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M2 polarization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926118/chop-induced-loss-of-intestinal-epithelial-stemness-contributes-to-bile-duct-ligation-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury
#1
Runping Liu, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Zhiming Huang, Derrick Zhao, Bhagyalaxmi Sukka Ganesh, Guanhua Lai, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Arun J Sanyal, Huiping Zhou
Impaired intestinal barrier function promotes the progression of various liver diseases including cholestatic liver disease. The close association of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with inflammatory bowel disease highlights the importance of the gut-liver axis. It has been reported that bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver fibrosis is significantly reduced in C/EBP homologous protein knock out (CHOP(-/-) ) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that BDL induces striking and acute hepatic ER stress responses after 1 day, which return to normal after 3 days...
September 19, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924090/porcine-alveolar-macrophage-polarization-is-involved-in-inhibition-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-replication
#2
Longtao Wang, Shouping Hu, Qiang Liu, Yiru Li, Lu Xu, Zhuo Zhang, Xuehui Cai, Xijun He
Macrophage polarization is a process by which macrophages acquire a distinct phenotypic and functional profile in response to microenvironmental signals. The classically and alternatively activated (M1 and M2, respectively) macrophage phenotypes are defined by the specific molecular characteristics induced in response to prototypic pro- and anti-inflammatory cues. In this study, we used LPS/IFN-γ and IL-4 to stimulate porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in vitro and investigated the expression changes of several novel markers during macrophage polarization...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915705/promising-landscape-for-regulating-macrophage-polarization-epigenetic-viewpoint
#3
REVIEW
Dexi Zhou, Kui Yang, Lu Chen, Wen Zhang, Zhenyu Xu, Jian Zuo, Hui Jiang, Jiajie Luan
Macrophages are critical myeloid cells with the hallmark of phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. Macrophages phenotypes are commonly described as classically-activated M1 and alternatively-activated M2 macrophages which play an essential role in the tissues homeostasis and diseases pathogenesis. Alternations of macrophage polarization and function states require precise regulation of target-gene expression. Emerging data demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms and transcriptional factors are becoming increasingly appreciated in the orchestration of macrophage polarization in response to local environmental signals...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912781/microrna-dynamic-regulators-of-macrophage-polarization-and-plasticity
#4
REVIEW
Jezrom Bokcaerin Self-Fordham, Afsar Raza Naqvi, Juhi Raju Uttamani, Varun Kulkarni, Salvador Nares
The ability of a healthy immune system to clear the plethora of antigens it encounters incessantly relies on the enormous plasticity displayed by the comprising cell types. Macrophages (MΦs) are crucial member of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) that constantly patrol the peripheral tissues and are actively recruited to the sites of injury and infection. In tissues, infiltrating monocytes replenish MΦ. Under the guidance of the local micro-milieu, MΦ can be activated to acquire specialized functional phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912535/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-involvement-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-in-methamphetamine-mediated-microglial-polarization
#5
Jie Chao, Yuan Zhang, Longfei Du, Rongbin Zhou, Xiaodong Wu, Kai Shen, Honghong Yao
Our previous study demonstrated that the sigma-1 receptor is involved in methamphetamine-induced microglial apoptosis and death; however, whether the sigma-1 receptor is involved in microglial activation as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the involvement of the sigma-1 receptor in methamphetamine-mediated microglial activation. The expression of σ-1R, iNOS, arginase and SOCS was examined by Western blot; activation of cell signaling pathways was detected by Western blot analysis...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910616/neuroimmunology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#6
REVIEW
Yasir N Jassam, Saef Izzy, Michael Whalen, Dorian B McGavern, Joseph El Khoury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and disability, with a considerable socioeconomic burden. Heterogeneity of pathoanatomical subtypes and diversity in the pathogenesis and extent of injury contribute to differences in the course and outcome of TBI. Following the primary injury, extensive and lasting damage is sustained through a complex cascade of events referred to as "secondary injury." Neuroinflammation is proposed as an important manipulable aspect of secondary injury in animal and human studies...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904022/pi3k%C3%AE-ablation-does-not-promote-diabetes-in-db-db-mice-but-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-reduces-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis
#7
Ludovic Breasson, Claudia Sardi, Barbara Becattini, Fabio Zani, Giovanni Solinas
PI3Kγ has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance; however, previous studies have indicated that PI3Kγ activity in pancreatic β-cells is required for normal insulin secretion in response to glucose. Hence, a possible deterioration of insulin secretion capacity in patients who are predisposed to the failure of pancreatic β-cell function is a major concern for the pharmacologic inhibition of PI3Kγ. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of PI3Kγ ablation in db/db diabetic mice, a genetic model of obesity-driven β-cell failure and diabetes...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901399/downregulated-socs1-expression-activates-the-jak1-stat1-pathway-and-promotes-polarization-of-macrophages-into-m1-type
#8
Yan-Bing Liang, Hao Tang, Zhi-Bin Chen, Li-Jin Zeng, Jing-Guo Wu, Wen Yang, Zhen-Yu Li, Zhong-Fu Ma
Macrophage polarization is flexible, and involves in different signaling pathways and various transcription factors. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) is an important inhibitor of cytokine signaling pathways and also a key physiological regulator for natural and acquired immunity systems. Following transfection of SOCS1 short hairpin (sh)RNA into mouse macrophage cells, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the mRNA levels of Janus kinase (JAK)1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 increased significantly...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899684/glycoprotein-non-melanoma-clone-b-regulates-the-crosstalk-between-macrophages-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-wound-repair
#9
Bing Yu, Talib Alboslemy, Fayez Safadi, Min-Ho Kim
The process of wound repair requires the coordinated participation of multiple types of cells, which are sequentially recruited during the healing process. In response to tissue injury, both macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited to the site of injury, where they participate in the repair process. Despite considerable understanding on the role of each cell type in the process of wound repair, the nature of the dynamic interplay between these two cell types and how this interaction influences the process of wound repair are not well understood...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892747/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-exerts-anti-inflammatory-property-through-regulating-murine-macrophages-polarization-in-vitro
#10
Jia-Xi Duan, Yong Zhou, Ai-Yuan Zhou, Xin-Xin Guan, Tian Liu, Hui-Hui Yang, Hui Xie, Ping Chen
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a condition resulting from direct or indirect lung injury associated with high mortality and morbidity. The phenotype of macrophages in lung contributes to the pathological progress of ALI. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in lung, and attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats. However, the exact effect of CGRP on the activation of macrophages remains unknown. Here we investigate the effect of CGRP on the macrophages activation and inflammation in murine macrophages in vitro...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892492/hif-1%C3%AE-is-a-key-regulator-in-potentiating-suppressor-activity-and-limiting-the-microbicidal-capacity-of-mdsc-like-cells-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#11
Akil Hammami, Belma Melda Abidin, Tania Charpentier, Aymeric Fabié, Annie-Pier Duguay, Krista M Heinonen, Simona Stäger
Leishmania donovani is known to induce myelopoiesis and to dramatically increase extramedullary myelopoiesis. This results in splenomegaly, which is then accompanied by disruption of the splenic microarchitecture, a chronic inflammatory environment, and immunosuppression. Chronically inflamed tissues are typically hypoxic. The role of hypoxia on myeloid cell functions during visceral leishmaniasis has not yet been studied. Here we show that L. donovani promotes the output from the bone marrow of monocytes with a regulatory phenotype that function as safe targets for the parasite...
September 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891938/time-course-of-the-phenotype-of-blood-and-bone-marrow-monocytes-and-macrophages-in-the-lung-after-cigarette-smoke-exposure-in-vivo
#12
Camila Oliveira da Silva, Andréa Monte-Alto-Costa, Mariana Renovato-Martins, Filipe Jorge Viana Nascimento, Samuel Dos Santos Valença, Vincent Lagente, Luís Cristóvão Pôrto, Tatiana Victoni
Alveolar macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Monocytes are recruited from blood during inflammation and then mature into alveolar macrophages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) at different times in lung macrophages and monocytes from blood and bone marrow in mice. Male mice (C57BL/6, n = 45) were divided into groups: control, CS 5 days, CS 14 days and CS 30 days. Five days' CS exposure induced a pronounced influx of neutrophils and macrophages in the lung associated with increased levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12...
September 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887514/dormant-5-lipoxygenase-in-inflammatory-macrophages-is-triggered-by-exogenous-arachidonic-acid
#13
Carlos A Sorgi, Simona Zarini, Sarah A Martin, Raphael L Sanchez, Rodrigo F Scandiuzzi, Miguel A Gijón, Carlos Guijas, Nicolas Flamand, Robert C Murphy, Lucia H Faccioli
The differentiation of resident tissue macrophages from embryonic precursors and that of inflammatory macrophages from bone marrow cells leads to macrophage heterogeneity. Further plasticity is displayed through their ability to be polarized as subtypes M1 and M2 in a cell culture microenvironment. However, the detailed regulation of eicosanoid production and its involvement in macrophage biology remains unclear. Using a lipidomics approach, we demonstrated that eicosanoid production profiles between bone marrow-derived (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages differed drastically...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886998/propolis-reversed-cigarette-smoke-induced-emphysema-through-macrophage-alternative-activation-independent-of-nrf2
#14
Marina Valente Barroso, Isabella Cattani-Cavalieri, Lycia de Brito-Gitirana, Alain Fautrel, Vincent Lagente, Martina Schmidt, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Bruna Romana-Souza, Samuel Santos Valença, Manuella Lanzetti
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable and progressive disease. Emphysema is the principal manifestation of COPD, and the main cause of this condition is cigarette smoke (CS). Natural products have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema, but there are few reports in the literature regarding therapeutic approaches to emphysema. We hypothesized that supplementation with natural extracts would repair lung damage in emphysema caused by CS exposure...
August 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885077/innate-immunity-may-play-a-role-in-growth-and-relapse-of-chordoid-meningioma
#15
Ivan Presta, Elia Guadagno, Anna Di Vito, Natalia Malara, Chiara Mignogna, Domenico Maisano, Annalidia Donato, Gabriella Cardillo, Maria Laura Del Basso De Caro, Giuseppe Donato
Chordoid meningioma (CM) is a rare subtype of meningioma, which represents only 0.5% of all meningiomas. It is classified as Grade II according to the World Health Organization classification because of its tendency to relapse. Pathological and clinical characteristics have been studied in order to forecast the future evolution of the lesions. However, information about infiltration of macrophagic elements and mast cells is very scarce. The authors analyzed the immunohistochemical patterns of three cases and a relapse of CM, in order to verify whether infiltrating macrophages are in a polarized state and what would be the proportion between such elements and mastocytes...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883820/decidual-macrophage-functional-polarization-during-abnormal-pregnancy-due-to-toxoplasma-gondii-role-for-lilrb4
#16
Zhidan Li, Mingdong Zhao, Teng Li, Jing Zheng, Xianbing Liu, Yuzhu Jiang, Haixia Zhang, Xuemei Hu
During gestation, Toxoplasma gondii infection produces a series of complications including stillbirths, abortions, and congenital malformations. The inhibitory receptor, LILRB4, which is mainly expressed by professional antigen-presenting cells (especially macrophages and dendritic cells) may play an important immune-regulatory role at the maternal-fetal interface. To assess the role of LILRB4 during T. gondii infection, LILRB4(-/-) and T. gondii infected pregnant mouse models were established. Further, human primary-decidual macrophages were treated with anti-LILRB4 neutralizing antibody and then infected with T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878781/calreticulin-release-at-an-early-stage-of-death-modulates-the-clearance-by-macrophages-of-apoptotic-cells
#17
Rim Osman, Pascale Tacnet-Delorme, Jean-Philippe Kleman, Arnaud Millet, Philippe Frachet
Calreticulin (CRT) is a well-known "eat-me" signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878732/multiple-sclerosis-treatments-affect-monocyte-derived-microvesicle-production
#18
Maria Blonda, Antonella Amoruso, Roberta Grasso, Valeria Di Francescantonio, Carlo Avolio
Microvesicles (MVs) are released by immune cells especially of the myeloid lineage upon stimulation with ATP on its cognate receptor P2X7, both in physiological and pathological conditions. In multiple sclerosis (MS) the role of MVs remains little investigated. We aimed to compare the release of MVs in peripheral blood monocytes from MS patients with healthy donors (HDs) and to see how current MS treatment may affect such a production. We also assessed the treatment effect on M1 and M2 monocyte polarization and on the inflammasome components...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878029/interleukin-4-receptor-targeted-pro-apoptotic-peptide-blocks-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-by-enhancing-anti-tumor-immunity
#19
Sri Murugan Poongkavithai Vadevoo, Jung-Eun Kim, Gowri Rangaswamy Gunassekaran, Hyun-Kyung Jung, Lianhua Chi, Dong Eon Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee, Sin-Hyeog Im, Byungheon Lee
Cellular crosstalk between tumors and M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) favors tumor progression. Upregulation of interleukin 4 receptor (IL4R) is observed in diverse tumors and TAMs. We tested whether an IL4R-targeted pro-apoptotic peptide could inhibit tumor progression. The IL4R-binding peptide (IL4RPep-1) preferentially bound to IL4R-expressing tumor cells and M2-polarized macrophages both in vitro and in 4T1 breast tumors in vivo. To selectively kill IL4R-expressing cells, we designed an IL4R-targeted pro-apoptotic peptide, IL4RPep-1-K, by adding the pro-apoptotic peptide (KLAKLAK)2 to the end of IL4RPep-1...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875707/remote-manipulation-of-ligand-nano-oscillations-regulates-adhesion-and-polarization-of-macrophages-in-vivo
#20
Heemin Kang, Sungkyu Kim, Dexter Siu Hong Wong, Hee Joon Jung, Sien Lin, Kaijie Zou, Rui Li, Gang Li, Vinayak P Dravid, Liming Bian
Macrophages play crucial roles in various immune-related responses, such as host defense, wound healing, disease progression, and tissue regeneration. Macrophages perform distinct and dynamic functions in vivo, depending on their polarization states, such as the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and pro-healing M2 phenotype. Remote manipulation of the adhesion of host macrophages to the implants and their subsequent polarization in vivo can be an attractive strategy to control macrophage polarization-specific functions but has rarely been achieved...
September 8, 2017: Nano Letters
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