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Aspergillus fumigatus

Bernadette Ngo Nonga, Bonaventure Jemea, Angele O Pondy, Daniel Handy Eone, Marie Claire Bitchong, Olivier Fola, Atems Nkolaka, Gilles Martin Londji
An aspergilloma is a well-recognized lesion of the lung caused most of the time by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus . Its main complication is hemoptysis and has been very rarely associated with tension pneumothorax. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with a history of treated and healed tuberculosis, which was successfully managed in our service for a ruptured right upper lobe complexed aspergilloma, complicated by a massive and tension pneumothorax. The patient underwent thoracotomy and lung resection with quick recovery...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
Munira Al-Rahman, Mahmood Al Kindi, Ibrahim Kutty, Ibrahim Al-Kalbani, Jalila Alshekaili
Objectives: The presence of abnormally high levels of Aspergillus fumigatus -specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies can serve as a diagnostic criterion for severe conditions like allergic bronchopulmonary and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. This study aimed to determine a reference range of A. fumigatus -specific IgG levels within a healthy adult Omani population. Methods: This study took place during November 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Aleksandra Barac, David S Y Ong, Ljiljana Jovancevic, Aleksandar Peric, Pavol Surda, Vesna Tomic Spiric, Salvatore Rubino
Introduction: Aspergillus can cause different allergic diseases including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). ABPA is allergic pulmonary disease against Aspergillus antigens. AFRS is a type of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) presented as hypersensitivity reactions to the fungal presence in sinuses. The aim of the present study was to clarify if ABPA and AFRS could be considered as a common disease entity. Methodology: The prospective cohort study included 75 patients with ABPA...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Patricia Postina, Julian Skladny, Tobias Boch, Oliver A Cornely, Axel Hamprecht, Peter-Michael Rath, Jörg Steinmann, Oliver Bader, Thomas Miethke, Anne Dietz, Natalia Merker, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Dieter Buchheidt, Birgit Spiess
In hematological patients, the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) is rising. As the diagnosis of IA is rarely based on positive culture in this group of patients, molecular detection of resistance mutations directly from clinical samples is crucial. In addition to the in-house azole resistance ARAf polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays detecting the frequent mutation combinations TR34/L98H, TR46/Y121F/T289A, and M220 in the Aspergillus fumigatus ( A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ajay P Nayak, Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, W T Goldsmith, Nikki B Marshall, Michael L Kashon, Dori R Germolec, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE: A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. METHODS: Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures)...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Shan F Brunel, Janet A Willment, Gordon D Brown, Graham Devereux, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus infects up to 50% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and may play a role in progressive lung disease. As cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed in cells of the innate immune system, we hypothesised that impaired antifungal immune responses play a role in CF-related Aspergillus lung disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and monocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from CF patients and healthy volunteers. Live-cell imaging and colorimetric assays were used to assess antifungal activity in vitro ...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
Rahul Chanderhas Goyal, Ruchita Tyagi, Bhavna Garg, Atul Mishra, Neena Sood
Echinococcosis is a common cause of pulmonary cavities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic fungus, can colonise pulmonary cavities caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, echinococcosis, bronchiectasis and neoplasms. Infection by Aspergillus is often seen in immunosuppressed cases. However, co-infection of Aspergillus with pulmonary echinococcosis is unexpected and very unusual, especially in an immunocompetent patient. We present the case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent male who came with non-resolving pneumonia and fever for 8 months and dyspnoea since 15 days accompanied by recurrent episodes of hemoptysis since 5 days...
April 9, 2018: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Jae Seok Jeong, Kyung Bae Lee, So Ri Kim, Dong Im Kim, Hae Jin Park, Hern-Ku Lee, Hyung Jin Kim, Seong Ho Cho, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Soon Ha Kim, Yong Chul Lee
BACKGROUND: Respiratory fungal exposure is known to be associated with severe allergic lung inflammation. Airway epithelium is an essential controller of allergic inflammation. An innate immune recognition receptor, nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin-domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)-δ in airway epithelium are involved in various inflammatory processes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in fungi-induced allergic lung inflammation and examined the regulatory mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome, focusing on PI3K-δ in airway epithelium...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
Hamed Fakhim, Afsane Vaezi, Eric Dannaoui, Cheshta Sharma, Bita Mousavi, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
In vitro interaction of voriconazole with micafungin was evaluated against 33 clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates, including azole-resistant (n=31) and -susceptible (n=2) isolates. Interaction was synergistic for only 1 resistant isolate carrying the TR34 /L98H mutation. No antagonistic effects were observed for 96.8% of azole-resistant isolates.
March 8, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Annalisa Boscolo, Eugenia Menin, Beatrice Zelaschi, Laura Albertoni, Giacomo Zanus, Fabio Baratto
Graft-versus-host-disease after orthotopic liver transplant is a rare and life-threatening complication. The diagnosis is challenging and usually confirmed by chimerism and skin biopsies. The most common cause of death is sepsis (60%), and broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal prophylaxis are strongly recommended. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma and a previous history of metabolic and alcoholic cirrhosis who underwent orthotopic liver transplant. The immunosuppression regimen consisted of corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitor, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor...
April 4, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Jochem B Buil, Jan Zoll, Paul E Verweij, Willem J G Melchers
Aspergillus diseases are often caused by Aspergillus fumigatus . Azoles are the mainstay of therapy, but the management of aspergillosis is hampered by the emergence of azole resistance. Rapid detection of azole resistance might benefit treatment outcome by early treatment modifications. However, the yield of fungal culture in invasive aspergillosis is low and susceptibility testing requires several days to be completed. To overcome the low yield of fungal cultures and slow detection of resistance, it is possible to use molecular tools directly on clinical specimens in order to rapidly detect molecular markers of azole resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xunliang Tong, Anqi Cheng, Hongtao Xu, Jin Jin, Yimeng Yang, Sainan Zhu, Yanming Li
BACKGROUND: Recently awareness of the importance of Aspergillus colonization in the airway of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was rising. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and short-term outcomes of COPD patients with Aspergillus colonization during acute exacerbation. METHODS: A pair-matched retrospective study on patients presenting with COPD exacerbation was conducted from January 2014 to March 2016 in Beijing Hospital, China...
April 3, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Paula Fagundes de Gouvêa, Aline Vianna Bernardi, Luis Eduardo Gerolamo, Emerson de Souza Santos, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Taisa Magnani Dinamarco
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as a lignocellulosic residue for second-generation ethanol (2G) produced by breaking down biomass into fermentable sugars. The enzymatic cocktails for biomass degradation are mostly produced by fungi, but low cost and high efficiency can consolidate 2G technologies. A. fumigatus plays an important role in plant biomass degradation capabilities and recycling. To gain more insight into the divergence in gene expression during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, this study profiled the transcriptome of A...
April 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ulrich Wernery, Chi-Ching Tsang, Christiana Hebel, Alexandra Damerau, Jörg Kinne, Jian-Piao Cai, Harald Küspert, Ka-Fai Chan, Marina Joseph, Shaolong Xue, Rekha Raghavan, James Y M Tang, Ginu Syriac, Susanna K P Lau, Shantymol Jose, Patrick C Y Woo
Aspergillosis in falcons may be associated with high mortality and difficulties in clinical and laboratory diagnosis. We previously cloned an immunogenic protein, Afmp1p, in Aspergillus fumigatus and showed that anti-Afmp1p antibodies were present in human patients with A. fumigatus infections. In this study, we hypothesise that a similar Afmp1p-based ELISA could be applied to serodiagnose falcon aspergillosis. A specific polyclonal antibody was first generated to detect falcon serum IgY. HRP-conjugate of this antibody was then used to measure anti-Afmp1p antibodies in sera collected from falcons experimentally infected with A...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
M Ghannoum, L Long, E L Larkin, N Isham, R Sherif, K Borroto-Esoda, S Barat, D Angulo
Invasive aspergillosis remains a major cause of death among the immunocompromised population and those receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. In light of increased azole resistance, variable outcomes with existing echinocandin mono and combination therapy, and persistent high mortality rates, new antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis are clearly needed.SCY-078 is the first in class triterpenoid antifungal, a novel class of glucan synthase inhibitors, with broad in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad spectrum of Candida and Aspergillus In vitro testing of clinical strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and non- fumigatus strains showed potent fungistatic activity of SCY-078 (minimum effective concentration, MEC90 = 0...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Fabio Gsaller, Takanori Furukawa, Paul D Carr, Bharat Rash, Christoph Jöchl, Margherita Bertuzzi, Elaine M Bignell, Michael J Bromley
The antifungal drug 5-flucytosine (5FC), a derivative of the nucleobase cytosine, is licenced for treatment of fungal diseases however it is rarely used as a monotherapeutic to treat Aspergillus infection. Despite being potent against other fungal pathogens, 5FC has limited activity against A. fumigatus when standard in vitro assays are used to determine susceptibility. However, in modified in vitro assays where the pH is set to pH 5 the activity of 5FC increases significantly.Here we provide evidence that fcyB , a gene that encodes a purine-cytosine permease orthologous to known 5FC importers is downregulated at pH 7 and is the primary factor responsible for the low efficacy of 5FC at pH 7...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Gopal P Dahal, Ronald E Viola
Pathogenic fungi represent a growing threat to human health, with an increase in the frequency of drug-resistant fungal infections. Identifying targets from among the selected metabolic pathways that are unique to microbial species presents an opportunity to develop new antifungal agents against new and untested targets to combat this growth threat. Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes a key step in a uniquely microbial amino acid biosynthetic pathway and is essential for microbial viability...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Suguru Majima, Shotaro Okachi, Motoyo Asano, Keiko Wakahara, Naozumi Hashimoto, Mitsuo Sato, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoshinori Hasegawa
Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis (ITBA), a rare form of invasive pulmonary Aspergillus infection (IPA), is predominantly confined to the tracheobronchial tree. We herein report a case of ITBA with severe necrotic pseudomembrane in a 57-year-old woman with fulminant hepatitis and hemophagocytic syndrome. Bronchoscopic findings revealed a widespread pseudomembranous formation of the trachea and bronchi. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from bronchial lavage fluid, and the histological findings of an endobronchial biopsy revealed necrosis and invasive hyphae...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
M Isnard, E Hullo, Y Robert, C Piolat, C Durand, S Lantuejoul, C Garnaud, I Pin
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillomas occur due to colonization of a pre-existing pulmonary, bronchial or pleural cavity by Aspergillus spp. Often asymptomatic, this pathology can reveal itself by recurrent haemoptysis or when bacterial superinfections occur. Aspergillomas occurring in post-traumatic cavities are rare and their management is poorly codified. CASE REPORT: A child suffered from a chest wound at the age of 13 years. Two years later, investigation of recurrent haemoptysis revealed a residual pneumatocele in the right lower lobe colonized by Aspergillus spp...
March 27, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Gabriela A Pena, Verónica Alonso, Marina Velasco Manini, M Pellegrino, Lilia R Cavaglieri
Aspergillus fumigatus, the major etiological agent of human and animal aspergillosis, is a gliotoxinogenic species into section Fumigati commonly found in contaminated animal environments. In dairy herds, exposed areas of lactating cows, as mammalian glandule, can be easily contaminated by them. This study was aimed to identify A. fumigatus sensu lato strains (identified based on morphology) isolated from raw cow milk at species level, by morphological and molecular techniques, and to estimate their genetic variability...
March 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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