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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918945/hof1-and-chs4-interact-via-f-bar-domain-and-sel1-like-repeats-to-control-extracellular-matrix-deposition-during-cytokinesis
#1
Younghoon Oh, Jennifer H Schreiter, Hiroki Okada, Carsten Wloka, Satoshi Okada, Di Yan, Xudong Duan, Erfei Bi
Localized extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is thought to stabilize the cleavage furrow and maintain cell shape during cytokinesis [1-14]. This remodeling is spatiotemporally coordinated with a cytoskeletal structure pertaining to a kingdom of life, for example the FtsZ ring in bacteria [15], the phragmoplast in plants [16], and the actomyosin ring in fungi and animals [17, 18]. Although the cytoskeletal structures have been analyzed extensively, the mechanisms of ECM remodeling remain poorly understood...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918285/controlling-cell-volume-for-efficient-phb-production-by-halomonas
#2
Xiao-Ran Jiang, Zhi-Hao Yao, Guo-Qiang Chen
Bacterial morphology is decided by cytoskeleton protein MreB and cell division protein FtsZ encoded by essential genes mreB and ftsZ, respectively. Inactivating mreB and ftsZ lead to increasing cell sizes and cell lengths, respectively, yet seriously reduce cell growth ability. Here we develop a temperature-responsible plasmid expression system for compensated expression of relevant gene(s) in mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants H. campaniensis LS21, allowing mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants to grow normally at 30°C in a bioreactor for 12h so that a certain cell density can be reached, followed by 36h cell size expansions or cell shape elongations at elevated 37°C at which the mreB and ftsZ encoded plasmid pTKmf failed to replicate in the recombinants and thus lost themselves...
September 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910864/madurahydroxylactone-an-inhibitor-of-staphylococcus-aureus-ftsz-from-nonomuraea-sp-an100570
#3
Bo-Min Kim, Ha Young Choi, Geon-Woo Kim, Chang-Ji Zheng, Young-Ho Kim, Won-Gon Kim
FtsZ, a bacterial cell-division protein, is an attractive antibacterial target. In the screening for an inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ, madurahydroxylactone (1) and its related derivatives 2-5 were isolated from Nonomuraea sp. AN1000570. Compound 1 inhibited S. aureus FtsZ with an IC50 of 53.4 µM and showed a potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA with an MIC of 1 µg/mL, while 2-5 were weak or inactive. Importantly, 1 induced cell elongation in the cell division phenotype assay, while 2-5 didn't...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887034/a-novel-gene-cilia-flagella-associated-protein-44-encoding-an-enzyme-cleaving-ftsz-and-tubulin-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-secretory-pathway
#4
Akiko S Tanaka, Masahiko Tanaka
We identified a novel gene, encoding the central region of the cilia and flagella-associated protein 44 (Cfap44), that regulates trafficking of cellular components and morphology via the cleavage of cellular proteins (particularly β-tubulin). Although Cfap44 is registered in GenBank, the functions of both the central part and full-length protein are unknown except for a polymorphism associated with proprotein convertase 9 activity, the third gene of familiar hyper-cholesterolemia. In mice and humans, both unspliced and spliced RNAs were transcribed, and the spliced form was predominantly transcribed in the brain and embryonic tissues...
September 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878745/coordination-of-chromosome-segregation-and-cell-division-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Amy L Bottomley, Andrew T F Liew, Kennardy D Kusuma, Elizabeth Peterson, Lisa Seidel, Simon J Foster, Elizabeth J Harry
Productive bacterial cell division and survival of progeny requires tight coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division to ensure equal partitioning of DNA. Unlike rod-shaped bacteria that undergo division in one plane, the coccoid human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides in three successive orthogonal planes, which requires a different spatial control compared to rod-shaped cells. To gain a better understanding of how this coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division is regulated in S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877250/the-hypermorph-ftsa-protein-has-an-in-vivo-role-in-relieving-the-escherichia-coli-proto-ring-block-caused-by-excess-zapc
#6
Cristina Ortiz, Mercedes Casanova, Pilar Palacios, Miguel Vicente
Assembly of the proto-ring, formed by the essential FtsZ, FtsA and ZipA proteins, and its progression into a divisome, are essential events for Escherichia coli division. ZapC is a cytoplasmic protein that belongs to a group of non-essential components that assist FtsZ during proto-ring assembly. Any overproduction of these proteins leads to faulty FtsZ-rings, resulting in a cell division block. We show that ZapC overproduction can be counteracted by an excess of the ZipA-independent hypermorph FtsA* mutant, but not by similar amounts of wild type FtsA+...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874523/escherichia-coli-responds-to-environmental-changes-using-enolasic-degradosomes-and-stabilized-dicf-srna-to-alter-cellular-morphology
#7
Oleg N Murashko, Sue Lin-Chao
Escherichia coli RNase E is an essential enzyme that forms multicomponent ribonucleolytic complexes known as "RNA degradosomes." These complexes consist of four major components: RNase E, PNPase, RhlB RNA helicase, and enolase. However, the role of enolase in the RNase E/degradosome is not understood. Here, we report that presence of enolase in the RNase E/degradosome under anaerobic conditions regulates cell morphology, resulting in Ecoli MG1655 cell filamentation. Under anaerobic conditions, enolase bound to the RNase E/degradosome stabilizes the small RNA (sRNA) DicF, i...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861054/screening-of-tb-actives-for-activity-against-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-delivers-high-hit-rates
#8
Jian Liang Low, Mu-Lu Wu, Dinah Binte Aziz, Benoît Laleu, Thomas Dick
The prevalence of lung disease due to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing and surpassed tuberculosis (TB) in some countries. Treatment outcomes are often unsatisfactory, highlighting an urgent need for new anti-NTM medications. Although NTM in general do not respond well to TB specific drugs, the similarities between NTM and Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the molecular and cell structural level suggest that compound libraries active against TB could be leveraged for NTM drug discovery...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840414/bis-spirochromanones-as-potent-inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#9
Ashok Dongamanti, Vikas Kumar Aamate, Mohan Gandhi Devulapally, Srinivas Gundu, Saikrishna Balabadra, Vijjulatha Manga, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram, Sridhar Balasubramanian
On the basis of reported antimycobacterial property of chroman-4-one pharmacophore, a series of chemically modified bis-spirochromanones were synthesized starting from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and 1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5] decan-8-one using a Kabbe condensation approach. The synthesized bis-spirochromanones were established based on their spectral data and X-ray crystal structure of 6e. All synthesized compounds were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) strain, finding that some products exhibited good antimycobacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration as low as [Formula: see text]...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826971/mathematical-modeling-of-spatiotemporal-protein-localization-patterns-in-c-crescentus-bacteria-a-mechanism-for-asymmetric-ftsz-ring-positioning
#10
Blerta Shtylla
We examine the localization patterns of ParA, ParB, PopZ, and MipZ, which are key division proteins in C. crescentus bacteria. While Par and PopZ proteins have been implicated in the physical segregation of the replicated chromosome, MipZ dimers control the placement of the cell division plane by preventing FtsZ proteins from assembling into a Z-ring. MipZ proteins generate bipolar gradients that are sensitive to Par protein localization, however, it is not understood how the MipZ gradient is shaped so as to allow for the correct Z-ring placement during asymmetric cell division in C...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814573/conserved-dynamics-of-chloroplast-cytoskeletal-ftsz-proteins-across-photosynthetic-lineages
#11
Allan D Terbush, Joshua S MacCready, Cheng Chen, Daniel C Ducat, Katherine W Osteryoung
The cytoskeletal FtsZ ring is critical for cell division in bacteria and chloroplast division in photosynthetic eukaryotes. While bacterial FtsZ rings are composed of a single FtsZ, except in the basal glaucophytes chloroplast division involves two heteropolymer-forming FtsZ isoforms--FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 in the green lineage and FtsZA and FtsZB in red algae. FtsZ1 and FtsZB probably arose by duplication of the more ancestral FtsZ2 and FtsZA, respectively. We expressed fluorescent fusions of FtsZ from diverse photosynthetic organisms in a heterologous system to compare their intrinsic assembly and dynamic properties...
August 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807600/methylglyoxal-synthase-regulates-cell-elongation-via-alterations-of-cellular-methylglyoxal-and-spermidine-content-in-bacillus-subtilis
#12
Sang-Min Shin, Sung-Hyun Song, Jin-Woo Lee, Min-Kyu Kwak, Sa-Ouk Kang
Methylglyoxal regulates cell division and differentiation through its interaction with polyamines. Loss of their biosynthesizing enzyme causes physiological impairment and cell elongation in eukaryotes. However, the reciprocal effects of methylglyoxal and polyamine production and its regulatory metabolic switches on morphological changes in prokaryotes have not been addressed. Here, Bacillus subtilis methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA) and polyamine biosynthesizing genes encoding arginine decarboxylase (SpeA), agmatinase (SpeB), and spermidine synthase (SpeE), were disrupted or overexpressed...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803467/not-gate-genetic-circuits-to-control-gene-expression-in-cyanobacteria
#13
Arnaud Taton, Amy T Ma, Mizuho Ota, Susan Golden, James W Golden
To downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, we constructed NOT gate genetic circuits using orthogonal promoters and their cognate repressors regulated translationally by synthetic riboswitches. Four NOT gates were tested and characterized in five cyanobacterial strains using fluorescent reporter-gene assays. In comparison to alternative systems used to downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, these NOT gates performed well, reducing YFP reporter expression by 4 to 50-fold. We further evaluated these NOT gates by controlling the expression of the ftsZ gene, which encodes a prokaryotic tubulin homolog that is required for cell division and is essential for Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
August 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792417/vibrio-tapetis-from-wrasse-used-for-ectoparasite-bio-control-in-salmon-farming-phylogenetic-analysis-and-serotyping
#14
Snorre Gulla, Anita Rønneseth, Henning Sørum, Øyvind Vågnes, Sabela Balboa, Jesús L Romalde, Duncan J Colquhoun
So-called 'cleaner fish', including various wrasse (Labridae) species, have become increasingly popular in Norwegian salmon farming in recent years for biocontrol of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Cleaner fish mortalities in salmon farms are, however, often high. Various bacterial agents are frequently associated with episodes of increased cleaner fish mortality, and Vibrio tapetis is regularly cultured from diseased wrasse. In the present study, we investigated the genetic relationships among 54 V...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752912/functional-analysis-of-the-cyclophilin-ppib-role-in-bacterial-cell-division
#15
Aggeliki Skagia, Chrysoula Zografou, Anastasia Venieraki, Costas Fasseas, Panagiotis Katinakis, Maria Dimou
Escherichia coli PpiB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase, EC: 5.2.1.8) with chaperone activity. Here, we show that the ΔppiB deletion strain and the PpiB over-expression wild-type strain are both characterized by defects in cell division involving milder or severe cell filamentation, respectively. Using various PpiB mutants, we show that the PPIase activity of PpiB is necessary for the observed cell filamentation, whereas other structural features apart from the active site are also important for this phenotype...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743721/mind-directly-interacts-with-ftsz-at-h10-helix-suggests-a-model-for-robust-activation-of-minc-to-destabilize-ftsz-polymers
#16
Ashoka Chary Taviti, Tushar Kant Beuria
Cell division in bacteria is a highly controlled and regulated process. FtsZ, a bacterial cytoskeletal protein, forms a ring like structure known as the Z-ring and recruits more than a dozen of proteins to it. The min system oscillates between the poles and inhibits the Z-ring formation at the poles by perturbing FtsZ assembly. This leads to an increase in the FtsZ concentration at the mid cell and helps in Z-ring positioning. MinC, the effector protein, interferes with Z-ring formation through two different mechanisms mediated by its two domains with the help of MinD...
July 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733212/the-peroxyl-radical-induced-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-ftsz-and-its-single-tryptophan-mutant-y222w-modifies-specific-side-chains-generates-protein-cross-links-and-affects-biological-function
#17
Elizabeth Escobar-Álvarez, Fabian Leinisch, Gissela Araya, Octavio Monasterio, Lasse G Lorentzen, Eduardo Silva, Michael J Davies, Camilo López-Alarcón
FtsZ (filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) is a key protein in bacteria cell division. The wild-type Escherichia coli FtsZ sequence (FtsZwt) contains three tyrosine (Tyr, Y) and sixteen methionine (Met, M) residues. The Tyr at position 222 is a key residue for FtsZ polymerization. Mutation of this residue to tryptophan (Trp, W; mutant Y222W) inhibits GTPase activity resulting in an extended time in the polymerized state compared to FtsZwt. Protein oxidation has been highlighted as a determinant process for bacteria resistance and consequently oxidation of FtsZwt and the Y222W mutant, by peroxyl radicals (ROO•) generated from AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) was studied...
July 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727827/diversity-and-phylogenetic-relationships-among-bartonella-strains-from-thai-bats
#18
Clifton D McKee, Michael Y Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E Rupprecht, Leonard F Peruski
Bartonellae are phylogenetically diverse, intracellular bacteria commonly found in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats have a high prevalence and diversity of Bartonella infections globally. Isolates (n = 42) were obtained from five bat species in four provinces of Thailand and analyzed using sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Sequences clustered into seven distinct genogroups; four of these genogroups displayed similarity with Bartonella spp. sequences from other bats in Southeast Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707473/aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-growth-in-biofilm-versus-planktonic-state-differential-expression-of-proteins
#19
Arancha Llama-Palacios, Oksana Potupa, María C Sánchez, Elena Figuero, David Herrera, Mariano Sanz
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is a pathogenic bacterium residing in the subgingival plaque biofilm strongly associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this investigation was to study the protein differential expression of Aa when growing on biofilm compared with planktonic state using proteomic analysis by the 2D-DIGE system. Eighty-seven proteins were differentially expressed during biofilm growth (1.5-fold, p < 0.05), with 13 overexpressed and 37 down-expressed. Those repressed were mainly proteins involved in metabolism, biosynthesis, and transport...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698673/a-quinolinol-based-small-molecule-with-anti-mrsa-activity-that-targets-bacterial-membrane-and-promotes-fermentative-metabolism
#20
Dhanalakshmi R Nair, Ji Chen, João M Monteiro, Michaele Josten, Mariana G Pinho, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jimmy Wu, Ambrose Cheung
In a loss-of-viability screen of small molecules against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, we found a small molecule, designated DNAC-2, which has an MIC of 8 μg ml(-1). DNAC-2 is a quinolinol derivative that is bactericidal at 2X MIC. Macromolecular synthesis assays at 2 × MIC of DNAC-2 revealed inhibition of DNA, cell wall, RNA and protein synthesis within fifteen to thirty minutes of treatment when compared to the untreated control. Transmission electron microscopy of DNAC-2-treated cells revealed a significantly thicker cell wall and impaired daughter cell separation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
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