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FtsZ

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814573/conserved-dynamics-of-chloroplast-cytoskeletal-ftsz-proteins-across-photosynthetic-lineages
#1
Allan D Terbush, Joshua S MacCready, Cheng Chen, Daniel C Ducat, Katherine W Osteryoung
The cytoskeletal FtsZ ring is critical for cell division in bacteria and chloroplast division in photosynthetic eukaryotes. While bacterial FtsZ rings are composed of a single FtsZ, except in the basal glaucophytes chloroplast division involves two heteropolymer-forming FtsZ isoforms--FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in the green lineage and FtsZA and FtsZB in red algae. FtsZ1 and FtsZB probably arose by duplication of the more ancestral FtsZ2 and FtsZA, respectively. We expressed fluorescent fusions of FtsZ from diverse photosynthetic organisms in a heterologous system to compare their intrinsic assembly and dynamic properties...
August 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807600/methylglyoxal-synthase-regulates-cell-elongation-via-alterations-of-cellular-methylglyoxal-and-spermidine-content-in-bacillus-subtilis
#2
Sang-Min Shin, Sung-Hyun Song, Jin-Woo Lee, Min-Kyu Kwak, Sa-Ouk Kang
Methylglyoxal regulates cell division and differentiation through its interaction with polyamines. Loss of their biosynthesizing enzyme causes physiological impairment and cell elongation in eukaryotes. However, the reciprocal effects of methylglyoxal and polyamine production and its regulatory metabolic switches on morphological changes in prokaryotes have not been addressed. Here, Bacillus subtilis methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA) and polyamine biosynthesizing genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (SpeA), agmatinase (SpeB), and spermidine synthase (SpeE), were disrupted or overexpressed...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803467/not-gate-genetic-circuits-to-control-gene-expression-in-cyanobacteria
#3
Arnaud Taton, Amy T Ma, Mizuho Ota, Susan Golden, James W Golden
To downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, we constructed NOT gate genetic circuits using orthogonal promoters and their cognate repressors regulated translationally by synthetic riboswitches. Four NOT gates were tested and characterized in five cyanobacterial strains using fluorescent reporter-gene assays. In comparison to alternative systems used to downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, these NOT gates performed well, reducing YFP reporter expression by 4 to 50-fold. We further evaluated these NOT gates by controlling the expression of the ftsZ gene, which encodes a prokaryotic tubulin homolog that is required for cell division and is essential for Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
August 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792417/vibrio-tapetis-from-wrasse-used-for-ectoparasite-bio-control-in-salmon-farming-phylogenetic-analysis-and-serotyping
#4
Snorre Gulla, Anita Rønneseth, Henning Sørum, Øyvind Vågnes, Sabela Balboa, Jesús L Romalde, Duncan J Colquhoun
So-called 'cleaner fish', including various wrasse (Labridae) species, have become increasingly popular in Norwegian salmon farming in recent years for biocontrol of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Cleaner fish mortalities in salmon farms are, however, often high. Various bacterial agents are frequently associated with episodes of increased cleaner fish mortality, and Vibrio tapetis is regularly cultured from diseased wrasse. In the present study, we investigated the genetic relationships among 54 V...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752912/functional-analysis-of-the-cyclophilin-ppib-role-in-bacterial-cell-division
#5
Aggeliki Skagia, Chrysoula Zografou, Anastasia Venieraki, Costas Fasseas, Panagiotis Katinakis, Maria Dimou
Escherichia coli PpiB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase, EC: 5.2.1.8) with chaperone activity. Here, we show that the ΔppiB deletion strain and the PpiB over-expression wild-type strain are both characterized by defects in cell division involving milder or severe cell filamentation, respectively. Using various PpiB mutants, we show that the PPIase activity of PpiB is necessary for the observed cell filamentation, whereas other structural features apart from the active site are also important for this phenotype...
July 28, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743721/mind-directly-interacts-with-ftsz-at-h10-helix-suggests-a-model-for-robust-activation-of-minc-to-destabilize-ftsz-polymers
#6
Ashoka Chary Taviti, Tushar Kant Beuria
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen of proteins to it. The min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733212/the-peroxyl-radical-induced-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-ftsz-and-its-single-tryptophan-mutant-y222w-modifies-specific-side-chains-generates-protein-cross-links-and-affects-biological-function
#7
Elizabeth Escobar-Álvarez, Fabian Leinisch, Gissela Araya, Octavio Monasterio, Lasse G Lorentzen, Eduardo Silva, Michael J Davies, Camilo López-Alarcón
FtsZ (filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) is a key protein in bacteria cell division. The wild-type Escherichia coli FtsZ sequence (FtsZwt) contains three tyrosine (Tyr, Y) and sixteen methionine (Met, M) residues. The Tyr at position 222 is a key residue for FtsZ polymerization. Mutation of this residue to tryptophan (Trp, W; mutant Y222W) inhibits GTPase activity resulting in an extended time in the polymerized state compared to FtsZwt. Protein oxidation has been highlighted as a determinant process for bacteria resistance and consequently oxidation of FtsZwt and the Y222W mutant, by peroxyl radicals (ROO•) generated from AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) was studied...
July 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727827/diversity-and-phylogenetic-relationships-among-bartonella-strains-from-thai-bats
#8
Clifton D McKee, Michael Y Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E Rupprecht, Leonard F Peruski
Bartonellae are phylogenetically diverse, intracellular bacteria commonly found in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats have a high prevalence and diversity of Bartonella infections globally. Isolates (n = 42) were obtained from five bat species in four provinces of Thailand and analyzed using sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Sequences clustered into seven distinct genogroups; four of these genogroups displayed similarity with Bartonella spp. sequences from other bats in Southeast Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707473/aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-growth-in-biofilm-versus-planktonic-state-differential-expression-of-proteins
#9
Arancha Llama-Palacios, Oksana Potupa, María Del Carmen Sánchez, Elena Figuero, David Herrera, Mariano Sanz
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is a pathogenic bacterium residing in the subgingival plaque biofilm strongly associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this investigation was to study the protein differential expression of Aa when growing on biofilm compared to planktonic state using proteomic analysis by the 2D-DIGE™ system. Eighty-seven proteins were differentially expressed during biofilm growth (1.5-fold, p<0.05), being 13 over expressed and 37 down expressed. Those repressed were mainly proteins involved in metabolism, biosynthesis and transport...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698673/a-quinolinol-based-small-molecule-with-anti-mrsa-activity-that-targets-bacterial-membrane-and-promotes-fermentative-metabolism
#10
Dhanalakshmi R Nair, Ji Chen, João M Monteiro, Michaele Josten, Mariana G Pinho, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jimmy Wu, Ambrose Cheung
In a loss-of-viability screen of small molecules against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, we found a small molecule, designated DNAC-2, which has an MIC of 8 μg ml(-1). DNAC-2 is a quinolinol derivative that is bactericidal at 2X MIC. Macromolecular synthesis assays at 2 × MIC of DNAC-2 revealed inhibition of DNA, cell wall, RNA and protein synthesis within fifteen to thirty minutes of treatment when compared to the untreated control. Transmission electron microscopy of DNAC-2-treated cells revealed a significantly thicker cell wall and impaired daughter cell separation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695917/escherichia-coli-ftsa-forms-lipid-bound-minirings-that-antagonize-lateral-interactions-between-ftsz-protofilaments
#11
Marcin Krupka, Veronica W Rowlett, Dustin Morado, Heidi Vitrac, Kara Schoenemann, Jun Liu, William Margolin
Most bacteria divide using a protein machine called the divisome that spans the cytoplasmic membrane. Key divisome proteins on the membrane's cytoplasmic side include tubulin-like FtsZ, which forms GTP-dependent protofilaments, and actin-like FtsA, which tethers FtsZ to the membrane. Here we present genetic evidence that in Escherichia coli, FtsA antagonizes FtsZ protofilament bundling in vivo. We then show that purified FtsA does not form straight polymers on lipid monolayers as expected, but instead assembles into dodecameric minirings, often in hexameric arrays...
July 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687675/two-dynamin-like-proteins-stabilize-ftsz-rings-during-streptomyces-sporulation
#12
Susan Schlimpert, Sebastian Wasserstrom, Govind Chandra, Maureen J Bibb, Kim C Findlay, Klas Flärdh, Mark J Buttner
During sporulation, the filamentous bacteria Streptomyces undergo a massive cell division event in which the synthesis of ladders of sporulation septa convert multigenomic hyphae into chains of unigenomic spores. This process requires cytokinetic Z-rings formed by the bacterial tubulin homolog FtsZ, and the stabilization of the newly formed Z-rings is crucial for completion of septum synthesis. Here we show that two dynamin-like proteins, DynA and DynB, play critical roles in this process. Dynamins are a family of large, multidomain GTPases involved in key cellular processes in eukaryotes, including vesicle trafficking and organelle division...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674273/septal-membrane-localization-by-c-terminal-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helices-of-mind-in-bacillus-subtilis-mutant-cells-lacking-minj-or-diviva
#13
Kazuki Ishikawa, Satoshi Matsuoka, Hiroshi Hara, Kouji Matsumoto
The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at the mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that B. subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674002/chromosome-segregation-drives-division-site-selection-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#14
Renske van Raaphorst, Morten Kjos, Jan-Willem Veening
Accurate spatial and temporal positioning of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ is key for proper bacterial cell division. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an oval-shaped, symmetrically dividing opportunistic human pathogen lacking the canonical systems for division site control (nucleoid occlusion and the Min-system). Recently, the early division protein MapZ was identified and implicated in pneumococcal division site selection. We show that MapZ is important for proper division plane selection; thus, the question remains as to what drives pneumococcal division site selection...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662104/vibrio-aphrogenes-sp-nov-in-the-rumoiensis-clade-isolated-from-a-seaweed
#15
Mami Tanaka, Shoko Endo, Fumihito Kotake, Nurhidayu Al-Saari, A K M Rohul Amin, Gao Feng, Sayaka Mino, Hidetaka Doi, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Isao Yumoto, Toko Sawabe, Tomoo Sawabe, Toshiyoshi Araki
A novel strain Vibrio aphrogenes sp. nov. strain CA-1004T isolated from the surface of seaweed collected on the coast of Mie Prefecture in 1994 [1] was characterized using polyphasic taxonomy including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and a genome based comparison. Both phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the strain could be placed in the Rumoiensis clade in the genus Vibrio...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642045/mutations-on-ftsz-lateral-helix-h3-that-disrupt-cell-viability-hamper-reorganization-of-polymers-on-lipid-surfaces
#16
Ileana F Márquez, Pablo Mateos-Gil, Jae Yen Shin, Rosalba Lagos, Octavio Monasterio, Marisela Vélez
FtsZ filaments localize at the middle of the bacterial cell and participate in the formation of a contractile ring responsible for cell division. Previous studies demonstrated that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the lateral helix H3 bend of Escherichia coli FtsZ are required for in vivo cell division. In order to understand how these lateral mutations impair the formation of a contractile ring,we extend previous in vitro characterization of these mutants in solution to study their behavior on lipid modified surfaces...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634179/lessons-from-bacterial-homolog-of-tubulin-ftsz-for-microtubule-dynamics
#17
Rachana Rao Battaje, Dulal Panda
FtsZ, a homolog of tubulin, is found in almost all bacteria and archaea where it has a primary role in cytokinesis. Evidence for structural homology between FtsZ and tubulin came from their crystal structures and identification of the GTP-box. Tubulin and FtsZ constitute a distinct family of GTPases and show striking similarities in many of their polymerization properties. The differences between them, more so, the complexities of microtubule dynamic behavior in comparison to that of FtsZ, indicate that the evolution to tubulin is attributable to the incorporation of the complex functionalities in higher organisms...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633894/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-5-methylphenanthridium-derivatives-as-ftsz-inhibitors
#18
Fang Liu, Henrietta Venter, Fangchao Bi, Susan J Semple, Jingru Liu, Chaobin Jin, Shutao Ma
5-Methylphenanthridium derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity and cell division inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Among them, compounds 5A2, 5B1, 5B2, 5B3, 5C1 and 5C2 displayed the best on-target antibacterial activity with an MIC value of 4µg/mL against B. subtilis ATCC9372 and S. pyogenes PS, showing over 2-fold better activity than sanguinarine. The SARs showed that the 5-methylphenanthridium derivatives with the alkyl side chains at the 2-postion, especially the straight alkyl side chains exerted better on-target antibacterial activity...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630190/%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-with-a-high-affinity-for-pbp2-act-synergistically-with-the-ftsz-targeting-agent-txa707-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Edgar Ferrer-González, Malvika Kaul, Ajit K Parhi, Edmond J LaVoie, Daniel S Pilch
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multi-drug resistant pathogen that poses a significant risk to global health today. We have developed a promising new FtsZ-targeting agent (TXA707) with potent activity against MRSA isolates resistant to current standard-of-care antibiotics. Here we present results that demonstrate differing extents of synergy between TXA707 and a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics (including six cephalosporins, two penicillins, and two carbapenems) against MRSA. To explore whether there is a correlation between the extent of synergy and the preferential antibacterial target of each β-lactam, we determined the binding affinities of the β-lactam antibiotics for each of the four native penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of S...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630123/absence-of-the-polar-organizing-protein-popz-results-in-reduced-and-asymmetric-cell-division-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#20
Matthew Howell, Alena Aliashkevich, Anne K Salisbury, Felipe Cava, Grant R Bowman, Pamela J B Brown
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a rod-shaped bacterium that grows by polar insertion of new peptidoglycan during cell elongation. As the cell cycle progresses, peptidoglycan synthesis at the pole ceases prior to insertion of new peptidoglycan at midcell to enable cell division. The A. tumefaciens homolog of the Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PopZ has been identified as a growth pole marker and a candidate polar growth-promoting factor. Here, we characterize the function of PopZ in cell growth and division of A...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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