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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319561/pediatric-enteric-neuropathies-diagnosis-and-current-management
#1
Maggie L Westfal, Allan M Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurointestinal diseases are increasingly recognized as causes of significant gastrointestinal morbidity in children. This review highlights the most common pediatric enteric neuropathies and their diagnosis and management, emphasizing insights and discoveries from the most recent literature available. RECENT FINDINGS: The embryologic and histopathologic causes of enteric neuropathies are varied. They range from congenital aganglionosis in Hirschsprung disease, to autoimmune-mediated loss of neuronal subtypes in esophageal achalasia and Chagas disease, to degenerative neuropathies in some cases of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and gastroparesis...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216140/expression-profiles-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-cd133-cd44-musashi-1-and-epcam-in-the-cardiac-mucosa-barrett-s-esophagus-early-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-advanced-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-sequence
#2
Anna Mokrowiecka, Lothar Veits, Christina Falkeis, Jacek Musial, Radzislaw Kordek, Mariusz Lochowski, Jozef Kozak, Agnieszka Wierzchniewska-Lawska, Michael Vieth, Ewa Malecka-Panas
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus (BE), which develops as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a preneoplastic condition for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A new hypothesis suggests that cancer is a disease of stem cells, however, their expression and pathways in BE - EAC sequence are not fully elucidated yet. AIMS: We used a panel of putative cancer stem cells markers to identify stem cells in consecutive steps of BE-related cancer progression. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 58 patients with normal cardiac mucosa (n=5), BE (n=14), early EAC (pT1) from mucosal resection (n=17) and advanced EAC (pT1-T4) from postoperative specimens (n=22)...
December 30, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193907/stem-cell-autocrine-cxcl12-cxcr4-stimulates-invasion-and-metastasis-of-esophageal-cancer
#3
Xingwei Wang, Yan Cao, Shirong Zhang, Zhihui Chen, Ling Fan, Xiaochun Shen, Shiwen Zhou, Dongfeng Chen
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive tract. The greatest obstacle to the curing of esophageal cancer is its propensity to spread and metastasize. Esophageal cancer stem cells are considered the source for recurrence and metastasis of the tumors. While clinical evidence suggested that continuous up-regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer, but the role and mechanism of CXCL12/CXCR4 in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer has not been reported by far...
February 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153569/oral-administration-of-conditioned-medium-obtained-from-mesenchymal-stem-cell-culture-prevents-subsequent-stricture-formation-after-esophageal-submucosal-dissection-in-pigs
#4
Takeshi Mizushima, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Hidetaka Hosono, Kenichi Yamahara, Momoko Tsuda, Yuichi Shimizu, Mototsugu Kato, Masahiro Asaka, Naoya Sakamoto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for esophageal cancer often causes postoperative stricture when more than three fourths of the circumference of the esophagus is dissected. Mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable cell source in regenerative medicine, and conditioned medium (CM) obtained from mesenchymal stem cells reportedly inhibits inflammation. In this study we evaluated whether CM could prevent esophageal stricture after ESD. METHODS: We resected a semi-circumference of pig esophagus by ESD...
January 31, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131903/ov6-cancer-stem-cells-drive-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-progression-through-atg7-dependent-%C3%AE-catenin-stabilization
#5
Chao Wang, Fei-Hu Yan, Jia-Jun Zhang, Hai Huang, Qin-Shu Cui, Wei Dong, Wei-Wei Zhang, Yue Zhao, He-Zhong Chen, Tie-Jun Zhao
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells that exhibit capacities for tumor initiation and progression. Identifying CSCs and their related pathways is necessary for the development of new therapeutic targets against tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of CSCs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains elusive. This study demonstrated that OV6 expression was closely associated with ESCC patients' clinical outcome and prognosis. OV6(+) cells possessed stronger stem-like properties, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity, chemo-resistance, invasion, and metastasis...
January 25, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106103/sox2-and-rb1-in-esophageal-small-cell-carcinoma-their-possible-involvement-in-pathogenesis
#6
Hirotaka Ishida, Atsuko Kasajima, Takashi Kamei, Tsuyoshi Miura, Naomi Oka, Samaneh Yazdani, Yohei Ozawa, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Akira Sakurada, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Yoichi Tanaka, Masafumi Kurosumi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Noriaki Ohuchi, Hironobu Sasano
Clinicopathological features and pathogenesis of esophageal small-cell carcinoma remain unclear. We hypothesized common cellular origin and pathogenesis in small-cell carcinoma of esophagus and lung associated with SOX2 overexpression and loss of Rb1. Expression of squamous-basal markers (CK5/6 and p40), glandular markers (CK18 and CEA), SOX2, and Rb1 were evaluated in 15 esophageal small-cell carcinomas, 46 poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and 88 small-cell lung carcinoma, as well as 16 embryonic esophagus...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095111/increased-numb-protein-expression-predicts-poor-clinical-outcomes-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#7
Zhenguo Liu, Canqiao Luo, Weixiong Yang, Kefeng Wang, Chuang Hu, Jianyong Zou, Hua Zhu, Liwu Fu, Jing Nie, Chao Cheng
Numb is a protein whose asymmetric segregation during cell division determines cell fate and has numerous functions relevant to multiple fields of study, including developmental neurobiology and cancer biology. Little is known about the role of Numb in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological esophageal carcinoma in Asian populations. In this study, we focused on the expression and biological functions of Numb in the context of ESCC. From analysis of tissue microarrays with 212 patients, it was found that Numb was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues compared to corresponding non-cancerous tissues...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007661/development-and-stem-cells-of-the-esophagus
#8
REVIEW
Yongchun Zhang, Ming Jiang, Eugene Kim, Sijie Lin, Kuancan Liu, Xiaopeng Lan, Jianwen Que
The esophagus is derived from the anterior portion of the developmental intermediate foregut, a structure that also gives rise to other organs including the trachea, lung, and stomach. Genetic studies have shown that multiple signaling pathways (e.g. Bmp) and transcription factors (e.g. SOX2) are required for the separation of the esophagus from the neighboring respiratory system. Notably, some of these signaling pathways and transcription factors continue to play essential roles in the subsequent morphogenesis of the esophageal epithelium which undergoes a simple columnar-to-stratified squamous conversion...
December 19, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002789/microrna-17-is-downregulated-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-promotes-a-radioresistant-phenotype
#9
Niamh Lynam-Lennon, Susan Heavey, Gary Sommerville, Becky A S Bibby, Brendan Ffrench, Jennifer Quinn, Claudia Gasch, John J O'Leary, Michael F Gallagher, John V Reynolds, Stephen G Maher
Resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) remains a critical barrier to the effective treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a distinct subpopulation of cells implicated in the resistance of tumors to anti-cancer therapy. However, their role in the resistance of EAC to CRT is largely unknown. In this study, using a novel in vitro isogenic model of radioresistant EAC, we demonstrate that radioresistant EAC cells have enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo, increased expression of CSC-associated markers and enhanced holoclone forming ability...
December 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987372/six1-maintains-tumor-basal-cells-via-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-pathway-and-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-esophageal-cancer
#10
Takao Nishimura, Masashi Tamaoki, Rie Komatsuzaki, Naohide Oue, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Masayuki Komatsu, Kazuhiko Aoyagi, Keiko Minashi, Fumiko Chiwaki, Hisashi Shinohara, Yuji Tachimori, Wataru Yasui, Manabu Muto, Teruhiko Yoshida, Yoshiharu Sakai, Hiroki Sasaki
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Although improvement in both surgical techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been achieved, the 5-year survival rate of locally advanced tumors was, at best, still 55%. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms of the malignancy is eagerly awaited. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been reported to have critical biological roles for cancer cell stemness, whereas little is known about it in ESCC...
February 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976863/development-of-highly-selective-fluorescent-probe-enabling-flow-cytometric-isolation-of-aldh3a1-positive-viable-cells
#11
Atsushi Yagishita, Tasuku Ueno, Hiroyasu Esumi, Hideyuki Saya, Kazuhiro Kaneko, Katsuya Tsuchihara, Yasuteru Urano
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is overexpressed in some subpopulations of stem cells and cancer cells. We have designed and synthesized the first selective fluorescent probe for class 3 ALDH (ALDH3A1). This probe enabled the visualization of ALDH3A1-positive cells by fluorescence microscopy as well as flow-cytometric isolation of ALDH3A1-positive viable cells from a human Caucasian esophageal squamous cell line (OE21) that heterogeneously expresses ALDH3A1.
December 15, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974706/tm4sf1-promotes-the-self-renewal-of-esophageal-cancer-stem-like-cells-and-is-regulated-by-mir-141
#12
Lei Xue, Xiying Yu, Xingran Jiang, Xin Deng, Linlin Mao, Liping Guo, Jinhu Fan, Qinqxia Fan, Liuxing Wang, Shih-Hsin Lu
Cancer stem-like cells have been identified in primary human tumors and cancer cell lines. Previously we found TM4SF1 gene was highly expressed in side population (SP) cells from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines, but the role and underlying mechanism of TM4SF1 in ESCC remain unclear. In this study, we observed TM4SF1 was up-regulated but miR-141 was down-regulated in SP cells isolated from ESCC cell lines. TM4SF1 could stimulate the self-renewal ability and carcinogenicity of esophageal cancer stem-like cells, and promote cell invasion and migration...
December 10, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925010/the-effects-of-a-simple-method-for-cryopreservation-and-thawing-procedures-on-cord-blood-derived-dc-based-esophageal-carcinoma-vaccine
#13
J Yu, L Xie, S Chen, J Zhang, G Guo, B Chen
BACKGROUND: Producing sufficient numbers of DCs at one time point and subsequently cryopreserving the generated DCs in ready-for-use aliquots for clinical application is useful in cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a simplified cryopreservation method and thawing procedures acting on the biological characteristics and specific cytotoxic activity of cord blood derived DC-based esophageal carcinoma vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood using CD34+ Progenitor Cell Isolation Kit by magnetic cell sorting system (MACS)...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905054/crosstalk-between-shh-and-stemness-state-signaling-pathways-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Maryam Najafi, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Abolfazl Rad, Mahtab Dastpak, Samaneh Boroumand-Noughabi, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard
The expression of GLI1 as a downstream gene of sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway, studied in a variety of cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the interaction of Hh with other developmental pathways needs to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of GLI1 expression with transcription factors (TFs) of stem cell signaling pathways, and their association with clinico-pathological data of ESCC. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of GLI1 mRNA in 49 ESCC patients, and analyzed the correlation between GLI1 and selected TFs...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872710/linc-ror-and-its-spliced-variants-2-and-4-are-significantly-up-regulated-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Reza Sahebi, Mahshid Malakootian, Baharak Balalaee, Alireza Shahryari, Masoud Khoshnia, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Abdolvahab Moradi, Seyed Javad Mowla
OBJECTIVES: Similar characteristics of molecular pathways between cellular reprogramming events and tumorigenesis have been accentuated in recent years. Reprogramming-related transcription factors, also known as Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC), are also well-known oncogenes promoting cancer initiation, progression, and cellular transformation into cancer stem cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a major class of RNA molecules with emerging roles in stem cell pluripotency, cellular reprogramming, cellular transformation, and tumorigenesis...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826618/valproic-acid-inhibits-irradiation-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Ayako Kanamoto, Itasu Ninomiya, Shinichi Harada, Tomoya Tsukada, Koichi Okamoto, Shinichi Nakanuma, Seisho Sakai, Isamu Makino, Jun Kinoshita, Hironori Hayashi, Katsunobu Oyama, Tomoharu Miyashita, Hidehiro Tajima, Hiroyuki Takamura, Sachio Fushida, Tetsuo Ohta
Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, and is characterized by poor response to current therapy and a dismal survival rate. In this study we investigated whether irradiation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) TE9 cells and whether the classic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) suppresses these changes. First, we showed that 2 Gy irradiation induced spindle cell-like morphologic changes, decreased expression of membranous E-cadherin, upregulated vimentin expression, and altered the localization of β-catenin from its usual membrane-bound location to cytoplasm in TE9 cells...
November 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822417/tumor-endothelial-cells-promote-metastasis-and-cancer-stem-cell-like-phenotype-through-elevated-epiregulin-in-esophageal-cancer
#17
Lichao Sun, Jian Pan, Long Yu, Huiqi Liu, Xiong Shu, Lixin Sun, Jinning Lou, Zhihua Yang, Yuliang Ran
Tumor endothelial cells have been found to be associated with metastasis and cancer progression. In this study, we reported that human esophageal cancer endothelial cells (HECEC), unlike corresponding human esophageal normal endothelial cells (HENEC) displayed several distinct feature couple with unique gene expression profile. Further studies showed that HECEC can enhance migration, invasion and self-renewal properties of esophageal carcinoma cell in vitro by a direct cell-cell interaction. In vivo assay demonstrated that HECEC could significantly enhance the invasion and lung metastasis of esophageal cancer cells...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807078/goblet-cell-ratio-in-combination-with-differentiation-and-stem-cell-markers-in-barrett-esophagus-allow-distinction-of-patients-with-and-without-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#18
Raphael Schellnegger, Anne Quante, Susanne Rospleszcz, Martina Schernhammer, Bettina Höhl, Moritz Tobiasch, Agnieszka Pastula, Anna Brandtner, Julian A Abrams, Konstantin Strauch, Roland M Schmid, Michael Vieth, Timothy C Wang, Michael Quante
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is mirrored by the increasing prevalence of Barrett esophagus, a precursor lesion resulting in a large number of individuals "at risk" for this lethal malignancy. Among patients with Barrett esophagus, only about 0.3% annually will develop EAC. Because large numbers of patients are followed in endoscopic surveillance, there is a need for risk prediction among a growing population of patients with Barrett esophagus. We identified four potential biomarkers from an inflammation (IL1β)-dependent mouse model of Barrett esophagus and tested them in 189 patients with Barrett esophagus with and without high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/early cancer (T1)...
January 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748881/expression-status-of-cd44-and-cd133-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-followed-by-radical-esophagectomy
#19
Koichi Okamoto, Itasu Ninomiya, Yoshinao Ohbatake, Atsushi Hirose, Tomoya Tsukada, Shinichi Nakanuma, Seisho Sakai, Jun Kinoshita, Isamu Makino, Keishi Nakamura, Hironori Hayashi, Katsunobu Oyama, Masafumi Inokuchi, Hisatoshi Nakagawara, Tomoharu Miyashita, Tajima Hidehiro, Hiroyuki Takamura, Sachio Fushida, Tetsuo Ohta
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have self-renewal and pluripotency capabilities and contribute to cancer progression and chemoresistance. It has been proposed that the treatment resistance and heterogeneity of CSCs are deeply involved in the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The objective of this study was to identify the influence of the expression status of the CSC markers CD44 and CD133 on chemotherapeutic efficacy and prognosis in ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)...
December 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742014/kdm4c-a-h3k9me3-histone-demethylase-is-involved-in-the-maintenance-of-human-escc-initiating-cells-by-epigenetically-enhancing-sox2-expression
#20
Xiang Yuan, Jinyu Kong, Zhikun Ma, Na Li, Ruinuo Jia, Yiwen Liu, Fuyou Zhou, Qimin Zhan, Gang Liu, Shegan Gao
Our studies investigating the existence of tumor-initiating cell (TIC) populations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) had identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from ESCC patient-derived tumor specimens marked by an ALDH(bri+) phenotype bear stem cell-like features. Importantly, KDM4C, a histone demethylase was enhanced in ALDH(bri+) subpopulation, suggesting that strategies interfering with KDM4C may be able to target these putative TICs. In the present study, by genetic and chemical means, we demonstrated that, KDM4C blockade selectively decreased the ESCC ALDH(bri+) TICs population in vitro and specifically targeted the TICs in ALDH(bri+)-derived xenograft, retarding engraftment...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
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