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Aspergillus fumigatus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733594/cd56-is-a-pathogen-recognition-receptor-on-human-natural-killer-cells
#1
Sabrina Ziegler, Esther Weiss, Anna-Lena Schmitt, Jan Schlegel, Anne Burgert, Ulrich Terpitz, Markus Sauer, Lorenzo Moretta, Simona Sivori, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Hermann Einsele, Juergen Loeffler
Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal mold inducing invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised patients. Although antifungal activity of human natural killer (NK) cells was shown in previous studies, the underlying cellular mechanisms and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are still unknown. Using flow cytometry we were able to show that the fluorescence positivity of the surface receptor CD56 significantly decreased upon fungal contact. To visualize the interaction site of NK cells and A...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#2
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719051/the-binding-mechanism-between-azoles-and-fgcyp51b-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-of-fusarium-graminearum
#3
Hengwei Qian, Meilin Duan, Xiaomei Sun, Mengyu Chi, Ying Zhao, Wenxing Liang, Juan Du, Jinguang Huang, Baodu Li
BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum is the main pathogen of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a worldwide plant disease and one of the major wheat diseases in China. The control of the FHB is mainly dependent on the application of DMIs fungicides. Fungal sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes (CYP51) are the main target for DMIs fungicides. In order to investigate the binding mechanism between azoles and CYP51B in F.graminearum, the molecular modeling study and biological evaluation were performed. RESULTS: Firstly, the homology model based on the crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus was built...
July 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717638/spatial-patterns-and-impacts-of-environmental-and-climatic-factors-on-canine-sinonasal-aspergillosis-in-northern-california
#4
Monise Magro, Jane Sykes, Polina Vishkautsan, Beatriz Martínez-López
Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. SNA is a disease of the nasal cavity and/or sinuses with variable degrees of local invasion and destruction. While some host factors appear to predispose to SNA (such as belonging to a dolichocephalic breed), environmental risk factors have been scarcely studied...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710860/coupling-the-pretreatment-and-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-by-the-expression-of-beta-xylosidases
#5
Lucía Martín Pérez, Laura Benítez Casanova, Antonio Javier Moreno Pérez, Dolores Pérez Gómez, Sandra Gavaldá Martín, Laura Ledesma-García, Noelia Valbuena, Bruno Díez García, Francisco Manuel Reyes-Sosa
Thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the areas contributing most to the operational costs of second generation ethanol in lignocellulosic biorefineries. The improvement of lignocellulosic enzyme cocktails has been significant in the recent years. Although the needs for the reduction of the energy intensity and chemical consumption in the pretreatment step are well known, the reduction of the severity of the process strongly affects the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. To explore the formulation requirements of the well known cellulolytic cocktail from Myceliophthora thermophila on mild pretreated raw materials, this cocktail was tested on steam exploded corn stover without acid impregnation...
July 15, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710744/cloning-and-characterization-of-f3pyc-gene-encoding-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-aspergillus-flavus-strain-f3
#6
Sadia Qayyum, Ibrar Khan, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti, Changsheng Peng
Pyruvate carboxylase is a major enzyme for biosynthesis of organic acids like; citric acid, fumeric acid, and L-malic acid. These organic acids play very important role for biological remediation of heavy metals. In this study, gene walking method was used to clone and characterize pyruvate carboxylase gene (F3PYC) from heavy metal resistant indigenous fungal isolate Aspergillus flavus (F3). 3579 bp of an open reading frame which encodes 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 6.10) with a calculated molecular weight of 131...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703788/preparation-of-a-trp-bodipy-fluorogenic-amino-acid-to-label-peptides-for-enhanced-live-cell-fluorescence-imaging
#7
Lorena Mendive-Tapia, Ramon Subiros-Funosas, Can Zhao, Fernando Albericio, Nick D Read, Rodolfo Lavilla, Marc Vendrell
Fluorescent peptides are valuable tools for live-cell imaging because of the high specificity of peptide sequences for their biomolecular targets. When preparing fluorescent versions of peptides, labels must be introduced at appropriate positions in the sequences to provide suitable reporters while avoiding any impairment of the molecular recognition properties of the peptides. This protocol describes the preparation of the tryptophan (Trp)-based fluorogenic amino acid Fmoc-Trp(C2-BODIPY)-OH and its incorporation into peptides for live-cell fluorescence imaging-an approach that is applicable to most peptide sequences...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702854/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-and-pulmonary-diseases-associated-with-aspergillosis-is-there-a-connection
#8
Maria N Gamaletsou, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: We studied the relationship between GORD and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), or Aspergillus bronchitis. BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is well known to initiate or exacerbate pulmonary inflammatory conditions, inducing bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. METHODS: We reviewed four patients referred with elevated Aspergillus serology markers and marked pulmonary symptoms for ABPA, CPA, and Aspergillus bronchitis, and discussed the underlying pathophysiological relationship with GORD...
July 12, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701066/the-cell-wall-of-the-human-fungal-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-biosynthesis-organization-immune-response-and-virulence
#9
Jean-Paul Latgé, Anne Beauvais, Georgios Chamilos
More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall...
July 12, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699245/effects-of-intranasally-dosed-posaconazole-on-fungal-load-and-biomarkers-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-immunocompromised-mice
#10
Genki Kimura, Takahiro Nakaoki, Yuki Nishimoto, Yuto Suzuki, Garth Rapeport, Pete Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, Yasuo Kizawa
Although anti-fungal triazoles are dosed orally or systemically for Aspergillus fumigatus infection, systemic adverse events and limited exposure of the lung cavity would make a topical treatment for the lung an attractive option. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasally dosed posaconazole on survival rates and biomarkers in A. fumigatus (itraconazole susceptible: ATCC13073 [Af]; or resistant: NCPF7100 [AfR]) infected, temporarily neutropenic A/J mice. Once daily treatment produced a dose-dependent improvement of survival of Af-infected mice (ED50 : 0...
July 11, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696809/effects-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-on-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#11
Xia Zhou, Ya-Jie Dang, Gui-Fang Wang, Xian-Qiao Jin
PURPOSE: Conventional inhaled corticosteroids or β2-adrenergic receptor agonists do not work well in some asthmatic populations while empirical antifungal therapy has obvious impact on those patients. The study was designed to investigate whether short-term exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) could decrease glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) expression in lung tissue of asthmatic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of chronic asthma was first established by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693685/effect-of-involved-aspergillus-species-on-galactomannan-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-of-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#12
Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mohammad T Hedayati, Vahid Moqarabzadeh, Saham Ansari, Saeed Mahdavi Omran, Hossein Zarrinfar, Sasan Saber, Paul E Verweij, David W Denning, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
PURPOSE: The detection of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is an important surrogate marker for the early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive aspergillosis (IA), regardless of the involved species of Aspergillus. Here, we utilized the Platelia Aspergillus GM enzyme immunoassay (Bio-Rad) to evaluate the GM index in BAL fluid samples from patients with proven, probable or putative IA due to Aspergillusflavus versus Aspergillusfumigatus. METHODOLOGY: In a prospective study between 2009 and 2015, 116 BAL samples were collected from suspected IA patients referred to two university hospitals in Tehran, Iran...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691040/flow-cytometry-of-lung-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-cells-from-mice-challenged-with-fluorescent-aspergillus-reporter-flare-conidia
#13
Anupam Jhingran, Shinji Kasahara, Tobias M Hohl
Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen that forms airborne conidia. The process of restricting conidial germination into hyphae by lung leukocytes is critical in determining infectious outcomes. Tracking the outcome of conidia-host cell encounters in vivo is technically challenging and an obstacle to understanding the molecular and cellular basis of antifungal immunity in the lung. Here, we describe a method that utilizes a genetically engineered Aspergillus strain [called FLARE (Jhingran et al...
September 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681286/bioremoval-of-arsenic-v-from-aqueous-solutions-by-chemically-modified-fungal-biomass
#14
J F Cárdenas-González, I Acosta-Rodríguez, Y Téran-Figueroa, A S Rodríguez-Pérez
The biosorption of arsenic (V) on nine chemically modified biomasses (with iron oxide coated) of mycelia fungi: Aspergillus flavus III, IV and V, Aspergillus fumigatus I-II, Paecilomyces sp., Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp-1 and 2 was studied in this work. This study provides evidence that the biomasses of the fungi A. flavus, IV, III and V, Paecilomyces sp., and A. fumigatus I were very efficient at removing 1 mg/L of the metal in solution, using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), achieving the following percentage of removals: 97...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681028/osteomyelitis-and-lung-abscess-due-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-chronic-granulomatous-disease-patient
#15
S Mamishi, K Zomorodian, F Saadat, S Z Jalali, M Geramishoar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. This disorder results in recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Aspergillus species are the most common fungal infections in these patients. CASE REPORT: Herein, we present a case of fungal infection in a girl with CGD. We confirmed aspergillosis through the positive microscopic and macroscopic examinations, as well as radiology results...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680340/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-candidiasis-and-aspergillosis-in-patient-with-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-using-micafungin-case-study-and-brief-literature-review
#16
Marta Barańska, Renata Kroll-Balcerzak, Lidia Gil, Joanna Rupa-Matysek, Mieczysław Komarnicki
The number of patients with hematological malignancies who develop invasive fungal disease (IFD) has increased dramatically in recent decades. This increase is attributed to impairment of the host immune system due to intensive cytotoxic chemotherapies, use of corticosteroids and profound immunosuppression after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Additionally, the increasing prevalence of fungal infections caused by emerging and rare pathogens, IFD of mixed etiology or of atypical localization is observed...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677124/myba-a-transcription-factor-involved-in-conidiation-and-conidial-viability-of-the-human-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#17
Isabel Valsecchi, Özlem Sarikaya Bayram, Joanne Wong Sak Hoi, Laetitia Muszkieta, John Gibbons, Marie-Christine Prevost, Adeline Mallet, Jacomina Krijnse-Locker, Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet, Isabelle Mouyna, Paul Carr, Michael Bromley, VishuKumar Aimanianda, Y Jae-Hyuk Yu, Antonis Rokas, Gerhard Braus, Cosmin Saveanu, Özgür Bayram, Jean Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen, produces asexual spores (conidia), which are the main mode of propagation, survival, and infection of this human pathogen. In this study, we present the molecular characterization of a novel regulator of conidiogenesis and conidial survival called MybA because the predicted protein contains a Myb DNA binding motif. Cellular localisation of the MybA::Gfp fusion and immunoprecipitation of the MybA::Gfp or MybA::3xHa protein showed that MybA is localised to the nucleus...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673841/application-and-comparison-in-biosynthesis-and-biodegradation-by-fusarium-solani-and-aspergillus-fumigatus-cutinases
#18
Li-Feng Ping, Xiao-Yang Chen, Xiao-Li Yuan, Min Zhang, Yan-Jun Chai, Sheng-Dao Shan
In this study, two synthesized cutinase genes from Fusarium solani and Aspergillus fumigatus were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The characteristics of these two cutinases were investigated and compared. The results indicated that F. solani and A. fumigatus cutinases hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl substrates with different carbon chain lengths. A. fumigatus cutinase predominately hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl butyrate, but F. solani cutinase preferred p-nitrophenyl decanoate. The abilities of polymer synthesis and bioplastic degradation were tested and compared between F...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672858/poecillastrosides-steroidal-saponins-from-the-mediterranean-deep-sea-sponge-poecillastra-compressa-bowerbank-1866
#19
Kevin Calabro, Elaheh Lotfi Kalahroodi, Daniel Rodrigues, Caridad Díaz, Mercedes de la Cruz, Bastien Cautain, Rémi Laville, Fernando Reyes, Thierry Pérez, Bassam Soussi, Olivier P Thomas
The first chemical investigation of the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Poecillastra compressa (Bowerbank, 1866) led to the identification of seven new steroidal saponins named poecillastrosides A-G (1-7). All saponins feature an oxidized methyl at C-18 into a primary alcohol or a carboxylic acid. While poecillastrosides A-D (1-4) all contain an exo double bond at C-24 of the side-chain and two osidic residues connected at O-2', poecillastrosides E-G (5-7) are characterized by a cyclopropane on the side-chain and a connection at O-3' between both sugar units...
June 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665341/chemical-composition-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activities-of-crude-dittrichia-viscosa-l-greuter-leaf-extracts
#20
Wafa Rhimi, Issam Ben Salem, Davide Immediato, Mouldi Saidi, Abdennacer Boulila, Claudia Cafarchia
The small amount of data regarding the antifungal activity of Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter against dermatophytes, Malassezia spp. and Aspergillus spp., associated with the few comparative studies on the antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethanolic, and butanolic extracts underpins the study herein presented. The total condensed tannin (TCT), phenol (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and caffeoylquinic acid (CQC) content of methanol, butanol, and ethanol (80% and 100%) extracts of D. viscosa were assessed and their bactericidal and fungicidal activities were evaluated...
June 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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