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M1 polarization

Yung-Che Chen, Meng-Chih Lin, Chih-Hung Lee, Shih-Feng Liu, Chin-Chou Wang, Wen-Feng Fang, Tung-Ying Chao, Chao-Chien Wu, Yu-Feng Wei, Huang-Chih Chang, Chia-Cheng Tsen, Hung-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists in previous studies on macrophage M1/M2 polarization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that formyl peptide receptor (FPR), a marker of efferocytosis and mediator of M1/M2 polarization, may be involved in the development of COPD. METHODS: We examined FPR 1/2/3 expressions of blood M1/M2a monocyte, neutrophil, natural killer (NK) cell, NK T cell, T helper (Th) cell, and T cytotoxic (Tc) cell by flowcytometry method in 40 patients with cigarette smoking-related COPD and 16 healthy non-smokers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Xiumei Che, Ki Cheong Park, Soo Jung Park, You Hyun Kang, Hyun A Jin, Joo Wan Kim, Dong Hyuk Seo, Dae Kyu Kim, Tae Il Kim, Won Ho Kim, Seung Won Kim, Jae Hee Cheon
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1)-expressing intestinal macrophages are significantly increased in the colons of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We focused here on the effects of guggulsterone on macrophage modulation in colitis as a potential therapeutic molecule in human IBD and explore the underlying mechanisms. Gene expression in macrophages was examined and wound healing assay using HT-29 cells was performed. Colitis in wild type and IL-10-, TLR4-, and MyD88-deficient mice was induced via the administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into the colon...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jiajia Xi, Qian Huang, Lei Wang, Xiaodong Ma, Qipan Deng, Munish Kumar, Zhiyuan Zhou, Ling Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Ken H Young, Mingzhi Zhang, Yong Li
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one of the most abundant microRNAs in mammalian cells. It has been intensively studied for its role in regulating apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. However, the impact of miR-21 on host anti-tumor immunity remains unknown. Tumor-associated macrophages are a major leukocyte type that infiltrates tumors and predominantly develops into immunosuppressive, tumor-promoting M2-like macrophages. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages have tumoricidal activity. In this study, we show that genetic deficiency of miR-21 promotes the polarization of macrophages toward an M1-like phenotype in vivo and in vitro in the presence of tumor cells; thus it confers host mice with enhanced anti-tumor immunity...
March 15, 2018: Oncogene
Ren-Hong Du, Hong-Bin Sun, Zhao-Li Hu, Ming Lu, Jian-Hua Ding, Gang Hu
Classical activation (M1 phenotype) and alternative activation (M2 phenotype) are the two polars of microglial activation states that can produce either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects in the immune pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Exploiting the beneficial properties of microglia cells by modulating their polarization states provides great potential for the treatment of PD. However, the mechanism that regulates microglia polarization remains elusive. Here we demonstrated that Kir6.1-containing ATP-sensitive potassium (Kir6...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xia Jin, Hua Xu, Michael S McGrath
Monocyte activation and polarization play essential roles in many chronic inflammatory diseases. An imbalance of M1 and M2 macrophage activation (pro-inflammatory and alternatively activated, respectively) is believed to be a key aspect in the etiology of these diseases, thus a therapeutic approach that regulates macrophage activation could be of broad clinical relevance. Methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a regulator of polyamine metabolism, has recently been shown to be concentrated in monocytes and macrophages, and interfere with HIV integration into the DNA of these cells in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Bao-Ping Xu, Min Yao, Xiao-Tao Wang, Long Yang, Zi-Rui Tian, Yan-Fang Pan, Xue-Jun Cui
Spinal cord injury is a serious trauma of the spinal and nervous system, local tissue destruction and microcirculation disturbance can lead to a more serious spinal cord injury and extensive necrosis of neurons. Spinal cord injury often accompany with Inflammation reaction producing a variety of cytokines and bioactive substances, result in macrophage polarization. M1 macrophages polarization are induced by IFN-γ, LPS, TNF-α and so on, it show the damage and proinflammatory effect. M2 macrophages polarization are caused by IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and show the recovery and anti-inflammatory effect...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Jie Wang, Lina Yang, Xiaohe Mao, Zaiye Li, Xiaoyu Lin, Canhua Jiang
It has been shown that the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients presented cytotoxic CD8 T cell response against Streptococcus salivarius (S. salivarius), of which the frequency was positively associated with recurrence-free survival in OSCC patients. To identify the conditions required for regulating S. salivarius-specific CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we selectively depleted individual components of the PBMCs, and observed that the depletion of monocytes/macrophages, but not other immune cell subsets, significantly downregulated the S...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Weihui Gou, Zhen Zhang, Chunfeng Yang, Yumei Li
Macrophage polarization plays a crucial role in regulating myocardial inflammation and injuries of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced viral myocarditis (VM). It has been reported that miR-223 is a potent regulator of inflammatory responses that involved in macrophage polarization. However, the functional roles of miR-223 in CVB3-induced VM still remain unknown. Here, we found that miR-223 expression was significantly down-regulated in heart tissues and heart-infiltrating macrophages of CVB3-infected mice. Up-regulation of miR-223 in vivo protected the mice against CVB3-induced myocardial injuries characterized by the increased body weight and survival, enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), relieved inflammation, depressed creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, reduced production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 as well as increased IL-10...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Lili Gao, Mengting Li, Lu Yin, Chanjuan Zhao, Junhong Chen, Jie Zhou, Ke Duan, Bo Feng
Excessive immune responses following the use of implantable, biomaterial-based medical devices represent a substantial challenge for treatment efficacy and patient well-being. Specifically, after implantation, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages are activated by cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) followed by anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages polarized by cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), leading to healing and long-term stability of implants. Here, we report the loading of an immunomodulatory cytokine,IL-4, into TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) followed by hydrogel coating on the TNTs for subsequent release of IL-4...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Charu Rajput, Megan P Walsh, Breanna N Eder, Ediri E Metitiri, Antonia P Popova, Marc B Hershenson
Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit discrete phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out using IFN-y and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Serena Tedesco, Federica De Majo, Jieun Kim, Annalisa Trenti, Lucia Trevisi, Gian Paolo Fadini, Chiara Bolego, Peter W Zandstra, Andrea Cignarella, Libero Vitiello
Human peripheral-blood monocytes are used as an established in vitro system for generating macrophages. For several reasons, monocytic cell lines such as THP-1 have been considered as a possible alternative. In view of their distinct developmental origins and phenotypic attributes, we set out to assess the extent to which human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells were overlapping across a variety of responses to activating stimuli. Resting (M0) macrophages were polarized toward M1 or M2 phenotypes by 48-h incubation with LPS (1 μg/ml) and IFN-γ (10 ng/ml) or with IL-4 (20 ng/ml) and IL-13 (5 ng/ml), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Crystal C Walline, Janice S Blum, Tobyn Linton, Darrin Mangiacarne, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Excessive drinking can lead to the development of immune dysfunction. Our aim is to investigate the effect of alcohol on immune activation from circulating peripheral blood monocytes in excessive drinkers (EDs). Twenty-two EDs and healthy controls were enrolled. Time line follow-back was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed in the past 30 days before enrollment. Peripheral blood-derived CD14+ monocytes were isolated for gene expression analyses. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also measured...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Virginia Morón-Calvente, Salvador Romero-Pinedo, Sofía Toribio-Castelló, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Ana C Abadía-Molina, Domingo I Rojas-Barros, Shawn T Beug, Eric C LaCasse, Alex MacKenzie, Robert Korneluk, Francisco Abadía-Molina
Monocytes and macrophages constitute the first line of defense of the immune system against external pathogens. Macrophages have a highly plastic phenotype depending on environmental conditions; the extremes of this phenotypic spectrum are a pro-inflammatory defensive role (M1 phenotype) and an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair one (M2 phenotype). The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have important roles in the regulation of several cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In this study we have analyzed the differential expression of the IAPs, NAIP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, during macrophage differentiation and polarization into M1 or M2...
2018: PloS One
Nataliya Rohr-Udilova, Eva Bauer, Gerald Timelthaler, Robert Eferl, Klaus Stolze, Matthias Pinter, Martha Seif, Hubert Hayden, Thomas Reiberger, Rolf Schulte-Hermann, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Dagmar Stoiber, Michael Trauner
Insufficient supplementation with the micronutrient selenium and persistent hepatic inflammation predispose to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Inflammation-associated reactive oxygen species attack membrane lipids and form lipid hydroperoxides able to propagate oxidative hepatic damage. Selenium-containing enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) antagonizes this damage by reducing lipid hydroperoxides to respective hydroxides. However, the role of GPx4 in HCC remains elusive. We generated two human HCC cell lines with stable overexpression of GPx4, performed xenotransplantation into NOD...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Jorge David Rojas Márquez, Yamile Ana, Ruth Eliana Baigorrí, Cinthia Carolina Stempin, Fabio Marcelo Cerban
The causative agent of Chagas' disease, Trypanosoma cruzi , affects approximately 10 million people living mainly in Latin America, with macrophages being one of the first cellular actors confronting the invasion during T. cruzi infection and their function depending on their proper activation and polarization into distinct M1 and M2 subtypes. Macrophage polarization is thought to be regulated not only by cytokines and growth factors but also by environmental signals. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated sensing of environmental and metabolic cues influences macrophage polarization in a complex and as of yet incompletely understood manner...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A Tsurumaki, F Trequattrini, O Palumbo, S Panero, A Paolone, M A Navarra
The effect of ether-functionalisation on ionic liquids (ILs) is discussed based on Kamlet-Taft parameters and the infrared (IR) spectra of N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P1,2O2 ][TFSI]) and N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([M1,2O2 ][TFSI]). The results are analysed taking into consideration their ion conformers, electronegativity and hardness, and the IR active vibrations obtained by means of DFT calculations. From the evaluation of Kamlet-Taft parameters, the ether-functionalisation in the cationic ring is found to improve the polarity and hydrogen bond acidity of the ILs...
March 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Cheng Huang, Caitlin Lewis, Natalie A Borg, Meritxell Canals, Henry Diep, Grant Drummond, Robert J Goode, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Antony Vinh, Mingyu Zhu, Barbara Kemp-Harper, Oded Kleifeld, Martin J Stone
Macrophages, which accumulate in tissues during inflammation, may be polarized towards pro-inflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2) phenotypes. The balance between these phenotypes can have a substantial influence on the outcome of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Improved biomarkers of M1 and M2 macrophages would be beneficial for research, diagnosis and monitoring the effects of trial therapeutics in such diseases. To identify novel biomarkers, we have characterized the global proteomes of THP-1 macrophages polarized to M1 and M2 states, in comparison with unpolarized (M0) macrophages...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Yuzhu Hou, Linnan Zhu, Hongling Tian, Hai-Xi Sun, Ruoyu Wang, Lianfeng Zhang, Yong Zhao
Macrophages acquire distinct phenotypes during tissue stress and inflammatory responses. Macrophages are roughly categorized into two different subsets named inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We herein identified a unique pathogenic macrophage subpopulation driven by IL-23 with a distinct gene expression profile including defined types of cytokines. The freshly isolated resting mouse peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with different cytokines in vitro, the expression of cytokines and chemokines were detected by microarray, real-time PCR, ELISA and multiple colors flow cytometry...
March 5, 2018: Protein & Cell
Liyan Hou, Yuning Che, Fuqiang Sun, Qingshan Wang
Beyond nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC/NE) neurons are also degenerated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We previously reported that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation contributes to LC/NE neurodegeneration. The purpose of this study is aimed to test whether taurine, an endogenous amino acid, could be able to protect LC/NE neurons through inhibition of microglial activation using paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model...
March 5, 2018: Amino Acids
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