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Aspergillus fumigatus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317475/characterization-of-a-pa14-domain-containing-galactofuranose-specific-%C3%AE-d-galactofuranosidase-from-streptomyces-sp
#1
Emiko Matsunaga, Yujiro Higuchi, Kazuki Mori, Nao Yairo, Saki Toyota, Takuji Oka, Kosuke Tashiro, Kaoru Takegawa
As a constituent of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, β-d-galactofuranose (Galf) exists in several pathogenic microorganisms. Although we recently identified a β-d-galactofuranosidase (Galf-ase) gene, ORF1110, in the Streptomyces strain JHA19, very little is known about the Galf-ase gene. Here, we characterized a strain, named JHA26, in the culture supernatant of which exhibited Galf-ase activity for 4-nitrophenyl β-d-galactofuranoside (pNP-β-d-Galf) as a substrate. Draft genome sequencing of the JHA26 strain revealed a putative gene, termed ORF0643, that encodes Galf-ase containing a PA14 domain, which is thought to function in substrate recognition...
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303848/triazole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-clinical-isolates-obtained-in-nanjing-china
#2
Ming Zhang, Chun-Lai Feng, Fei Chen, Qian He, Xin Su, Yi Shi
BACKGROUND: During the past decades, the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus has increased dramatically. The aims of this study were to investigate the susceptibility of clinical isolates of A. fumigatus to triazole and the underlying cyp51A mutations in triazole-resistant A. fumigatus. METHODS: A total of 126 A. fumigatus clinical isolates from 126 patients with proven or probable IA were obtained from four large tertiary hospitals in Nanjing, China, between August 2012 and July 2015...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301237/aspergillosis-a-natural-infection-in-poultry-mycological-and-molecular-characterization-and-determination-of-gliotoxin-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates
#3
Verónica Montes de Oca, Sara Esther Valdés, Carolina Segundo, Gabriela Guadalupe Gómez, José Ramírez, Roberto Arnulfo Cervantes
Aspergillosis affects all types of birds; it causes the loss of specimens with high ecologic value and also leads to significant economic losses within the poultry industry. The main etiologic agent is Aspergillus fumigatus , a filamentary fungus with multiple virulence factors, such as gliotoxin (GT), which is an immunosuppressive epipolythiodioxopiperazine molecule. Necropsy was performed on 73 poultry from different provenances, all of which presented with a respiratory semiology compatible with aspergillosis...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299183/challenges-in-microbiological-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillus-infections
#4
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been increasingly reported in populations other than the historical hematology patients and there are new questions about the performance of microbiological tools. Microscopy and culture have been completed by biomarkers, either antigens or DNA, and in blood or respiratory specimens or both. First studied in hematology, the antigen galactomannan performance in serum is low in other patient populations where the pathophysiology of the infection can be different and the prevalence of IA is much lower...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#5
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297812/-the-regulative-effects-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-on-expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-asthmatic-rats
#6
X Zhou, Y J Dang, G F Wang, X Q Jin
Objective: To study the regulative effects of Aspergillus fumigatus (A.fumigatus) on expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in asthmatic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a normal control group (UC), a normal control with A. fumigatus group (UC+ AF), an OVA group (OVA), and an OVA with A. fumigatus group (OVA+ AF). OVA and OVA+ AF groups were sensitized and challenged with OVA to establish asthmatic models. UC and UC+ AF groups were given normal saline as controls. After the last challenge, OVA+ AF and UC+ AF groups were given A...
March 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288860/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-isolated-from-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-icu-patients
#7
Richa Gupta, Abida Malik, Meher Rizvi, Moied Ahmed, Anuradha Singh
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative pathogens isolated from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) poses a grave threat in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of pathogens in ICU patients and their drug resistance profile. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) was also assessed. METHODS: Tracheal aspirates were collected aseptically from 87 ICU patients between May 2012 and January 2014...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287272/two-new-sesquiterpene-lactone-glycosides-from-cnicus-benedictus
#8
Ying Peng, Yuqing Jian, Ali Zulfiqar, Bin Li, Kaiqiang Zhang, Fei Long, Caiyun Peng, Xiong Cai, Ikhlas A Khan, Wei Wang
Two new sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, namely melitensin 15-O-β-D-glucoside (1) and 11β,13-dihydrosalonitenolide 15-O-β-D-glucoside (2), along with eight known compounds (3-10) were isolated from the aerial part of Cnicus benedictus L. Their structures were elucidated from analyses of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-6 all possessed an α-methyl-γ-lactone moiety. Moreover, compound 5 exhibited moderate activity against the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, with IC50 values of 17.67 μg mL(-1)...
March 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286319/establishment-of-crispr-cas9-in-alternaria-alternata
#9
Maximilian Wenderoth, Christoph Pinecker, Benjamin Voß, Reinhard Fischer
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. Many Alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. Despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. Gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic strains and therefore, gene-function analyses are rather tedious...
March 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281662/lah-is-a-transmembrane-protein-and-requires-spa10-for-stable-positioning-of-woronin-bodies-at-the-septal-pore-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#10
Yannik Leonhardt, Sara Carina Kakoschke, Johannes Wagener, Frank Ebel
Woronin bodies are specialized, fungal-specific organelles that enable an immediate closure of septal pores after injury to protect hyphae from excessive cytoplasmic bleeding. In most Ascomycetes, Woronin bodies are tethered at the septal pore by so-called Lah proteins. Using the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus as a model organism, we show that the C-terminal 288 amino acids of Lah (LahC288) bind to the rim of the septal pore. LahC288 essentially consists of a membrane spanning region and a putative extracellular domain, which are both required for the targeting to the septum...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280489/specific-and-novel-micrornas-are-regulated-as-response-to-fungal-infection-in-human-dendritic-cells
#11
Andreas Dix, Kristin Czakai, Ines Leonhardt, Karin Schäferhoff, Michael Bonin, Reinhard Guthke, Hermann Einsele, Oliver Kurzai, Jürgen Löffler, Jörg Linde
Within the last two decades, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has been significantly increased. They are characterized by high mortality rates and are often caused by Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The increasing number of infections underlines the necessity for additional anti-fungal therapies, which require extended knowledge of gene regulations during fungal infection. MicroRNAs are regulators of important cellular processes, including the immune response. By analyzing their regulation and impact on target genes, novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches may be developed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264842/contributions-of-both-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-and-cyp51a-proteins-are-essential-for-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#12
Sanjoy Paul, Daniel Diekema, W Scott Moye-Rowley
While azole drugs targeting the biosynthesis of ergosterol are effective antifungal agents, their extensive use has led to the development of resistant organisms. Infections involving azole resistant forms of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are often associated with genetic changes in the cyp51A gene encoding the lanosterol α14 demethylase target enzyme. Both a sequence duplication in the cyp51A promoter (TR34) as well as a substitution mutation in the coding sequence (L98H) are required for full expression of azole resistance...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264654/diversity-phylogeny-anticancer-and-antimicrobial-potential-of-fungal-endophytes-associated-with-monarda-citriodora-l
#13
Meenu Katoch, Shipra Phull, Shagun Vaid, Shashank Singh
BACKGROUND: Present study focuses on diversity and distribution analysis of endophytic fungi associated with different tissues of the Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae). Anticancer and antimicrobial potential of isolated endophytes have also been investigated. RESULTS: A total of twenty eight fungal endophytes belonging to 11 different genera were isolated from this plant. All the endophytic fungi belonged to the Ascomycota phylum. The leaves were immensely rich in fungal species, while roots showed the highest tissue specific fungal dominance...
March 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260935/post-influenza-aspergillosis-do-not-underestimate-influenza-b
#14
REVIEW
Eric Fl Nulens, Marc Jc Bourgeois, Marijke Bml Reynders
Our objective is to highlight and focus on post-influenza aspergillosis, triggered by influenza B virus. This relatively new clinical entity is often associated with a fulminant course of respiratory decline and high mortality. A 51-year immunocompetent woman, without any medical history or risk factors for developing a complicated influenza infection, was admitted to the intensive care unit. During admission, she presented with an afebrile flu-like syndrome, myocarditis, rhabdomyolysis, multiple organ failure, and evolved to severe respiratory distress...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260471/culture-positive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-infection-clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#15
Balam Er Dedekarginoglu, Serife Savas Bozbas, Gaye Ulubay, Fusun Oner Eyuboglu, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection among solid-organ transplant recipients. Even after awareness of this infection occurs, there are still gaps in nonculture diagnostic tests, which can delay treatment initiation. Here, we aimed to define the common traits of pulmonary aspergillosis infection among solid-organ transplant recipients, thus shedding light on prevention and early diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a database search of patients at Baskent University who had a positive aspergillosis culture between January 2010 and March 2016...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256663/insights-into-the-unprecedented-epoxidation-mechanism-of-fumitremorgin-b-endoperoxidase-ftmox1-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-qm-mm-calculations
#16
Xiya Wang, Hao Su, Yongjun Liu
Fumitremorgin B endoperoxidase (FtmOx1) from Aspergillus fumigatus is the first reported α-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron enzyme that catalyzes the endoperoxide formation reaction, converting Fumitremorgin B to verruculogen. Experiments reveal that the molecular oxygen (O2) is incorporated into verruculogen without O-O bond scission, which differs from the currently known non-haem iron enzymes, but the mechanistic details are still unclear. In this paper, on the basis of the crystal structures of FtmOx1 in complex with either the co-substrate (α-ketoglutarate) or the substrate (fumitremorgin B), a ternary complex model of the enzyme-α-ketoglutarate-substrate has been constructed, and combined quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations have been performed to unravel the novel mechanism of FtmOx1...
March 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250363/resistance-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-to-micafungin-is-increased-by-exogenous-%C3%AE-glucan
#17
Takashi Toyoshima, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno
Aspergillus species are ubiquitous in the environment and Aspergillus fumigatus can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. β-1,3-/1,6-glucan is a major fungal cell wall polysaccharide that has various biological effects on the infected host, but little is known about the influence of β-glucan on the fungus itself. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the cell wall β-glucan content could be increased in Aspergillus spp. by addition of β-glucan to the culture medium. In this study, we investigated the influence of β-glucan on the susceptibility of A...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243035/infections-in-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#18
REVIEW
Eleni Karakike, Christophe Moreno, Thierry Gustot
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH), defined by a modified discriminant function ≥32, is the most severe form of alcohol-induced liver disease and is associated with a 1-month mortality rate of around 30%. Corticosteroid treatment remains the only therapeutic option that improves short-term survival. Infectious complications, occurring in approximately 50% of patients, are the main causes of death, even in patients who benefit from corticosteroids. Liver failure, recent alcohol consumption and immunosuppressive drugs contribute to this infectious risk...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238781/caspofungin-exposure-alters-the-core-septin-aspb-interactome-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
José M Vargas-Muñiz, Hilary Renshaw, Greg Waitt, Erik J Soderblom, M Arthur Moseley, Jonathan M Palmer, Praveen R Juvvadi, Nancy P Keller, William J Steinbach
Aspergillus fumigatus, the main etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis, is a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Septins, a conserved family of GTP-binding proteins, serve as scaffolding proteins to recruit enzymes and key regulators to different cellular compartments. Deletion of the A. fumigatus septin aspB increases susceptibility to the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin. However, how AspB mediates this response to caspofungin is unknown. Here, we characterized the AspB interactome under basal conditions and after exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of caspofungin...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238268/aryl-alkyl-lysines-membrane-active-fungicides-that-act-against-biofilms-of-candida-albicans
#20
Chandradhish Ghosh, Vikas Yadav, Waleed Younis, Haroon Mohammad, Youssef A Hegazy, Mohamed N Seleem, Kaustuv Sanyal, Jayanta Haldar
Mortality due to pathogenic fungi has been exacerbated by the rapid development of resistance to frontline antifungal drugs. Fungicidal compounds with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Aryl-alkyl-lysines, which are membrane-active small molecules, were earlier shown to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with potency in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the antifungal properties of aryl-alkyl-lysines. After identifying the most active compound (NCK-10), we tested its activity against a panel of clinically relevant pathogenic fungi and examined NCK-10's effect against immature and mature biofilms of Candida albicans...
March 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
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