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Essential genes

Kai Shu, Wenguan Zhou, Wenyu Yang
The phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) antagonistically mediate diverse plant developmental processes including seed dormancy and germination, root development, and flowering time control, and thus the optimal balance between ABA and GA is essential for plant growth and development. Although more than a half and one century have passed since the initial discoveries of ABA and GA, respectively, the precise mechanisms underlying ABA-GA antagonism still need further investigation. Emerging evidence indicates that two APETALA 2 (AP2)-domain-containing transcription factors (ATFs), ABI4 in Arabidopsis and OsAP2-39 in rice, play key roles in ABA and GA antagonism...
October 23, 2017: New Phytologist
Si-Si Cao, Miao Yan, Zhen-Yan Hou, Ying Chen, Yun-Sheng Jiang, Xin-Rong Fan, Ping-Fei Fang, Bi-Kui Zhang
Danshen, an efficacious agent for cardiovascular diseases, has been found to play an essential role in kidney injury. In the present study, the effect of Danshen on cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction was investigated in a mouse model. Danshen was administered to mice at a dose of 3 g/kg 4 days before and 3 days after cisplatin treatment. A single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin was used to induce nephrotoxicity. The mice were sacrificed 72 h after cisplatin intoxication. Biochemical parameters including serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were analyzed...
October 2017: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Subrat Thanapati, A B Sudeep, Shruti P Kulkarni, Anuradha S Tripathy
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-induced myositis is an emerging affliction with high incidence globally. Given the essential regulatory role of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 6 (PTPN6) in virus-induced myositis, the expression of the PTPN6 and TNF-α genes in a CHIKV-infected muscle cell line was examined by quantitative PCR, and the expression of PTPN6 and STAT 3 was examined by immunoblotting. In addition, the effect of PTPN6 siRNA treatment on TNF-α gene expression was assessed. Increased higher expression of PTPN6 and TNF-α, and significant upregulation of TNF-α upon PTPN6 siRNA treatment were observed, suggesting that CHIKV has the ability to induce host PTPN6 gene expression, which may lead to a decreased pro-inflammatory immune response in the host...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
Rui Li, Le Sun, Ai Fang, Peng Li, Qian Wu, Xiaoqun Wang
The development of a cerebral organoid culture in vitro offers an opportunity to generate human brain-like organs to investigate mechanisms of human disease that are specific to the neurogenesis of radial glial (RG) and outer radial glial (oRG) cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing neocortex. Modeling neuronal progenitors and the organization that produces mature subcortical neuron subtypes during early stages of development is essential for studying human brain developmental diseases...
October 23, 2017: Protein & Cell
Robert R H Anholt, Trudy F C Mackay
Understanding how genomic variation gives rise to phenotypic variation is essential for elucidating mechanisms of adaptive evolution, plant and animal breeding, and precision medicine. However, identifying causal links between DNA sequence variants and variation in phenotypes is challenging in human populations, due to large blocks of linkage disequilibrium in the genome and heterogeneous developmental histories, lifestyles, and social and physical environments. Drosophila melanogaster presents a powerful genetic model, since linkage disequilibrium decays rapidly, facilitating assignment of causality to polymorphisms associated with phenotypic variation, and large numbers of individuals can be reared under defined environmental conditions, economically, and without regulatory restrictions...
October 20, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Wenyi Mi, Haipeng Guan, Jie Lyu, Dan Zhao, Yuanxin Xi, Shiming Jiang, Forest H Andrews, Xiaolu Wang, Mihai Gagea, Hong Wen, Laszlo Tora, Sharon Y R Dent, Tatiana G Kutateladze, Wei Li, Haitao Li, Xiaobing Shi
Recognition of modified histones by "reader" proteins constitutes a key mechanism regulating diverse chromatin-associated processes important for normal and neoplastic development. We recently identified the YEATS domain as a novel acetyllysine-binding module; however, the functional importance of YEATS domain-containing proteins in human cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the YEATS2 gene is highly amplified in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and is required for cancer cell growth and survival...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Joseph D Dougherty, Chengran Yang, Allison M Lake
As recent advances in human genetics have begun to more rapidly identify the individual genes contributing to risk of psychiatric disease, the spotlight now turns to understanding how disruption of these genes alters the brain, and thus behavior. Compared to other tissues, cellular complexity in the brain provides both a substantial challenge and a significant opportunity for systems biology approaches. Current methods are maturing that will allow for finally defining the 'parts list' for the functioning mouse and human brains, enabling new approaches to defining how the system goes awry in disorders of the CNS...
June 2017: Current opinion in systems biology
Lifang Zheng, Wei Cheng, Xijia Wang, Zhigang Yang, Xiangling Zhou, Chunlian Pan
Cerebral ischemic stroke, which affects the global population, is a major disease with high incidence, mortality, and disability. Accumulating evidence has indicated that abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression plays essential roles in the pathologies of ischemic stroke. Yet, the underlying regulatory mechanism of miRNAs in cerebral ischemic stroke remains unclear. We investigated the role of miR-145 in cerebral ischemic stroke and its potential mechanism in a model using primary cultured astrocytes. We detected the expression levels of miR-145 and its target gene AQP4 and assessed the role of miR-145 in cell death and apoptosis caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)...
2017: BioMed Research International
Jayne Aiken, Georgia Buscaglia, Emily A Bates, Jeffrey K Moore
Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal polymers that mediate numerous, essential functions such as axon and dendrite growth and neuron migration throughout brain development. In recent years, sequencing has revealed dominant mutations that disrupt the tubulin protein building blocks of microtubules. These tubulin mutations lead to a spectrum of devastating brain malformations, complex neurological and physical phenotypes, and even fatality. The most common tubulin gene mutated is the α-tubulin gene TUBA1A, which is the most prevalent α-tubulin gene expressed in post-mitotic neurons...
September 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
I-Hsuan Chen, Ying-Ping Huang, Ching-Han Tseng, Jian-Tang Ni, Chung-Han Tsai, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai
For successful infection, a virus requires various host factors at different stages such as translation, targeting, replication, and spreading. One of the host genes upregulated after Nicotiana benthamiana infection with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA potexvirus, assists in viral movement. To understand how this host protein is involved in BaMV movement, we cloned its full-length cDNA by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene has 3199 nt and encodes a 969-amino acid polypeptide...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Greta Garrido, Ailem Rabasa, Cristina Garrido, Lisset Chao, Federico Garrido, Ángel M García-Lora, Belinda Sánchez-Ramírez
Defining how epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting therapies influence the immune response is essential to increase their clinical efficacy. A growing emphasis is being placed on immune regulator genes that govern tumor - T cell interactions. Previous studies showed an increase in HLA class I cell surface expression in tumor cell lines treated with anti-EGFR agents. In particular, earlier studies of the anti-EGFR blocking antibody cetuximab, have suggested that increased tumor expression of HLA class I is associated with positive clinical response...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Qiying Sun, Nina Xie, Beisha Tang, Rena Li, Yong Shen
Being the most common cause of dementia, AD is a polygenic and neurodegenerative disease. Complex and multiple factors have been shown to be involved in its pathogenesis, of which the genetics play an indispensable role. It is widely accepted that discovery of potential genes related to the pathogenesis of AD would be of great help for the understanding of neurodegeneration and thus further promote molecular diagnosis in clinic settings. Generally, AD could be clarified into two types according to the onset age, the early-onset AD (EOAD) and the late-onset AD (LOAD)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Wei Yang, Lisa Garrett, Di Feng, Gene Elliott, Xilin Liu, Ni Wang, Yu Ming Wong, Nga Ting Choi, Yingzi Yang, Bo Gao
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is an evolutionarily conserved essential mechanism that provides directional information to control and coordinate polarized cellular and tissue behavior during embryonic development. Disruption of PCP leads to severe morphological defects in vertebrates and its dysregulation results in a variety of human diseases such as neural tube defects and skeletal dysplasia. PCP is governed by a set of highly conserved core proteins that are asymmetrically localized at the cell surface throughout the polarized tissues...
October 20, 2017: Cell Research
Yu Yan, Peng Wang, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
As a highly conserved mechanism, autophagy is responsible for the transport of cytoplasmic constituents in the vacuoles or lysosomes. Moreover, autophagy is essential for plant development and various stress responses. In this study, 34 MeATGs were systematically identified in cassava, and their transcripts were commonly regulated by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam). Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the subcellular locations of 4 MeATG8s were revealed. Notably, MeWRKY20 was identified as physical interacting protein of MeATG8a/8f/8h and upstream transcriptional activator of MeATG8a...
October 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Iñigo Martincorena, Keiran M Raine, Moritz Gerstung, Kevin J Dawson, Kerstin Haase, Peter Van Loo, Helen Davies, Michael R Stratton, Peter J Campbell
Cancer develops as a result of somatic mutation and clonal selection, but quantitative measures of selection in cancer evolution are lacking. We adapted methods from molecular evolution and applied them to 7,664 tumors across 29 cancer types. Unlike species evolution, positive selection outweighs negative selection during cancer development. On average, <1 coding base substitution/tumor is lost through negative selection, with purifying selection almost absent outside homozygous loss of essential genes. This allows exome-wide enumeration of all driver coding mutations, including outside known cancer genes...
October 18, 2017: Cell
Le-Xing You, Li-Dan Liu, Yong Xiao, You-Fen Dai, Bi-Lian Chen, Yan-Xia Jiang, Feng Zhao
The extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanism of an isolated Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain (LLD-1), identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and physiological analysis, was investigated in the present study. The electrochemical activity of strain LLD-1 was confirmed by electrochemical E-t and amperometric I-t tests. Flavins in culture suspension from strain LLD-1 were further proved to be able to act as electron shuttles, strengthening the electron transfer from LLD-1 to the electrode. The output voltage and current output were increased 2...
October 16, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Zhi-Qiang Li, Jin-Liang Zhang, Li Xi, Guang-Li Yang, Shu-Li Wang, Xiao-Gen Zhang, Jun-Bo Zhang, Hui Zhang
Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., is a zoonotic infectious disease that can cause great hazard to public health and safety. The virulence of Brucella is essential for survive and multiply in host macrophages. GntR is a transcriptional regulator in Brucella that is required for virulence in macrophages and mice, and involved in resistance to stress responses. To determine the expression levels of target genes of GntR, we detected the expression levels of the GntR target genes in Brucella infected BALB/c mice...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Mehrdad Nazari, Fatemeh Zarinkamar, Bahram Mohammad Soltani
Mentha aquatica is an aromatic herb which possesses valuable terpenoids constituents. Here, we intended to evaluate the effects of the different manganese (Mn) concentrations on the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in M. aquatica. Basic Hoagland's solution (control), 40, 80, and 160 μM of Mn supplied as MnSO4·H2O were applied to the nutrient solution. The results indicated that the different concentrations of Mn differently affected the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in M...
August 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Souraya Boulkour Touioui, Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi, Khelifa Bouacem, Rayda Ben Ayed, Hatem Rekik, Bilal Zenati, Sidali Kourdali, Hadjira Boudjella, Nasserdine Sabaou, Samir Bejar, Mohamed El Hattab, Abdelmalek Badis, Rachid Annane, Bassem Jaouadi
A novel extracellular protease called MPDZ was purified and characterized from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain TBS09. The enzymatic properties of MPDZ were investigated using biochemical and biophysical methods Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that it was a monomer with a molecular mass of 50013.17Da. The NH2-terminal 27 amino acid sequence of MPDZ showed high homology with those of Pseudomonas-proteases of the serralysin family. MPDZ showed optimal activity at pH 7 and 60°C...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wolfgang Gruber, Elisabeth Peer, Dominik P Elmer, Christina Sternberg, Suzana Tesanovic, Pedro Del Burgo, Sonia Coni, Gianluca Canettieri, Daniel Neureiter, René Bartz, Hella Kohlhof, Daniel Vitt, Fritz Aberger
Aberrant activation of Hedgehog (HH)/GLI signaling is causally involved in numerous human malignancies, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma. HH pathway antagonists targeting Smoothened (SMO), an essential effector of canonical HH/GLI signaling, show significant clinical success in BCC patients and have recently been approved for the treatment of advanced and metastatic BCC. However, rapid and frequent development of drug resistance to SMO inhibitors (SMOi) together with severe side effects caused by prolonged SMOi treatment call for alternative treatment strategies targeting HH/GLI signaling downstream of SMO...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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