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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235875/engineering-cyanobacterial-cell-morphology-for-enhanced-recovery-and-processing-of-biomass
#1
Adam Jordan, Jenna Chandler, Joshua S MacCready, Jingcheng Huang, Katherine W Osteryoung, Daniel C Ducat
Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends upon the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology in order to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus sp...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231272/vibrio-japonicus-sp-nov-a-novel-member-of-the-nereis-clade-in-the-genus-vibrio-isolated-from-the-coast-of-japan
#2
Hiroyasu Doi, Ikuko Osawa, Hayamitsu Adachi, Manabu Kawada
A novel Vibrio strain, JCM 31412T, was isolated from seawater collected from the Inland Sea (Setonaikai), Japan, and characterized as a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, ovoid-shaped bacterium with one polar flagellum. Based on 16S rDNA gene identity, strain JCM 31412T showed a close relationship with type strains of Vibrio brasiliensis (LMG 20546T, 98.2% identity), V. harveyi (NBRC 15634T, 98.2%), V. caribbeanicus (ATCC BAA-2122T, 97.8%) and V. proteolyticus (NBRC 13287T, 97...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209899/gtpase-activity-coupled-treadmilling-of-the-bacterial-tubulin-ftsz-organizes-septal-cell-wall-synthesis
#3
Xinxing Yang, Zhixin Lyu, Amanda Miguel, Ryan McQuillen, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Jie Xiao
The bacterial tubulin FtsZ is the central component of the cell division machinery, coordinating an ensemble of proteins involved in septal cell wall synthesis to ensure successful constriction. How cells achieve this coordination is unknown. We found that in Escherichia coli cells, FtsZ exhibits dynamic treadmilling predominantly determined by its guanosine triphosphatase activity. The treadmilling dynamics direct the processive movement of the septal cell wall synthesis machinery but do not limit the rate of septal synthesis...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209898/treadmilling-by-ftsz-filaments-drives-peptidoglycan-synthesis-and-bacterial-cell-division
#4
Alexandre W Bisson-Filho, Yen-Pang Hsu, Georgia R Squyres, Erkin Kuru, Fabai Wu, Calum Jukes, Yingjie Sun, Cees Dekker, Seamus Holden, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Yves V Brun, Ethan C Garner
The mechanism by which bacteria divide is not well understood. Cell division is mediated by filaments of FtsZ and FtsA (FtsAZ) that recruit septal peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes to the division site. To understand how these components coordinate to divide cells, we visualized their movements relative to the dynamics of cell wall synthesis during cytokinesis. We found that the division septum was built at discrete sites that moved around the division plane. FtsAZ filaments treadmilled circumferentially around the division ring and drove the motions of the peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196701/filamenting-temperature-sensitive-mutant-z-inhibitors-from-glycyrrhiza-glabra-and-their-inhibitory-mode-of-action
#5
Takashi Matsui, Subehan Lallo, Khoirun Nisa, Hiroyuki Morita
FtsZ is an essential protein for bacterial cell division, and an attractive and underexploited novel antibacterial target protein. Screening of Indonesian plants revealed the inhibitory activity of the methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on the Bacillus subtilis FtsZ (BsFtsZ) GTPase, and further bioassay-guided fractionation of the active methanol extract led to the isolation of seven known polyketides (1-7). Among them, gancaonin I (1), glycyrin (3), and isolicoflavanol (5) exhibited anti-BsFtsZ GTPase activities, at levels comparable to that of the synthetic FtsZ inhibitor, Zantrin Z3...
February 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174299/the-chloroplast-tubulin-homologs-ftsza-and-ftszb-from-the-red-alga-galdieria-sulphuraria-co-assemble-into-dynamic-filaments
#6
Yaodong Chen, Katie Porter, Masaki Osawa, Anne Marie Augustus, Sara L Milam, Chandra Joshi, Katherine W Osteryoung, Harold P Erickson
FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin and is present in almost all bacteria and many archaea, where it is the major cytoskeletal protein in the Z ring, required for cell division. Unlike some other cell organelles of prokaryotic origin, chloroplasts have retained FtsZ as an essential component of the division machinery. However, chloroplast FtsZs have been challenging to study because they are difficult to express and purify. To this end, we have used a FATT-tag expression system to produce as soluble proteins the two chloroplast FtsZs from Galdieria sulphuraria, a thermophilic red alga...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168121/effects-of-rhodomyrtone-on-gram-positive-bacterial-tubulin-homologue-ftsz
#7
Dennapa Saeloh, Michaela Wenzel, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Leendert Willem Hamoen, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
Rhodomyrtone, a natural antimicrobial compound, displays potent activity against many Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, comparable to last-defence antibiotics including vancomycin and daptomycin. Our previous studies pointed towards effects of rhodomyrtone on the bacterial membrane and cell wall. In addition, a recent molecular docking study suggested that the compound could competitively bind to the main bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In this study, we applied a computational approach (in silico), in vitro, and in vivo experiments to investigate molecular interactions of rhodomyrtone with FtsZ...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161514/biosorption-behavior-and-proteomic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-p4-under-cadmium-stress
#8
Zaman Khan, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Saima Zafar, Inga Zerr
Bacteria develop a variety of adaptations at transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic levels in order to survive potentially damaging environmental perturbations. Present study is exploring the fluctuations in proteome of E. coli P4 to knob Cd(+2)-induced cytotoxicity. An attempt was also made to integrate all these approaches to gain comprehensive insight of Cd(+2) stress response in E. coli P4. This study is exposing the altered behavior of various proteins and their underlying metabolic pathways which have previously not been reported with reference to Cd(+2) stress such as sulfoquinovose biosynthesis and degradation pathway...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137947/the-discovery-of-the-prokaryotic-cytoskeleton-25th-anniversary
#9
Harold P Erickson
The year 2017 marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of homologues of tubulin and actin in prokaryotes. Before 1992, it was largely accepted that tubulin and actin were unique to eukaryotes. Then three laboratories independently discovered that FtsZ, a protein already known as a key player in bacterial cytokinesis, had the "tubulin signature sequence" present in all α-, β-, and γ-tubulins. That same year, three candidates for bacterial actins were discovered in silico. X-ray crystal structures have since confirmed multiple bacterial proteins to be homologues of eukaryotic tubulin and actin...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114338/proteolysis-dependent-remodeling-of-the-tubulin-homolog-ftsz-at-the-division-septum-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Marissa G Viola, Christopher J LaBreck, Joseph Conti, Jodi L Camberg
During bacterial cell division a dynamic protein structure called the Z-ring assembles at the septum. The major protein in the Z-ring in Escherichia coli is FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that polymerizes with GTP. FtsZ is degraded by the two-component ATP-dependent protease ClpXP. Two regions of FtsZ, located outside of the polymerization domain in the unstructured linker and at the C-terminus, are important for specific recognition and degradation by ClpXP. We engineered a synthetic substrate containing green fluorescent protein (Gfp) fused to an extended FtsZ C-terminal tail (residues 317-383), including the unstructured linker and the C-terminal conserved region, but not the polymerization domain, and showed that it is sufficient to target a non-native substrate for degradation in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100778/structure-of-the-z-ring-associated-protein-zapd-bound-to-the-c-terminal-domain-of-the-tubulin-like-protein-ftsz-suggests-mechanism-of-z-ring-stabilization-through-ftsz-crosslinking
#11
Maria Schumacher, Kuo-Hsiang Huang, Wenjie Zeng, Anuradha Janakiraman
Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ binding proteins affect FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095503/detection-of-a-potential-new-bartonella-species-candidatus-bartonella-rondoniensis-in-human-biting-kissing-bugs-reduviidae-triatominae
#12
Maureen Laroche, Jean-Michel Berenger, Oleg Mediannikov, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065316/single-molecule-measurements-to-study-polymerization-dynamics-of-ftsz-ftsa-copolymers
#13
N Baranova, M Loose
Bacterial cytokinesis is commonly initiated by the Z-ring, a dynamic cytoskeletal structure that assembles at the site of division. Its primary component is FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase, that like its eukaryotic relative forms protein filaments in the presence of GTP. Since the discovery of the Z-ring 25years ago, various models for the role of FtsZ have been suggested. However, important information about the architecture and dynamics of FtsZ filaments during cytokinesis is still missing. One reason for this lack of knowledge has been the small size of bacteria, which has made it difficult to resolve the orientation and dynamics of individual FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018303/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-division-mode-in-the-bacterial-planctomycetes-verrucomicrobia-chlamydiae-superphylum
#14
REVIEW
Elena Rivas-Marín, Inés Canosa, Damien P Devos
Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004447/beyond-force-generation-why-is-a-dynamic-ring-of-ftsz-polymers-essential-for-bacterial-cytokinesis
#15
Carla Coltharp, Jie Xiao
We propose that the essential function of the most highly conserved protein in bacterial cytokinesis, FtsZ, is not to generate a mechanical force to drive cell division. Rather, we suggest that FtsZ acts as a signal-processing hub to coordinate cell wall synthesis at the division septum with a diverse array of cellular processes, ensuring that the cell divides smoothly at the correct time and place, and with the correct septum morphology. Here, we explore how the polymerization properties of FtsZ, which have been widely attributed to force generation, can also be advantageous in this signal processing role...
January 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002947/a-carbocyclic-curcumin-inhibits-proliferation-of-gram-positive-bacteria-by-targeting-ftsz
#16
Paul W Groundwater, Rajeshwar Narlawar, Vivian Wan Yu Liao, Anusri Bhattacharya, Shalini Srivastava, Kishore Kunal, Munikumar Doddareddy, Pratik M Oza, Ramesh Mamidi, Emma C L Marrs, John D Perry, David E Hibbs, Dulal Panda
Inhibition of FtsZ assembly has been found to stall bacterial cell division. Here, we report the identification of a potent carbocyclic curcumin analogue (2d) that inhibits Bacillus subtilis 168 cell proliferation by targeting the assembly of FtsZ. 2d also showed potent inhibitory activity (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 2-4 mg/L) against several clinically important species of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, 2d displayed a significantly reduced inhibitory effect on human cervical cancer cells in comparison to its effect on bacterial cells...
January 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998074/light-up-channel-dyes-for-haloalkane-based-protein-labeling-in-vitro-and-in-bacterial-cells
#17
Spencer A Clark, Vijay Singh, Daniel Vega Mendoza, William Margolin, Eric T Kool
We describe a novel molecular strategy for engendering a strong light-up signal in fluorescence tagging of the genetically encoded HaloTag protein domain. We designed a set of haloalkane-derivatized dyes having twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) structures potentially narrow enough to partially fit into the enzyme's haloalkane-binding channel. Testing a range of short chain lengths revealed a number of active dyes, with seven carbons yielding optimum light-up signal. The dimethylaminostilbazolium chloroheptyl dye (1d) yields a 27-fold fluorescence emission enhancement (λex = 535 nm; Em(max) = 616 nm) upon reaction with the protein...
December 21, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989665/the-cell-wall-precursor-lipid-ii-acts-as-a-molecular-signal-for-the-ser-thr-kinase-pknb-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Patrick Hardt, Ina Engels, Marvin Rausch, Mike Gajdiss, Hannah Ulm, Peter Sass, Knut Ohlsen, Hans-Georg Sahl, Gabriele Bierbaum, Tanja Schneider, Fabian Grein
The assembly of the bacterial cell wall requires synchronization of a multitude of biosynthetic machineries and regulatory networks. The eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinase PknB has been implicated in coordinating cross-wall formation, autolysis and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the signal molecule sensed by this kinase remained elusive so far. Here, we provide compelling biochemical evidence that PknB interacts with the ultimate cell wall precursor lipid II, triggering kinase activity...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956612/interrogating-the-escherichia-coli-cell-cycle-by-cell-dimension-perturbations
#19
Hai Zheng, Po-Yi Ho, Meiling Jiang, Bin Tang, Weirong Liu, Dengjin Li, Xuefeng Yu, Nancy E Kleckner, Ariel Amir, Chenli Liu
Bacteria tightly regulate and coordinate the various events in their cell cycles to duplicate themselves accurately and to control their cell sizes. Growth of Escherichia coli, in particular, follows a relation known as Schaechter's growth law. This law says that the average cell volume scales exponentially with growth rate, with a scaling exponent equal to the time from initiation of a round of DNA replication to the cell division at which the corresponding sister chromosomes segregate. Here, we sought to test the robustness of the growth law to systematic perturbations in cell dimensions achieved by varying the expression levels of mreB and ftsZ We found that decreasing the mreB level resulted in increased cell width, with little change in cell length, whereas decreasing the ftsZ level resulted in increased cell length...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933886/chemoenzymatic-labeling-of-proteins-for-imaging-in-bacterial-cells
#20
Samuel H Ho, David A Tirrell
Reliable methods to determine the subcellular localization of bacterial proteins are needed for the study of prokaryotic cell biology. We describe here a simple and general technique for imaging of bacterial proteins in situ by fluorescence microscopy. The method uses the eukaryotic enzyme N-myristoyltransferase to modify the N-terminus of the protein of interest with an azido fatty acid. Subsequent strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition allows conjugation of dyes and imaging of tagged proteins by confocal fluorescence microscopy...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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