Read by QxMD icon Read

Outbreak, Cholera, Typhoid

Z F Dembek, T Chekol, A Wu
During emerging disease outbreaks, public health, emergency management officials and decision-makers increasingly rely on epidemiological models to forecast outbreak progression and determine the best response to health crisis needs. Outbreak response strategies derived from such modelling may include pharmaceutical distribution, immunisation campaigns, social distancing, prophylactic pharmaceuticals, medical care, bed surge, security and other requirements. Infectious disease modelling estimates are unavoidably subject to multiple interpretations, and full understanding of a model's limitations may be lost when provided from the disease modeller to public health practitioner to government policymaker...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Jenny A Walldorf, Kashmira A Date, Nandini Sreenivasan, Jennifer B Harris, Terri B Hyde
Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexis B Nienie, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Amandine Laffite, Patience Ngelinkoto, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Alphonse Matand, Crispin K Mulaji, Emmanuel M Biey, Pius T Mpiana, John Poté
The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Marie A Chattaway, Aaron O Aboderin, Kayode Fashae, Chinyere K Okoro, Japheth A Opintan, Iruka N Okeke
Fluoroquinolones came into widespread use in African countries in the early 2000s, after patents for the first generation of these drugs expired. By that time, quinolone antibacterial agents had been used intensively worldwide and resistant lineages of many bacterial species had evolved. We sought to understand which Gram negative enteric pandemic lineages have been reported from Africa, as well as the nature and transmission of any indigenous resistant clones. A systematic review of articles indexed in the Medline and AJOL literature databases was conducted...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Seif S Al-Abri, Doaa M Abdel-Hady, Salem S Al Mahrooqi, Hanan S Al-Kindi, Amina K Al-Jardani, Idris S Al-Abaidani
BACKGROUND: The number of travelers in Oman has increased significantly in the last 2 decades with an increase in the expatriate population workforce leading to the emergence of infections related to travel. This paper aims to highlight the burden of travel-related infections in Oman. METHOD: Our study is a descriptive record-based review and analysis of travel-associated diseases over a 14 year time period from 1999 to 2013. The data was sourced from the communicable disease surveillance system, and central public health laboratory results...
September 2015: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Elin A Gursky
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play a critical humanitarian role in the developing world. Over 100 NGOs currently operate in Sierra Leone, a country in West Africa that ranks 183 out of 187 in the United Nation's Human Development Index. Following a brutal 11-year war that ended in January 2002, the country has been unsuccessful at building a sufficiently resourced, robust, and anticipatory public health and medical care infrastructure. Consequently, Sierra Leone suffers from high levels of poverty, infant mortality, and limited access to safe drinking water, as well as morbidity from malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, hepatitis A, cholera, and typhoid fever...
October 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Marilaine Martins, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marco Antonio Saboia Moura, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva Santos, Valéria Saraceni, Maria Graças Gomes Saraiva
In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings...
2015: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
R W Mayega, M Musenero, I Nabukenya, Juliet Kiguli, W Bazeyo
BACKGROUND: Although Uganda is a high burden country for epidemics of infectious diseases, the pattern of epidemics has not yet been adequately documented. The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution, magnitude and characteristics of recent epidemics in Uganda, as a basis for informing policy on priorities for targeted prevention of epidemics. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative data was collected from the Epidemiological Surveillance Division of the Ministry of Health and the African Field Epidemiology Network through key informant interviews and a documents review...
June 2013: East African Journal of Public Health
Hai-xia Liu, Jing Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To analysis the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of the reported infectious diarrhea (other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid) cases in China in 2011. METHODS: A total of 836 591 reported infectious diarrhea cases were collected from "China Information System for Disease Prevention and Control" since first week to fifty-second weeks in 2011, 59 929 out of which were laboratory-confirmed. The information of thirty public health emergencies relevant with infectious diarrhea was collected from "Emergency Public Reporting System" between first week and fifty-second weeks in 2011...
April 2013: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Qiao Sun, Sheng-Jie Lai, Zhong-Jie Li, Ya-Jia Lan, Hong-Long Zhang, Dan Zhao, Lian-Mei Jin, Wei-Zhong Yang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the different thresholds of 'moving percentile method' for outbreak detection in the China Infectious Diseases Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS). METHODS: The thresholds of P(50), P(60), P(70), P(80) and P(90) were respectively adopted as the candidates of early warning thresholds on the moving percentile method. Aberration was detected through the reported cases of 19 notifiable infectious diseases nationwide from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010...
May 2011: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Suleiman Mzee Saidi, Shinji Yamasaki, Yoshio Lijima, Sam Kariuki
An unusually high number of sporadic cholera outbreaks have occurred in various parts of Kenya since January 2009. Clinical symptoms of cholera play an important role in the diagnosis and management of the disease, especially in resource-poor settings in most developing countries. We describe a case report of a patient who was treated for cholera according to symptoms at presentation to hospital. Non-typhoid Salmonella was later isolated and the patient's condition improved after administration of ciprofloxacin...
January 2011: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Glenn K M Lee, Kian Wee Tan, Kee Tai Goh, Annelies Wilder-Smith
INTRODUCTION: Singapore is a transition country in Southeast Asia that is both vulnerable and receptive to the introduction and re-introduction of imported communicable diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For a 10-year period between 1998 and 2007 we studied the trend, epidemiological characteristics, proportion of imported versus local transmission of malaria, viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), enteric fevers (typhoid and paratyphoid), cholera, chikungunya and SARS...
October 2010: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
François Mansotte, Thomas Margueron, Dominique Maison
French Guyana is located in South America, and it is confronted with an endemic situation where waterborne diseases are widespread, especially among those 30,000 people without access to drinking water. In 2007, two notices of the French High Council for Public Health were issued, one concerning vaccination against typhoid and the other on conditions for improving water supply in Guyana. The latter served as a basis for proposing and implementing actions to "improve water quality for those who did not have access to it"...
March 2010: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
David Rosner
Without the modern tools of surveillance, or the ability to develop a national vaccination campaign, local health departments were often on their own in preparing and combating the spread of the disease during the influenza epidemic of 1918. This article reviews the state of public health before the epidemic, seeking to place the reaction to the disease in the context of the evolution of public health. The epidemic struck at a critical time in the history of the nation and of public health, and we must explore not only the tools and technologies that were available to practitioners at the time, but also the authority provided by local and state public health practitioners to apply these tools...
April 2010: Public Health Reports
Heinz Flamm
Discussions in the Society of Physicians in Vienna about the connection between water contamination and typhoid outbreaks began in 1838. The basis of the water supply at that time was house wells partly drawing contaminated ground water and for a limited area the Kaiser-Ferdinand-Pipeline was useful. After many investigations on quantities and qualities of possible water sources and controversial discussions between Viennese politicians and the Society of Physicians, the latter strictly turned down the usage of surface water...
April 2010: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Włodzimierz Berner
In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918...
2009: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Włodzimierz Berner
Acute infectious diseases of high intensity, i.e. typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, followed by scarlet fever, measles, malaria, relapsing fever, whooping cough, diphtheria, smallpox and Asiatic cholera spreading after the World War I in Poland posed one of the most significant problems in the reviving country. Their incidence resulted not only from bad living conditions of the population but also from poor personal and environmental hygiene and lack of access to bacteriologically healthy drinking water...
2008: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Kiyosu Taniguchi, Makiko Yoshida, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Yuki Tada, Nobuhiko Okabe
Surveillance of imported infectious diseases is important because of the need for early detection of outbreaks of international concern as well as information of risk to the travelers. This paper attempts to review how the Japanese surveillance system deals with imported infectious diseases and reviews the trend of these diseases. The cases of acquired infection overseas were extracted from the surveillance data in 1999-2008. The incidence and rate of imported cases of a series of infectious diseases with more than one imported case were observed by the year of diagnosis and place of acquired infection...
November 2008: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
R B Williams
Chickens infected with the malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinceum produced green droppings: the predominant pigment was biliverdin. Droppings of identical appearance were produced by chicks injected with phenylhydrazine, a haemolytic agent: it is concluded that the catabolism of haemoglobin resulting at least in part from malarial haemolysis produces excess bile pigments which appear in the droppings. Other chicken diseases in which green droppings are "a characteristic objective symptom are fowl typhoid, Newcastle disease (Doyle's form), spirochaetosis and fowl cholera...
July 1985: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Louise A Kelly-Hope, Wladimir J Alonso, Vu Dinh Thiem, Do Gia Canh, Dang Duc Anh, Hyejon Lee, Mark A Miller
OBJECTIVE: In Vietnam, shigellosis/dysentery, typhoid fever, and cholera are important enteric diseases. To better understand their epidemiology, we determined temporal trends, seasonal patterns, and climatic factors associated with high risk periods in eight regions across Vietnam. METHODS: We quantified monthly cases and incidence rates (IR) for each region from national surveillance data (1991-2001). High- and low-disease periods were defined from the highest and lowest IRs (1 SD above and below the mean) and from outbreaks from positive outliers (4 SDs higher in 1 month or 2 SDs higher in > or = 2 consecutive months)...
January 2008: Environmental Health Perspectives
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"