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M2 polarization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148269/salidroside-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-improves-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-through-microglia-polarization-regulation
#1
Chenggui Wang, Qingqing Wang, Yiting Lou, Jianxiang Xu, Zhenhua Feng, Yu Chen, Qian Tang, Gang Zheng, Zengjie Zhang, Yaosen Wu, Naifeng Tian, Yifei Zhou, Huazi Xu, Xiaolei Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe neurological disease; however, few drugs have been proved to treat SCI effectively. Neuroinflammation is the major pathogenesis of SCI secondary injury and considered to be the therapeutic target of SCI. Salidroside (Sal) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in airway, adipose and myocardial tissue; however, the role of Sal in SCI therapeutics has not been clarified. In this study, we showed that Sal could improve the functional recovery of spinal cord in rats as revealed by increased BBB locomotor rating scale, angle of incline, and decreased cavity of spinal cord injury and apoptosis of neurons in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145790/innate-immunity-in-cardiac-myxomas-and-its-pathological-and-clinical-correlations
#3
Anna Di Vito, Gianluca Santise, Chiara Mignogna, Eusebio Chiefari, Gabriella Cardillo, Ivan Presta, Franco Arturi, Natalia Malara, Francesco Brunetti, Annalidia Donato, Domenico Maisano, Stefania Leonetti, Daniele Maselli, Tullio Barni, Giuseppe Donato
Cardiac myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumor. We investigated the immunohistochemical properties of 11 surgically excised cardiac myxomas, in order to analyze the correlation between macrophages and mast cell populations and clinical parameters. CD68(+)/CD163(-)/iNOS(-) (M0) cells represent the most abundant macrophage phenotype; however, CD68(+)/CD163(+) cells (M2) were also frequent. CD68(+)/iNOS(+) (M1) elements were rare. Mast cells, defined as a population of c-kit (CD117)(+) and/or tryptase(+) cells were also detected...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144988/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-enhances-melanoma-tumor-growth-via-differential-effect-on-m1-and-m2-polarized-macrophages-in-mouse-model
#4
Jae-Wook Lee, Sojin Park, Hae-Kyoung Han, Myung Chan Gye, Eun-Yi Moon
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers that influence sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated whether di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects macrophage polarization that are associated with tumor initiation and progression. No changes were observed in LPS- or ConA-stimulated in vitro spleen B or T cell proliferation for 48 h, respectively. In contrast, macrophage functions were inhibited in response to DEHP for 12 h as judged by LPS-induced H2O2 and NO production and zymosan A-mediated phagocytosis...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#5
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138531/anti-inflammatory-strategy-for-m2-microglial-polarization-using-retinoic-acid-loaded-nanoparticles
#6
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Inflammatory mechanisms triggered by microglial cells are involved in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, hindering repair. Herein, we propose the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NP) as a means to modulate microglia response towards an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype (M2). RA-NP were first confirmed to be internalized by N9 microglial cells; nanoparticles did not affect cell survival at concentrations below 100 μg/mL. Then, immunocytochemical studies were performed to assess the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135917/asperlin-inhibits-lps-evoked-foam-cell-formation-and-prevents-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#7
Yue Zhou, Ran Chen, Dong Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Wenhan Lin
Asperlin is a marine-derived natural product with antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In the present study, we isolated asperlin from a marine Aspergillus versicolor LZD4403 fungus and investigated its anti-atherosclerotic effects in vitro and in vivo. Asperlin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- but not oxidated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-evoked foam cell formation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Supplementation with asperlin also suppressed LPS-elicited production of pro-inflammatory factors in RAW264...
November 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#8
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131526/amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mitigate-osteoarthritis-progression-in-a-synovial-macrophage-mediated-in-vitro-explant-co-culture-model
#9
Natasha Topoluk, Kathleen Steckbeck, Sandra Siatkowski, Brian Burnikel, John Tokish, Jeremy Mercuri
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the synovial joint marked by chronic, low-grade inflammation leading to cartilage destruction. Regenerative medicine strategies for mitigating OA progression and/or promoting cartilage regeneration must be assessed using models that mimic the hallmarks of OA. More specifically, these models should maintain synovial macrophage phenotype in their native micro-environment. Herein, an in vitro co-culture model of patient-matched human OA cartilage and synovium was assessed for viability, macrophage phenotype, and progressive cartilage destruction in the presence of an inflammatory milieu...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131381/long-non-coding-rna-cox-2-prevents-immune-evasion-and-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-altering-m1-m2-macrophage-polarization
#10
Yibiao Ye, Yunxiuxiu Xu, Yu Lai, Wenguang He, Yanshan Li, Ruomei Wang, Xinxi Luo, Xinxi Luo, Rufu Chen, Tao Chen
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages have been shown to demonstrate a high level of plasticity, with the ability to undergo dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. We investigate long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) cox-2 in macrophage polarization and the regulatory mechanism functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce RAW264.7 macrophages into M1 type, and IL-4 was to induce RAW264.7 macrophages into M2 type. We selected mouse hepatic cell line Hepal-6 and hepatoma cell line HepG2 for co-incubation with M1 or M2 macrophages...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129540/inhibitory-role-of-oxytocin-on-tnf%C3%AE-expression-assessed-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
S Garrido-Urbani, N Deblon, A L Poher, A Caillon, P Ropraz, F Rohner-Jeanrenaud, J Altirriba
AIM: Oxytocin administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, monkeys and humans decreases body weight and fat mass with concomitant improvements in glucose metabolism. Moreover, several studies show an immunomodulatory role of oxytocin in a number of settings (such as atherosclerosis, injury, sepsis). This study aims to shed some light on the effects of oxytocin on macrophage polarization and cytokine production, as well as its possible impact on these parameters in adipose tissue in DIO mice with impaired glucose metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124400/characterization-of-m1-and-m2-polarization-of-macrophages-in-vascularized-human-dermo-epidermal-skin-substitutes-in-vivo
#12
Agnes S Klar, Katarzyna Michalak-Mićka, Thomas Biedermann, Claudia Simmen-Meuli, Ernst Reichmann, Martin Meuli
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Vascularized bio-engineered human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (vascDESS) hold promise for treating burn patients, including those with severe full-thickness wounds. We have previously shown that vascDESS promote wound healing by enhanced influx of macrophages and granulocytes. Immediately following transplantation, macrophages infiltrate the graft and differentiate into a pro-inflammatory (M1) or a pro-healing M2 phenotype. The aim of this study was to characterize the activation state of macrophages infiltrating skin transplants at distinct time points following transplantation...
November 9, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119680/nicorandil-regulates-the-macrophage-skewing-and-ameliorates-myofibroblasts-by-inhibition-of-rhoa-rho-kinase-signalling-in-infarcted-rats
#13
Tsung-Ming Lee, Shinn-Zong Lin, Nen-Chung Chang
We have demonstrated that ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channel agonists attenuated fibrosis; however, the mechanism remained unclear. Since RhoA has been identified as a mediator of cardiac fibrosis, we sought to determine whether the anti-fibrotic effects of KATP channel agonists were mediated via regulating macrophage phenotype and fibroblast differentiation by a RhoA/RhoA-kinase-dependent pathway. Wistar male rats after induction of myocardial infarction were randomized to either vehicle, nicorandil, an antagonist of KATP channel glibenclamide, an antagonist of ROCK fasudil, or a combination of nicorandil and glibenclamide or fasudil and glibenclamide starting 24 hrs after infarction...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119117/blocking-age-rage-signaling-improved-functional-disorders-of-macrophages-in-diabetic-wound
#14
Qi Wang, Guanya Zhu, Xiaozan Cao, Jiaoyun Dong, Fei Song, Yiwen Niu
Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) accumulate in diabetic wounds. Interactions between AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) leads to dermatologic problems in diabetes. Macrophage, which plays important roles in wound healing, highly expresses RAGE. Therefore, we investigated whether RAGE-expressing macrophages might be responsible for impaired wound healing on diabetes. We used anti-RAGE antibody applied topically on diabetic wounds. After confirming that wound healing was improved in anti-RAGE antibody group compared with normal mice, our results showed that macrophages appeared insufficient in the early stage and fading away slowly in the later proliferative phase compared with the control group, which was ameliorated in anti-RAGE antibody-applied wounds...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115630/tipe2-governs-macrophage-polarization-via-negative-regulation-of-mtorc1
#15
Yuan Jiang, Qiang Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yuzhi Gao, Libing Jiang, Zhimin Chen
Macrophages can be polarized into the inflammatory M1 lineage or the immunomodulatory M2 lineage, depending on the differential tissue microenvironment signaling, specific pathogens or cytokine stimulation. Tumor necrosis factor α‑induced protein 8‑like protein 2 (TIPE2) has been demonstrated to negatively regulate inflammation by inhibiting the Toll‑like receptor (TLR) pathway. The present study utilized murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) as the model of undifferentiated (M0) macrophages to study the roles of TIPE2 in the differential polarization status of BMDMs...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114223/the-human-amnion-epithelial-cell-secretome-decreases-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice-with-chronic-liver-fibrosis
#16
Majid Alhomrani, Jeanne Correia, Marcus Zavou, Bryan Leaw, Nathan Kuk, Rong Xu, Mohamed I Saad, Alexander Hodge, David W Greening, Rebecca Lim, William Sievert
Background: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary collagen-secreting cells in the liver. While HSCs are the major cell type involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, hepatic macrophages also play an important role in mediating fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. Previously, we observed a reduction in HSC activation, proliferation, and collagen synthesis following exposure to human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) and hAEC-conditioned media (hAEC-CM). This suggested that specific factors secreted by hAEC might be effective in ameliorating liver fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114096/fingolimod-protects-against-ischemic-white-matter-damage-by-modulating-microglia-toward-m2-polarization-via-stat3-pathway
#17
Chuan Qin, Wen-Hui Fan, Qian Liu, Ke Shang, Madhuvika Murugan, Long-Jun Wu, Wei Wang, Dai-Shi Tian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter (WM) ischemic injury, a major neuropathological feature of cerebral small vessel diseases, is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment in later life. The pathogenesis of demyelination after WM ischemic damage are often accompanied by microglial activation. Fingolimod (FTY720) was approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis for its immunosuppression property. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a WM ischemia model...
November 7, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113324/unfolded-protein-response-signaling-impacts-macrophage-polarity-to-modulate-breast-cancer-cell-clearance-and-melanoma-immune-checkpoint-therapy-responsiveness
#18
David R Soto-Pantoja, Adam S Wilson, Kenysha Yj Clear, Brian Westwood, Pierre L Triozzi, Katherine L Cook
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress pathway controlled by GRP78 to mediate IRE1, PERK, and ATF6 signaling. We show that targeting GRP78, IRE1, and PERK differentially regulates macrophage polarization. Specifically, PERK targeting enhanced macrophage proliferation and macrophage-mediated killing but not GRP78 or IRE1. Targeting UPR in cancer cells also differentially affected macrophage cytolytic capacity. Tumoral IRE1 or GRP78 inhibition enhanced macrophage-mediated cancer cell clearance. Conditioned media from GRP78-silenced cancer cells caused reciprocal regulation of CD80 and CD206, suggesting control of plasticity by secreted factors...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113264/cancer-cell-expressed-b7-h3-regulates-the-differentiation-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-human-colorectal-carcinoma
#19
Yong Mao, Lujun Chen, Fengming Wang, Dawei Zhu, Xiaosong Ge, Dong Hua, Jing Sun
Co-stimulatory molecule B7 homolog 3 protein (B7-H3) has been described as an important tumor antigen in various human tumors. The exact role of B7-H3 in tumor progression and its receptor are still ambiguous. The phenotype and the function of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in human solid tumors are complicated and could contribute to the shaping of the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, B7-H3 expression and lymphocyte infiltration were investigated by immunohistochemistry in 117 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108477/hyperthermia-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-inflammation-and-the-cerebral-vasculature
#20
Jessie Truettner, Helen M Bramlett, W Dalton Dietrich
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion represents the majority of TBIs brain trauma in the United States. The pathophysiology of mTBI is complex and may include both focal and diffuse injury patterns. In addition to altered circuit dysfunction and diffuse traumatic axonal injury (DTAI), chronic neuroinflammation has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of mTBI. Recently, our laboratory has reported the detrimental effects of mild hyperthermic mTBI in terms of worsening histopathological and behavioral outcomes...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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