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M2 polarization

Jessica C Stark, Euan Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, are the first responders to inflammation or injury in the central nervous system. Recent research has revealed microglia to be dynamic, capable of assuming both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Both M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (pro-reparative) phenotypes play an important role in neuroinflammatory conditions such as perinatal brain injury, and exhibit differing functions in response to certain environmental stimuli. The modulation of microglial activation has been noted to confer neuroprotection thus suggesting microglia may have therapeutic potential in brain injury...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Greg A Mutch, Sarah Shulda, Alan J McCue, Martin J Menart, Cristian V Ciobanu, Chilan Ngo, James A Anderson, Ryan M Richards, David Vega-Maza
Solid metal oxides for carbon capture exhibit reduced adsorption capacity following high temperature exposure, due to surface area reduction by sintering. Furthermore, only low coordinate corner/edge sites on the thermodynamically sta-ble (100) facet display favourable binding towards CO2 , providing inherently low capacity. The (111) facet however, exhibits a high concentration of low coordinate sites. In this work, MgO(111) nanosheets displayed high capacity for CO2 , as well as a ≈ 65% increase in capacity despite a ≈ 30% reduction in surface area following sintering (0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shih-Yen Lu, Hsiao-Jen Chung, Eric Yi-Hsiu Huang, Tzu-Pin Lin, Alex T L Lin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative outcomes between renal hilar tumors and non-hilar tumors after robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent RAPN from December 2009 to September 2015 at our institution was recruited. Perioperative outcomes including demographic characteristics, perioperative, pathological and renal function outcomes were compared between the hilar group (n = 30) and non-hilar group (n = 170)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Chunmei Piao, Wen-Mei Zhang, Tao-Tao Li, Cong-Cong Zhang, Shulan Qiu, Yan Liu, Sa Liu, Ming Jin, Li-Xin Jia, Wen-Chao Song, Jie Du
Inflammatory cells such as macrophages can play a pro-tumorigenic role in the tumor stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) generally display an M2 phenotype with tumor-promoting activity; however, the mechanisms regulating the TAM phenotype remain unclear. Complement 5a (C5a) is a cytokine-like polypeptide that is generated during complement system activation and is known to promote tumor growth. Herein, we investigated the role of C5a on macrophage polarization in colon cancer metastasis in mice. We found that deficiency of the C5a receptor (C5aR) severely impairs the metastatic ability of implanted colon cancer cells...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Tao Li, Mingzheng Peng, Zezheng Yang, Xiaojun Zhou, Yuan Deng, Chuan Jiang, Ming Xiao, Jinwu Wang
To promote vascularization of tissue-engineered bone, IFN-γ polarizing macrophages to M1 was loaded on 5% calcium silicate/β-tricalcium phosphate (CaSiO3 -β-TCP) scaffolds. IFN-γ and Si released from the scaffold were designed to polarize M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. β-TCP, CaSiO3 -β-TCP, and IFN-γ@CaSiO3 -β-TCP were fabricated and biocompatibilities were evaluated. Polarizations of macrophages were detected by flow cytometry. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells with GFP were cultured and induced on Matrigel with conditioned culture medium extracted from culture of macrophages loaded on scaffolds for evaluating angiogenesis...
March 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jonatan Barrera-Chimal, Gabriel R Estrela, Sebastian M Lechner, Sébastien Giraud, Soumaya El Moghrabi, Shiem Kaaki, Peter Kolkhof, Thierry Hauet, Frédéric Jaisser
Acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Macrophage recruitment plays an essential role during the injury and repair phases after an ischemic episode in the kidney. Here we show that the novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone or selective myeloid mineralocorticoid receptor ablation protects against subsequent chronic dysfunction and fibrosis induced by an episode of bilateral kidney ischemia/reperfusion in mice...
March 13, 2018: Kidney International
Linjie Zhao, Wei Wang, Shuang Huang, Zhengnan Yang, Lian Xu, Qilian Yang, Xiu Zhou, Jinjin Wang, Qiuhong Shen, Chenlu Wang, Xiaobing Le, Min Feng, Nianxin Zhou, Wayne Bond Lau, Bonnie Lau, Shaohua Yao, Tao Yi, Xin Wang, Xia Zhao, Yuquan Wei, Shengtao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer constitutes one of the most lethal gynecologic malignancies for females. Currently, early detection strategies and therapeutic options for ovarian cancer are far from satisfactory, leading to high diagnosis rates at late stages and disease relapses. New avenues of therapy are needed that target key processes in ovarian cancer progression. While a variety of non-coding RNAs have been proven to regulate ovarian cancer metastatic progression, the functional roles of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in this process are less well defined...
March 16, 2018: Genome Biology
Hanrui Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), encoded by the LIPA gene, is an essential lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes cholesteryl ester and triglyceride delivered to the lysosome. This review highlights the novel pathophysiological role of LAL, the functional genomic discoveries of LIPA as a risk locus for coronary heart diseases (CHD), and the clinical advance in therapies for LAL deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: The essential role of LAL in lipid metabolism has been confirmed in human and mice with LAL deficiency...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yung-Che Chen, Meng-Chih Lin, Chih-Hung Lee, Shih-Feng Liu, Chin-Chou Wang, Wen-Feng Fang, Tung-Ying Chao, Chao-Chien Wu, Yu-Feng Wei, Huang-Chih Chang, Chia-Cheng Tsen, Hung-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in previous studies on macrophage M1/M2 polarization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that formyl peptide receptor (FPR), a marker of efferocytosis and mediator of M1/M2 polarization, may be involved in the development of COPD. METHODS: We examined FPR 1/2/3 expressions of blood M1/M2a monocyte, neutrophil, natural killer (NK) cell, NK T cell, T helper (Th) cell, and T cytotoxic (Tc) cell by flowcytometry method in 40 patients with cigarette smoking-related COPD and 16 healthy non-smokers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Xiumei Che, Ki Cheong Park, Soo Jung Park, You Hyun Kang, Hyun A Jin, Joo Wan Kim, Dong Hyuk Seo, Dae Kyu Kim, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild type and IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jiajia Xi, Qian Huang, Lei Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Qipan Deng, Munish Kumar, Zhiyuan Zhou, Ling Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Ken H Young, Mingzhi Zhang, Yong Li
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one of the most abundant microRNAs in mammalian cells. It has been intensively studied for its role in regulating apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. However, the impact of miR-21 on host anti-tumor immunity remains unknown. Tumor-associated macrophages are a major leukocyte type that infiltrates tumors and predominantly develops into immunosuppressive, tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages have tumoricidal activity. In this study, we show that genetic deficiency of miR-21 promotes the polarization of macrophages toward an M1-like phenotype in vivo and in vitro in the presence of tumor cells; thus it confers host mice with enhanced anti-tumor immunity...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
Ren-Hong Du, Hong-Bin Sun, Zhao-Li Hu, Ming Lu, Jian-Hua Ding, Gang Hu
Classical activation (M1 phenotype) and alternative activation (M2 phenotype) are the two polars of microglial activation states that can produce either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects in the immune pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Exploiting the beneficial properties of microglia cells by modulating their polarization states provides great potential for the treatment of PD. However, the mechanism that regulates microglia polarization remains elusive. Here we demonstrated that Kir6.1-containing ATP-sensitive potassium (Kir6...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xia Jin, Hua Xu, Michael S McGrath
Monocyte activation and polarization play essential roles in many chronic inflammatory diseases. An imbalance of M1 and M2 macrophage activation (pro-inflammatory and alternatively activated, respectively) is believed to be a key aspect in the etiology of these diseases, thus a therapeutic approach that regulates macrophage activation could be of broad clinical relevance. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a regulator of polyamine metabolism, has recently been shown to be concentrated in monocytes and macrophages, and interfere with HIV integration into the DNA of these cells in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Y S Tan, K Sansanaphongpricha, M E P Prince, D Sun, G T Wolf, Y L Lei
The recent Food and Drug Administration's approval of monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint receptors (ICRs) for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) offers exciting promise to improve patient outcome and reduce morbidities. A favorable response to ICR blockade relies on an extensive collection of preexisting tumor-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). ICR blockade reinvigorates exhausted CD8+ T cells and enhances immune killing. However, resistance to ICR blockade is observed in about 85% of patients with HNSCC, therefore highlighting the importance of characterizing the mechanisms underlying HNSCC immune escape and exploring combinatorial strategies to sensitize hypoimmunogenic cold HNSCC to ICR inhibition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Bao-Ping Xu, Min Yao, Xiao-Tao Wang, Long Yang, Zi-Rui Tian, Yan-Fang Pan, Xue-Jun Cui
Spinal cord injury is a serious trauma of the spinal and nervous system, local tissue destruction and microcirculation disturbance can lead to a more serious spinal cord injury and extensive necrosis of neurons. Spinal cord injury often accompany with Inflammation reaction producing a variety of cytokines and bioactive substances, result in macrophage polarization. M1 macrophages polarization are induced by IFN-γ, LPS, TNF-α and so on, it show the damage and proinflammatory effect. M2 macrophages polarization are caused by IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and show the recovery and anti-inflammatory effect...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Huimin Lu, Nicholas Bowler, Larry A Harshyne, D Craig Hooper, Shiv Ram Krishn, Senem Kurtoglu, Carmine Fedele, Qin Liu, Hsin-Yao Tang, Andrew V Kossenkov, William K Kelly, Kerith Wang, Rhonda B Kean, Paul H Weinreb, Lei Yu, Anindita Dutta, Paolo Fortina, Adam Ertel, Maria Stanczak, Flemming Forsberg, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, David W Speicher, Dario C Altieri, Lucia R Languino
Therapeutic approaches aimed at curing prostate cancer are only partially successful given the occurrence of highly metastatic resistant phenotypes that frequently develop in response to therapies. Recently, we have described αvβ6, a surface receptor of the integrin family as a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer; this epithelial-specific molecule is an ideal target since, unlike other integrins, it is found in different types of cancer but not in normal tissues. We describe a novel αvβ6-mediated signaling pathway that has profound effects on the microenvironment...
March 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Jie Wang, Lina Yang, Xiaohe Mao, Zaiye Li, Xiaoyu Lin, Canhua Jiang
It has been shown that the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients presented cytotoxic CD8 T cell response against Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius), of which the frequency was positively associated with recurrence-free survival in OSCC patients. To identify the conditions required for regulating S. salivarius-specific CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we selectively depleted individual components of the PBMCs, and observed that the depletion of monocytes/macrophages, but not other immune cell subsets, significantly downregulated the S...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Andrey Elchaninov, Timur Fatkhudinov, Natalia Usman, Irina Arutyunyan, Andrey Makarov, Anastasia Lokhonina, Irina Eremina, Viktor Surovtsev, Dmitry Goldshtein, Galina Bolshakova, Valeria Glinkina, Gennady Sukhikh
AIM: To investigate the influence of the umbilical cord-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on recovery of the liver after the subtotal resection, that is, removal of 80% of the organ mass, a renowned model of the small-for-size liver remnant syndrome. METHODS: The MSCs were obtained from the intervascular tissue of umbilical cords, dissected from rat fetuses, by the explant culture technique. The vital labeling of MSCs with РКН26 was carried out on the 3rd passage...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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