid treatment. The role of neutrophils in development of bronchial asthma is complex, as they can release a potent source of cytokines and inflammatory mediators participating in asthma. Differing from eosinophilic inflammatory asthma, neutrophilic inflammatory asthma is not depend on helper T (Th)2 cells, but may be related to Th1 and Th17 cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079597/histologic-findings-of-severe-therapy-resistant-asthma-from-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-biopsies
#11
Humberto E Trejo Bittar, Daniel Doberer, Mitra Mehrad, Diane C Strollo, Joseph K Leader, Sally Wenzel, Samuel A Yousem
The histologic changes occurring in severe/therapy-resistant asthma (SA) as defined by the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines, particularly at the level of the distal airways are unknown. This study describes the clinical, radiologic, and histologic characteristics of 29 SA patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lung biopsy. Pathologic observations were correlated with clinical features, especially the presence of autoimmune disease (AID) (15/29, 51.7%). Ten biopsies (10/29, 34...
February 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077651/bromodomain-containing-4-brd4-couples-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rela-with-airway-inflammation-and-the-irf-rig-i-amplification-loop-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#12
Bing Tian, Jun Yang, Yingxin Zhao, Teodora Ivanciuc, Hong Sun, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
: The airway mucosa expresses protective interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines in response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we examine the role of bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) in mediating this innate immune response in human small airway epithelial cells. We observe that RSV induces BRD4 to complex with NFκB/RelA. BRD4 is functionally required for expression of the NFκB-dependent inflammatory gene regulatory network (GRN), including the IFN Response Factor (IRFs)-1 and -7 that mediate a cross-talk pathway for RIG-I upregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076322/aeroallergen-der-p-2-promotes-motility-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-via-toll-like-receptor-mediated-up-regulation-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-and-integrin-focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling
#13
Chun-Hsiang Lin, Hui-Han Lin, Cheng-Yi Kuo, Shao-Hsuan Kao
House dust mite (HDM) allergens are one of the major causes leading to respiratory hypersensitiveness and airway remodeling. Here we hypothesized that a major HDM allergen Der p 2 could increase cell motility and invasiveness of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Our results showed that low dose (1 and 3 μg/mL) recombinant Der p 2 protein (DP2) enhanced the migration and invasiveness of human NSCLC cell A549, H1299 and CL1-5, but nonsignificantly altered their growth. Further investigation revealed that integrin αV level was increased and its downstream signaling including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin were activated in A549 cells exposed to DP2...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075489/cough-augmentation-techniques-for-extubation-or-weaning-critically-ill-patients-from-mechanical-ventilation
#14
REVIEW
Louise Rose, Neill Kj Adhikari, David Leasa, Dean A Fergusson, Douglas McKim
BACKGROUND: There are various reasons why weaning and extubation failure occur, but ineffective cough and secretion retention can play a significant role. Cough augmentation techniques, such as lung volume recruitment or manually- and mechanically-assisted cough, are used to prevent and manage respiratory complications associated with chronic conditions, particularly neuromuscular disease, and may improve short- and long-term outcomes for people with acute respiratory failure. However, the role of cough augmentation to facilitate extubation and prevent post-extubation respiratory failure is unclear...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066622/the-role-bronchoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-airway-disease-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Tutku Soyer
Bronchoscopy is endoscopic examination of airways that allows both diagnostic and interventional procedures in the evaluation of airway disease in children. It can be performed with either rigid or flexible instruments, depending on the particular needs of patients and skills of bronchoscopist. In addition to visualization of airways, bronchoscopy enables to obtain specimens from lungs and distal airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) yields samples from surfaces of the alveoli and aids differential diagnosis of various pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066595/pulmonary-function-test-findings-in-patients-with-acute-inhalation-injury-caused-by-smoke-bombs
#16
Lu Cao, Xin-Gang Zhang, Jian-Guo Wang, Han-Bin Wang, Yi-Bing Chen, Da-Hui Zhao, Wen-Fang Shi, Li-Xin Xie
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the effects of smoke bomb-induced acute inhalation injury on pulmonary function at different stages of lung injury. METHODS: We performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 15 patients with acute inhalation injury from days 3 to 180 after smoke inhalation. We measured the trace element zinc in whole blood on days 4 and 17, and correlations of zinc levels with PFTs were performed. RESULTS: In the acute stage of lung injury (day 3), 3 of 11 patients with mild symptoms had normal pulmonary function and 8 patients with restrictive ventilatory dysfunction and reduced diffusing capacity...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066584/overexpression-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-in-small-airways-contributes-to-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-cox-2-expression-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Bi Chen, Wen-Jie You, Shan Xue, Hui Qin, Xu-Ji Zhao, Miao Zhang, Xue-Qing Liu, Shu-Yang Zhu, Han-Dong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contribute to airway remodelling and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent data suggest that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor traditionally considered as bile acid-activated receptor, is also expressed in non-classical bile acids target tissues with novel functions beyond regulating bile acid homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of FXR in the development of COPD, as well as factors that affect FXR expression...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065396/inhaled-corticosteroid-dose-response-in-asthma-should-we-measure-inflammation
#18
William J Anderson, Philip M Short, Sunny Jabbal, Brian J Lipworth
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) titration in asthma is primarily based on symptoms and pulmonary function. ICSs may not be increased on this basis despite residual airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To compare the dose-response relationships of ICSs on measures of pulmonary function, symptoms, and inflammation in patients with persistent asthma. METHODS: We performed a pooled post hoc analysis of 121 patients with mild to moderate asthma from 4 randomized clinical trials that incorporated an ICS dose ramp...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065276/using-imaging-as-a-biomarker-for-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Abhaya Trivedi, Chase Hall, Eric A Hoffman, Jason C Woods, David S Gierada, Mario Castro
There have been significant advancements in the various imaging techniques being used for the evaluation of asthmatic patients, both from a clinical and research perspective. Imaging characteristics can be used to identify specific asthmatic phenotypes and provide a more detailed understanding of endotypes contributing to the pathophysiology of the disease. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography can be used to assess pulmonary structure and function. It has been shown that specific airway and lung density measurements using computed tomography correlate with clinical parameters, including severity of disease and pathology, but also provide unique phenotypes...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062701/widespread-virus-replication-in-alveoli-drives-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-aerosolized-h5n1-influenza-infection-of-macaques
#20
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Zachary D Swan, Stephanie J Bissel, Amy L Hartman, Jonathan P Carney, Katherine J O'Malley, Adebimpe O Obadan, Jefferson Santos, Reagan Walker, Timothy J Sturgeon, Lonnie J Frye, Pauline Maiello, Charles A Scanga, Jennifer D Bowling, Anthea L Bouwer, Parichat A Duangkhae, Clayton A Wiley, JoAnne L Flynn, Jieru Wang, Kelly S Cole, Daniel R Perez, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes
Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus are frequently fatal but the mechanisms of disease remain ill-defined. H5N1 infection is associated with intense production of proinflammatory cytokines, but whether this cytokine storm is the main cause of fatality or is a consequence of extensive virus replication that itself drives disease remains controversial. Conventional intratracheal inoculation of a liquid suspension of H5N1 influenza virus in nonhuman primates likely results in efficient clearance of virus within the upper respiratory tract and rarely produces severe disease...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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