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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525300/regulation-of-cell-polarity-in-motility-and-cell-division-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#1
Dominik Schumacher, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
Rod-shaped Myxococcus xanthus cells are polarized with proteins asymmetrically localizing to specific positions. This spatial organization is important for regulation of motility and cell division and changes over time. Dedicated protein modules regulate motility independent of the cell cycle, and cell division dependent on the cell cycle. For motility, a leading-lagging cell polarity is established that is inverted during cellular reversals. Establishment and inversion of this polarity are regulated hierarchically by interfacing protein modules that sort polarized motility proteins to the correct cell poles or cause their relocation between cell poles during reversals akin to a spatial toggle switch...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523271/the-protein-chaperone-clpx-targets-native-and-non-native-aggregated-substrates-for-remodeling-disassembly-and-degradation-with-clpp
#2
Christopher J LaBreck, Shannon May, Marissa G Viola, Joseph Conti, Jodi L Camberg
ClpX is a member of the Clp/Hsp100 family of ATP-dependent chaperones and partners with ClpP, a compartmentalized protease, to degrade protein substrates bearing specific recognition signals. ClpX targets specific proteins for degradation directly or with substrate-specific adaptor proteins. Native substrates of ClpXP include proteins that form large oligomeric assemblies, such as MuA, FtsZ, and Dps in Escherichia coli. To remodel large oligomeric substrates, ClpX utilizes multivalent targeting strategies and discriminates between assembled and unassembled substrate conformations...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502279/evidence-and-molecular-characterization-of-bartonella-spp-and-hemoplasmas-in-neotropical-bats-in-brazil
#3
P Ikeda, M C Seki, A O T Carrasco, L V Rudiak, J M D Miranda, S M M Gonçalves, E G L Hoppe, A C A Albuquerque, M M G Teixeira, C E Passos, K Werther, R Z Machado, M R André
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals' species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500534/the-tubulin-superfamily-in-archaea
#4
Christopher H S Aylett, Iain G Duggin
In comparison with bacteria and eukaryotes, the large and diverse group of microorganisms known as archaea possess a great diversity of cytoskeletal proteins, including members of the tubulin superfamily. Many species contain FtsZ, CetZ and even possible tubulins; however, some major taxonomic groups do not contain any member of the tubulin superfamily. Studies using the model archaeon, Halferax volcanii have recently been instrumental in defining the fundamental roles of FtsZ and CetZ in archaeal cell division and cell shape regulation...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500529/bacterial-nucleoid-occlusion-multiple-mechanisms-for-preventing-chromosome-bisection-during-cell-division
#5
Maria A Schumacher
In most bacteria cell division is driven by the prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms the cytokinetic Z ring. Cell survival demands both the spatial and temporal accuracy of this process to ensure that equal progeny are produced with intact genomes. While mechanisms preventing septum formation at the cell poles have been known for decades, the means by which the bacterial nucleoid is spared from bisection during cell division, called nucleoid exclusion (NO), have only recently been deduced. The NO theory was originally posited decades ago based on the key observation that the cell division machinery appeared to be inhibited from forming near the bacterial nucleoid...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500528/bacterial-actins
#6
Izoré, Fusinita van den Ent
A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500527/ftsz-ring-architecture-and-its-control-by-mincd
#7
Piotr Szwedziak, Debnath Ghosal
In bacteria and archaea, the most widespread cell division system is based on the tubulin homologue FtsZ protein, whose filaments form the cytokinetic Z-ring. FtsZ filaments are tethered to the membrane by anchors such as FtsA and SepF and are regulated by accessory proteins. One such set of proteins is responsible for Z-ring's spatiotemporal regulation, essential for the production of two equal-sized daughter cells. Here, we describe how our still partial understanding of the FtsZ-based cell division process has been progressed by visualising near-atomic structures of Z-rings and complexes that control Z-ring positioning in cells, most notably the MinCDE and Noc systems that act by negatively regulating FtsZ filaments...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500525/ftsz-constriction-force-curved-protofilaments-bending-membranes
#8
Harold P Erickson, Masaki Osawa
FtsZ assembles in vitro into protofilaments (pfs) that are one subunit thick and ~50 subunits long. In vivo these pfs assemble further into the Z ring, which, along with accessory division proteins, constricts to divide the cell. We have reconstituted Z rings in liposomes in vitro, using pure FtsZ that was modified with a membrane targeting sequence to directly bind the membrane. This FtsZ-mts assembled Z rings and constricted the liposomes without any accessory proteins. We proposed that the force for constriction was generated by a conformational change from straight to curved pfs...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500523/cell-cycle-machinery-in-bacillus-subtilis
#9
Jeff Errington, Ling Juan Wu
Bacillus subtilis is the best described member of the Gram positive bacteria. It is a typical rod shaped bacterium and grows by elongation in its long axis, before dividing at mid cell to generate two similar daughter cells. B. subtilis is a particularly interesting model for cell cycle studies because it also carries out a modified, asymmetrical division during endospore formation, which can be simply induced by starvation. Cell growth occurs strictly by elongation of the rod, which maintains a constant diameter at all growth rates...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500522/e-coli-cell-cycle-machinery
#10
Joe Lutkenhaus, Shishen Du
Cytokinesis in E. coli is organized by a cytoskeletal element designated the Z ring. The Z ring is formed at midcell by the coalescence of FtsZ filaments tethered to the membrane by interaction of FtsZ's conserved C-terminal peptide (CCTP) with two membrane-associated proteins, FtsA and ZipA. Although interaction between an FtsZ monomer and either of these proteins is of low affinity, high affinity is achieved through avidity - polymerization linked CCTPs interacting with the membrane tethers. The placement of the Z ring at midcell is ensured by antagonists of FtsZ polymerization that are positioned within the cell and target FtsZ filaments through the CCTP...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486132/the-pomxyz-proteins-self-organize-on-the-bacterial-nucleoid-to-stimulate-cell-division
#11
Dominik Schumacher, Silke Bergeler, Andrea Harms, Janet Vonck, Sabrina Huneke-Vogt, Erwin Frey, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen
Cell division site positioning is precisely regulated to generate correctly sized and shaped daughters. We uncover the strategy used by the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus to position the FtsZ cytokinetic ring at midcell. PomX, PomY, and the nucleoid-binding ParA/MinD ATPase PomZ self-assemble forming a large nucleoid-associated complex that localizes at the division site before FtsZ to directly guide and stimulate division. PomXYZ localization is generated through self-organized biased random motion on the nucleoid toward midcell and constrained motion at midcell...
May 8, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470834/the-n-succinyl-l-l-diaminopimelic-acid-desuccinylase-dape-acts-through-zapb-to-promote-septum-formation-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Shishen Du, Joe Lutkenhaus
Spatial regulation of cell division in E. coli occurs at the stage of Z ring formation. It consists of negative (the Min and NO systems) and positive (Ter signal mediated by MatP/ZapA/ZapB) regulators. Here, we find that N-succinyl-L,L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE) facilitates functional Z ring formation by strengthening the Ter signal via ZapB. DapE depends on ZapB to localize to the Z ring and its overproduction suppresses the division defect caused by loss of both the Min and NO systems. DapE shows a strong interaction with ZapB and requires the presence of ZapB to exert its function in division...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465423/a-polymerization-associated-structural-switch-in-ftsz-that-enables-treadmilling-of-model-filaments
#13
James M Wagstaff, Matthew Tsim, María A Oliva, Alba García-Sanchez, Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene, José Manuel Andreu, Jan Löwe
Bacterial cell division in many organisms involves a constricting cytokinetic ring that is orchestrated by the tubulin-like protein FtsZ. FtsZ forms dynamic filaments close to the membrane at the site of division that have recently been shown to treadmill around the division ring, guiding septal wall synthesis. Here, using X-ray crystallography of Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ (SaFtsZ), we reveal how an FtsZ can adopt two functionally distinct conformations, open and closed. The open form is found in SaFtsZ filaments formed in crystals and also in soluble filaments of Escherichia coli FtsZ as deduced by electron cryomicroscopy...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456664/identification-of-the-key-interactions-in-structural-transition-pathway-of-ftsz-from-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Junso Fujita, Ryuhei Harada, Yoko Maeda, Yuki Saito, Eiichi Mizohata, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Yasuteru Shigeta, Hiroyoshi Matsumura
The tubulin-homolog protein FtsZ is essential for bacterial cell division. FtsZ polymerizes to form protofilaments that assemble into a contractile ring-shaped structure in the presence of GTP. Recent studies showed that FtsZ treadmilling coupled with the GTPase activity drives cell wall synthesis and bacterial cell division. The treadmilling caused by assembly and disassembly of FtsZ links to a conformational change of the monomer from a tense (T) to a relaxed (R) state, but considerable controversy still remains concerning the mechanism...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451055/hierarchal-order-in-the-formation-of-chloroplast-division-machinery-in-the-red-alga-cyanidioschyzon-merolae
#15
COMMENT
Nobuko Sumiya, Shin-Ya Miyagishima
Chloroplasts have evolved from a cyanobacterial endosymbiont and multiply by dividing. Chloroplast division is performed by constriction of the ring-like protein complex (the PD machinery), which forms at the division site. The PD machinery is composed of cyanobacteria-descended components such as FtsZ and eukaryote-derived proteins such as the dynamin-related protein, DRP5B. In the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, FtsZ ring formation on the stromal side precedes PDR1 and DRP5B ring formation on the cytosolic side...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445510/whole-genome-re-sequencing-to-identify-suppressor-mutations-of-mutant-and-foreign-escherichia-coli-ftsz
#16
Kiani A J Arkus Gardner, Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson
FtsZ is an essential protein for bacterial cell division, where it forms the cytoskeletal scaffold and may generate the constriction force. We have found previously that some mutant and foreign FtsZ that do not complement an ftsZ null can function for cell division in E. coli upon acquisition of a suppressor mutation somewhere in the genome. We have now identified, via whole genome re-sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 different suppressor strains. Most of the mutations are in genes of various metabolic pathways, which may modulate cell division indirectly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442758/an-amidase_3-domain-containing-n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine-amidase-is-required-for-mycobacterial-cell-division
#17
Sibusiso Senzani, Dong Li, Ashima Bhaskar, Christopher Ealand, James Chang, Binayak Rimal, Chengyin Liu, Sung Joon Kim, Neeraj Dhar, Bavesh Kana
Mycobacteria possess a multi-layered cell wall that requires extensive remodelling during cell division. We investigated the role of an amidase_3 domain-containing N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, a peptidoglycan remodelling enzyme implicated in cell division. We demonstrated that deletion of MSMEG_6281 (Ami1) in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in the formation of cellular chains, illustrative of cells that were unable to complete division. Suprisingly, viability in the Δami1 mutant was maintained through atypical lateral branching, the products of which proceeded to form viable daughter cells...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441562/bacterial-division-ftsz-treadmills-to-build-a-beautiful-wall
#18
Kara M Schoenemann, William Margolin
The tubulin-like FtsZ protein polymerizes into a contractile ring structure required for cytokinesis in most bacteria. Two new studies report that FtsZ polymers move around the ring by treadmilling, which guides and regulates the inward growth of the septal wall.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438890/short-ftsz-filaments-can-drive-asymmetric-cell-envelope-constriction-at-the-onset-of-bacterial-cytokinesis
#19
Qing Yao, Andrew I Jewett, Yi-Wei Chang, Catherine M Oikonomou, Morgan Beeby, Cristina V Iancu, Ariane Briegel, Debnath Ghosal, Grant J Jensen
FtsZ, the bacterial homologue of eukaryotic tubulin, plays a central role in cell division in nearly all bacteria and many archaea. It forms filaments under the cytoplasmic membrane at the division site where, together with other proteins it recruits, it drives peptidoglycan synthesis and constricts the cell. Despite extensive study, the arrangement of FtsZ filaments and their role in division continue to be debated. Here, we apply electron cryotomography to image the native structure of intact dividing cells and show that constriction in a variety of Gram-negative bacterial cells, including Proteus mirabilis and Caulobacter crescentus, initiates asymmetrically, accompanied by asymmetric peptidoglycan incorporation and short FtsZ-like filament formation...
April 24, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428773/mutation-at-g103-of-mtbftsz-altered-their-sensitivity-to-coumarins
#20
Duggirala Sridevi, Karpagam U Sudhakar, Ragamanvitha Ananthathatmula, Rakesh P Nankar, Mukesh Doble
Coumarins are natural polyphenol lactones comprising of fused rings of benzene and α-pyrone. The current study demonstrates the inhibitory effect of coumarins with various substitutions on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155. We also demonstrate the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract containing ellagic acid, on M. smegmatis as well as their affect on MtbFtsZ (FtsZ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The ellagic acid extracts from pomegranate peels inhibit mycobacteria with a MIC of 25 μM and 0.3 to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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