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Aspergillus fumigatus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102063/sputum-inflammatory-mediators-are-increased-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-culture-positive-asthmatics
#1
Michael A Ghebre, Dhananjay Desai, Amisha Singapuri, Joanne Woods, Laura Rapley, Suzanne Cohen, Athula Herath, Andrew J Wardlaw, Catherine H Pashley, Richard May, Chris E Brightling
Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization and culture in asthma are associated with disease severity and lung function impairment, but their relationship with airway inflammation is poorly understood. We investigated the profile of 24 sputum inflammatory mediators in A. fumigatus culture-positive or-negative moderate-to-severe asthmatics. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from a single center. A. fumigatus was cultured from 19 asthmatics. Asthma control, symptom score, lung function, and sputum cell count were not significantly different between the asthmatics with and without a positive A...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100679/etv5-regulates-il-10-production-in-th-cells
#2
Byunghee Koh, Matthew M Hufford, Xin Sun, Mark H Kaplan
IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that has broad effects across the immune system. In Th cell subsets, Th2 cells produce considerable amounts of IL-10. The transcription factors that regulate IL-10 production in Th2 cells are still incompletely described. In this study, we demonstrate that the ETS family transcription factor ETS variant (Etv)5 regulates IL-10 production in Th2 cells. T cell-specific Etv5-deficient and littermate control mice demonstrated that IL-10 production and gene expression were significantly decreased in the absence of Etv5...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100314/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-rapid-identification-of-fungal-rhinosinusitis-pathogens
#3
Xinxin Lu, Yanfei Huang, Mingxin Zhang, Min Zhu, Mei Wang, Yufeng Sun, Haitong Gu, Jingjing Cao, Xue Li, Shaoya Zhang, Jinglin Wang
BACKGROUND: filamentous fungi are the most important pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and expertise-dependent. Although matrix -assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been employed to identify various fungi, its performance for the identification of FRS fungi is less clear...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095479/central-role-of-il-23-and-il-17-producing-eosinophils-as-immunomodulatory-effector-cells-in-acute-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-allergic-asthma
#4
Evelyn Santos Guerra, Chrono K Lee, Charles A Specht, Bhawna Yadav, Haibin Huang, Ali Akalin, Jun R Huh, Christian Mueller, Stuart M Levitz
Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094291/differential-effects-of-vitamins-a-and-d-on-the-transcriptional-landscape-of-human-monocytes-during-infection
#5
Tilman E Klassert, Julia Bräuer, Martin Hölzer, Magdalena Stock, Konstantin Riege, Cristina Zubiría-Barrera, Mario M Müller, Silke Rummler, Christine Skerka, Manja Marz, Hortense Slevogt
Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential nutrients with a wide range of pleiotropic effects in humans. Beyond their well-documented roles in cellular differentiation, embryogenesis, tissue maintenance and bone/calcium homeostasis, both vitamins have attracted considerable attention due to their association with-immunological traits. Nevertheless, our knowledge of their immunomodulatory potential during infection is restricted to single gene-centric studies, which do not reflect the complexity of immune processes...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090278/isolation-and-identification-of-phyllospheric-bacteria-possessing-antimicrobial-activity-from-astragalus-obtusifolius-prosopis-juliflora-xanthium-strumarium-and-hippocrepis-unisiliqousa
#6
Zohreh Mazinani, Marzieh Zamani, Soroush Sardari
BACKGROUND: The widespread utilization of antimicrobial compounds has caused emergence of resistant microorganisms in the world. Hence, the research to probe the products with antimicrobial features has led to finding natural habitats and discovering new pharmaceutical products. METHODS: In this study, an attempt was made to explore the niche of novel habitat to isolate pyllospheric bacteria from the above ground parts (stems and leaves) of Astragalus obtusifolius, Prosopis juliflora, Xanthium strumarium, and Hippocrepis unisiliqousa to evaluate their antimicrobial features...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087293/first-itraconazole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-clinical-isolate-harbouring-a-g54e-substitution-in-cyp51ap-in-south-america
#7
Florencia Leonardelli, Laura Theill, María Elena Nardin, Daiana Macedo, Catiana Dudiuk, Emilce Mendez, Soledad Gamarra, Guillermo Garcia-Effron
BACKGROUND: A 27-year-old male rural worker was admitted with a fungal keratitis due to an injury involving plant detritus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens were collected for microscopy examination and culture. The isolate was identified by morphological and molecular criteria. Susceptibility testing was performed using CLSI methods. CYP51A gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. RESULTS: An Aspergillus fumigatus strain resistant to itraconazole (MIC>8μg/ml) was isolated...
January 10, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080993/secondary-metabolite-arsenal-of-an-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus
#8
Elaine Bignell, Timothy C Cairns, Kurt Throckmorton, William C Nierman, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#9
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#10
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080217/synergistic-effects-of-tetrandrine-with-posaconazole-against-aspergillus-fumigatus
#11
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Ling Jiang, Ya-Jing Zhao, Hui Guo, Dong-Mei Li, Kun-Ju Zhu, Hong Zhang
In our earlier in vitro and in vivo studies, synergistic effects were observed when itraconazole or voriconazole were combined with tetrandrine (TET) against Aspergillus fumigatus, and the synergistic mechanism was related to inhibition of the drug efflux pump. Posaconazole (PCZ) is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of diverse fungal infections, including aspergillosis and candidiasis. Herein, the antifungal effects of TET are further investigated in vitro and in vivo alone or combined with PCZ against 20 clinical isolates of A...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076396/neutrophil-interactions-stimulate-evasive-hyphal-branching-by-aspergillus-fumigatus
#12
Felix Ellett, Julianne Jorgensen, Galit H Frydman, Caroline N Jones, Daniel Irimia
Invasive aspergillosis (IA), primarily caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, is an opportunistic fungal infection predominantly affecting immunocompromised and neutropenic patients that is difficult to treat and results in high mortality. Investigations of neutrophil-hypha interaction in vitro and in animal models of IA are limited by lack of temporal and spatial control over interactions. This study presents a new approach for studying neutrophil-hypha interaction at single cell resolution over time, which revealed an evasive fungal behavior triggered by interaction with neutrophils: Interacting hyphae performed de novo tip formation to form new hyphal branches, allowing the fungi to avoid the interaction point and continue invasive growth...
January 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063358/chemical-input-reduction-in-the-arabinoxylan-and-lignocellulose-alkaline-extraction-and-xylooligosaccharides-production
#13
Franciane Cristina de Figueiredo, Ana Flavia Azevedo Carvalho, Michel Brienzo, Tania Sila Campioni, Pedro de Oliva-Neto
Lignocellulosic material breakdown by hydrolysis is an important step to open new perspectives for bioenergy and special foods production like prebiotic xylooligosaccharides. Improvement of lignocellulose and arabinoxylan alkaline extraction from sugarcane bagasse and enzymatic hydrolysis were performed. Treatments 1 (10% KOH at 70°C), 3 (5% KOH at 121°C) and ZD method (24% KOH at 35°C) showed solid lignocellulose recovery of respectively 75.2%, 74.2% and 73%. A range of 24.8-27% extracted material with high arabinoxylan content (72...
December 26, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060571/m-ficolin-is-present-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-lung-and-modulates-epithelial-cell-immune-responses-elicited-by-fungal-cell-wall-polysaccharides
#14
Kasper Jensen, Kit P Lund, Kimmie B Christensen, Anne T Holm, Lalit Kumar Dubey, Jesper B Moeller, Christine S Jepsen, Anders Schlosser, László Galgóczy, Steffen Thiel, Uffe Holmskov, Grith L Sorensen
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that typically infects the lungs of immunocompromised patients. Ficolins are secreted pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. In the present study, we investigated the unknown role of human M-ficolin in the recognition of, and response to fungal cell wall polysaccharides. M-ficolin was localized to infiltrating granulocytes and monocytes found in the A. fumigatus infected lung. Recombinant M-ficolin (rM-ficolin) bound specifically to A...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053855/two-cases-of-non-cystic-fibrosis-cf-bronchiectasis-with-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#15
Hriday De, Syed Md Azad, Prabhas P Giri, Priyankar Pal, Apurba Ghosh, Anirban Maitra
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex hypersensitivity reaction in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF), which is associated with bronchi colonized by the fungus Aspergillus species, most often Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPA is an important consideration for asthmatics that do not respond to asthma management or with recurrent chest infections and deteriorating lung function in children with cystic fibrosis. We present two cases of non CF bronchiectasis associated with ABPA who presented to our hospital with recurrent hospitalisations of undiagnosed aetiology...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053852/allergic-bronchopulmonary-mycosis-caused-by-penicillium-luteum
#16
Chiyako Oshikata, Maiko Watanabe, Akemi Saito, Hiroshi Yasueda, Kazuo Akiyama, Yoichi Kamata, Naomi Tsurikisawa
A 65-year-old Japanese male had severe bronchial asthma had increased mold-containing sputum. Serum total IgE level had increased to 798 IU/mL and antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to P. luteum and P. notatum were present but not those reactive toward any species of Aspergillus. Chest computed tomography revealed central bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickness. After antigen-specific provocation with 10 mg/mL of P. luteum, the patient developed asthma exacerbation, but not with A. fumigatus. We present a rare case of Penicillium-induced allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by P...
March 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053849/long-term-outcome-of-medical-and-surgical-co-management-of-craniospinal-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#17
Dipu Sathyapalan, Sabarish Balachandran, Anil Kumar, Bindu Mangalath Rajamma, Ashok Pillai, Vidya P Menon
35 yr old steroid dependent lady with Pulmonary TB underwent debridement of epidural abscess & posterior stabilization for paraparesis. With histopathology and cultures showing Aspergillus fumigatus, voricanozole was started. By the fourth week, she developed persistent fever, and altered mental status. Brain MRI and CSF study including multiplex PCR evaluation confirmed cerebral aspergillosis. Voricanozole was changed to intravenous lipid complex Amphotericin B to achieve sustained clinical and radiological response after six months of therapy...
December 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052586/modelling-the-effect-of-ph-and-water-activity-in-the-growth-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolated-from-corn-silage
#18
V Alonso, L Cavaglieri, A J Ramos, A Torres, S Marin
AIMS: The aim of this work was to use mathematical kinetic modelling to assess the combined effects of aW, pH, O2 availability and temperature onto the growth rate and time to growth of A. fumigatus strains isolated from corn silage. METHODS AND RESULTS: A full factorial design was used in which two factors were assayed: pH and aW . The aW levels assayed were 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, 0.98 and 0.99. Levels of pH assayed were 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 7.5, and 8...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052140/a-novel-zn2-cys6-transcription-factor-atrr-plays-a-key-role-in-an-azole-resistance-mechanism-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-co-regulating-cyp51a-and-cdr1b-expressions
#19
Daisuke Hagiwara, Daisuke Miura, Kiminori Shimizu, Sanjoy Paul, Ayumi Ohba, Tohru Gonoi, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Takahiro Shintani, W Scott Moye-Rowley, Susumu Kawamoto, Katsuya Gomi
Successful treatment of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus is threatened by an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This situation is further complicated by the finding that strains resistant to azoles, the major antifungal drugs for aspergillosis, have been widely disseminated across the globe. To elucidate mechanisms underlying azole resistance, we identified a novel transcription factor that is required for normal azole resistance in Aspergillus fungi including A. fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus nidulans...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050634/damage-resistance-protein-dap-contributes-to-azole-resistance-in-a-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-srba-dependent-way
#20
Jinxing Song, Pengfei Zhai, Ling Lu
The targeting of stress-response regulators has emerged as a powerful strategy to enhance azole drug efficacy and to abrogate azole drug resistance. Previously, we reported that a damage resistance protein (Dap) family, composed of DapA, DapB, and DapC, could respond to azole stress stimuli in Aspergillus fumigatus, although the exact response mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, RNA-seq analysis found that a total of 180 genes are induced by azole in a dapA-dependent manner. These genes are involved in oxidation-reduction, metabolic processes, and transmembrane transport...
January 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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