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Liang Yang, Juanni Chen, Ying Liu, Shuting Zhang, Shili Li, Wei Ding
Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) has become the method choice for quantification of gene expression changes, however, the accuracy of the method depends on the stability of reference genes. Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (R. pseudosolanacearum) is an important plant pathogen, infecting >450 plant species and causing bacterial wilt. In order to identify stable reference genes in R. pseudosolanacearum CQPS-1 under different environment stresses. We used five tools (△Ct method, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) to evaluate the stability of seven candidate reference genes including phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), cell division protein ftsZ (ftsZ), DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA), Ribosomal protein L13 (rplM), and phosphoserine aminotransferase (serC) under biotic (growth phases) and abiotic stress (temperature, hydroxycoumarins, nutrition)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Liping Feng, Xiaona Niu, Wen Mei, Weitian Li, Yuan Liu, Stephan P Willias, Chao Yuan, Weicheng Bei, Xiaohong Wang, Jinquan Li
Vaccine development efforts against Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) are often constrained by strain/serotype antigen variability. Bioinformatics analyses revealed two highly conserved S. suis 2 factors, EF-Tu and FtsZ. Murine immunization with recombinant proteins emulsified in white oil adjuvant or eukaryotic DNA vaccine vectors provided significant protection against lethal S. suis 2 challenge. Immune responses elicited by recombinant protein immunization revealed the robust generation of humoral immune responses, with a mixed induction of Th1-type and Th2-type responses...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
Norbert S Hill, Jason D Zuke, P J Buske, An-Chun Chien, Petra Anne Levin
BACKGROUND: Changes in nutrient availability have dramatic and well-defined impacts on both transcription and translation in bacterial cells. At the same time, the role of post-translational control in adaptation to nutrient-poor environments is poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrate the ability of the glucosyltransferase UgtP to influence cell size in response to nutrient availability. Under nutrient-rich medium, interactions with its substrate UDP-glucose promote interactions between UgtP and the tubulin-like cell division protein FtsZ in Bacillus subtilis, inhibiting maturation of the cytokinetic ring and increasing cell size...
April 6, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Abhishek Jain, Wei Ning Chen
Nickel (Ni(II)) toxicity is addressed by many different bacteria, but bacterial responses to nickel stress are still unclear. Therefore, we studied the effect of Ni(II) toxicity on cell proliferation of α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Next, we showed the mechanism that allows C. crescentus to survive in Ni(II) stress condition. Our results revealed that the growth of C. crescentus is severely affected when the bacterium was exposed to different Ni(II) concentrations, 0.003 mM slightly affected the growth, 0...
April 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Haiyan Huang, Ping Wang, Li Bian, Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson, Yaodong Chen
Cell division of rod-shaped bacteria requires the Z ring, a ring of FtsZ filaments associated with the inner-membrane wall. The MinCDE proteins help localize the Z ring to the center of the Escherichia coli cell. MinC, which inhibits Z-ring assembly, is a passenger on MinD. Previous studies have shown that MinC-MinD from E. coli and Aquifex aeolicus assemble in vitro into extended filaments with a 1:1 stoichiometry. However, a recent study has raised questions about the function of the MinC-MinD copolymer in vivo , since its assembly appears to require a high concentration of these two proteins, has a long lag time, and its blockade does not affect in vivo activities...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Habib Ali, Abrar Muhammad, Saif-Ul-Islam, Waqar Islam, Youming Hou
The hispid leaf beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a devastating pest of palm cultivation worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are arguably one of the most abundant bacterial group associated with arthropods. Owing to its critical effects on host reproduction, Wolbachia has garnered much attention as a prospective future tool for insect pest management. However, their association, infection dynamics, and functionality remain unknown in this insect pest. Here, we diagnosis for the first time, the infection prevalence, and occurrence of Wolbachia in O...
March 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Nika Pende, Jinglan Wang, Philipp M Weber, Jolanda Verheul, Erkin Kuru, Simon K-M R Rittmann, Nikolaus Leisch, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Yves V Brun, Tanneke den Blaauwen, Silvia Bulgheresi
To determine the fundamentals of cell growth, we must extend cell biological studies to non-model organisms. Here, we investigated the growth modes of the only two rods known to widen instead of elongating, Candidatus Thiosymbion oneisti and Thiosymbion hypermnestrae. These bacteria are attached by one pole to the surface of their respective nematode hosts. By incubating live Ca. T. oneisti and T. hypermnestrae with a peptidoglycan metabolic probe, we observed that the insertion of new cell wall starts at the poles and proceeds inward, concomitantly with FtsZ-based membrane constriction...
March 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Łukasz Kajtoch, Nela Kotásková
Background: Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts, is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. Methods: An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 86 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles...
2018: PeerJ
Marcin Krupka, William Margolin
To generate two cells from one, bacteria such as Escherichia coli use a complex of membrane-embedded proteins called the divisome that synthesize the division septum. The initial stage of cytokinesis requires a tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms polymers that treadmill around the cell circumference. The attachment of these polymers to the cytoplasmic membrane requires an actin homolog, FtsA, which also forms dynamic polymers that directly bind to FtsZ. Recent evidence indicates that FtsA and FtsZ regulate each other's oligomeric state in E...
2018: F1000Research
Tímea O Kóbori, Tatsuya Uzumaki, Mihály Kis, László Kovács, Ildikó Domonkos, Shigeru Itoh, Vendula Krynická, Saravanan G Kuppusamy, Tomas Zakar, Jason Dean, László Szilák, Josef Komenda, Zoltán Gombos, Bettina Ughy
Phosphatidylglycerol is an essential phospholipid for photosynthesis and other cellular processes. We investigated the role of phosphatidylglycerol in cell division and metabolism in a phophatidylglycerol-auxotrophic strain of Synechococcus PCC7942. Here we show that phosphatidylglycerol is essential for the photosynthetic electron transfer and for the oligomerisation of the photosynthetic complexes, notably, we revealed that this lipid is important for non-linear electron transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphatidylglycerol starvation elevated the expressions of proteins of nitrogen and carbon metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yaron Caspi, Cees Dekker
Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by the well-studied fts genes, with FtsZ as the principal player. In many archaeal species, however, division is orchestrated differently. The Crenarchaeota phylum of archaea features the action of the three proteins, CdvABC. This Cdv system is a unique and less-well-studied division mechanism that merits closer inspection. In vivo , the three Cdv proteins form a composite band that contracts concomitantly with the septum formation. Of the three Cdv proteins, CdvA is the first to be recruited to the division site, while CdvB and CdvC are thought to participate in the active part of the Cdv division machinery...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hiroki Irieda, Daisuke Shiomi
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. T he error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alejandro M Labella, M Dolores Castro, Manuel Manchado, Juan J Borrego
Phylogenetic relationships between species in the genus Photobacterium have been poorly studied despite pathogenic and ecological relevance of some of its members. This is the first phylogenetic study that includes new species of Photobacterium (validated or not) that have not been included in any of the previously described clades, using 16S rRNA sequences and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) in concatenated sequences of gyrB , gapA , topA , ftsZ and mreB housekeeping genes. Sequence analysis has been implemented using Maximum-parsimony (MP), Neighbour-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) treeing methods and the predicted evolutionary relationship between the Photobacterium clades was established on the basis of bootstrap values of >75% for 16S rRNA sequences and MLSA...
March 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Takumi Furusatoa, Fumihiro Horie, Hideaki T Matsubayashi, Kazuaki Amikura, Yutetsu Kuruma, Takuya Ueda
Cell division is the most dynamic event in the cell cycle. Recently, efforts have been made to reconstruct it using the individual component proteins to obtain a better understanding of the process of self-reproduction of cells. However, such reconstruction studies are frequently hampered by difficulties in preparing membrane-associated proteins. Here we demonstrate a de novo synthesis approach based on a cell-free translation system. Genes for fundamental cell division proteins, FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA, were expressed inside the lipid compartment of giant vesicles (GVs)...
March 7, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Bruce L Geller, Lixin Li, Fabian Martinez, Erin Sully, Carolyn R Sturge, Seth M Daly, Christine Pybus, David E Greenberg
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen and many strains are multidrug resistant. KPC is one of the most problematic resistance mechanisms, as it confers resistance to most β-lactams, including carbapenems. A promising platform technology for treating infections caused by MDR pathogens is the nucleic acid-like synthetic oligomers that silence bacterial gene expression by an antisense mechanism. Objectives: To test a peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO) in a mouse model of K...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Diana Hodyna, Vasyl Kovalishyn, Ivan Semenyuta, Volodymyr Blagodatnyi, Sergiy Rogalsky, Larisa Metelytsia
This paper describes Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) studies, molecular docking and in vitro antibacterial activity of several potent imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and its clinical isolate. Small set of 131 ILs was collected from the literature and uploaded in the OCHEM database. QSAR methodologies used Associative Neural Networks and Random Forests (WEKA-RF) methods. The predictive ability of the models was tested through cross-validation, giving cross-validated coefficients q2  = 0...
February 8, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Felix Weihs, Katarzyna Wacnik, Robert D Turner, Siân Culley, Ricardo Henriques, Simon J Foster
The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is the interface between the cell and its environment, with multiple membrane proteins serving its many functions. However, how these proteins are organised to permit optimal physiological processes is largely unknown. Based on our initial findings that 2 phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes (PlsY and CdsA) localise heterogeneously in the membrane of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, we have analysed the localisation of other key membrane proteins. A range of protein fusions were constructed and used in conjunction with quantitative image analysis...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Supriya V Bhat, Belma Kamencic, André Körnig, Zinnat Shahina, Tanya E S Dahms
Escherichia coli is a robust, easily adaptable and culturable bacterium in vitro , and a model bacterium for studying the impact of xenobiotics in the environment. We have used correlative atomic force - laser scanning confocal microscopy (AFM-LSCM) to characterize the mechanisms of cellular response to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). One of the most extensively used herbicides world-wide, 2,4-D is known to cause hazardous effects in diverse non-target organisms. Sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D caused DNA damage in E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Kei H Kojo, Yasuo Niwa, Tomoko Abe, Shigeo Yoshida, Takeshi Nakano, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Chloroplasts, or photosynthetic plastids, multiply by binary fission, forming a homogeneous population in plant cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the division apparatus (or division ring) of mesophyll chloroplasts includes an inner envelope transmembrane protein ARC6, a cytoplasmic dynamin-related protein ARC5 (DRP5B), and members of the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 families of proteins, which co-assemble in the stromal mid-plastid division ring (FtsZ ring). FtsZ ring placement is controlled by several proteins, including a stromal factor MinE (AtMinE1)...
2018: PloS One
Victoria A Lund, Katarzyna Wacnik, Robert D Turner, Bryony E Cotterell, Christa G Walther, Samuel J Fenn, Fabian Grein, Adam Jm Wollman, Mark C Leake, Nicolas Olivier, Ashley Cadby, Stéphane Mesnage, Simon Jones, Simon J Foster
The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability, but despite its ability to withstand internal turgor must remain dynamic to permit growth and division. Peptidoglycan is the major cell wall structural polymer, whose synthesis requires multiple interacting components. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a prolate spheroid that divides in three orthogonal planes. Here, we have integrated cellular morphology during division with molecular level resolution imaging of peptidoglycan synthesis and the components responsible...
February 21, 2018: ELife
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