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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144019/pegylated-precision-segments-based-on-sequence-defined-thiolactone-oligomers
#1
Sensu Celasun, Filip E Du Prez, Hans G Börner
A straightforward access route to multifunctional block copolymers, combining a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block and a monodisperse segment with discrete monomer sequence based on thiolactone chemistry, is described. Exploiting an inverse conjugation strategy on a PEG preloaded poly(styrene) synthesis resin enables the convenient introduction of a predefined PEG-block at the α-terminus of thiolactone-based sequence-defined oligomers. Reaction conditions for the stepwise, submonomer synthesis at polar solid supports are optimized, using sequential synthesis on a model resin that enables to isolate and determine the purity of the oligomer segments by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis...
November 16, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#2
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133296/comparison-of-preservation-and-transportation-protocols-for-preloaded-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#3
Vito Romano, Mohit Parekh, Alessandro Ruzza, Colin E Willoughby, Stefano Ferrari, Diego Ponzin, Stephen B Kaye, Hannah J Levis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) preparation is technically demanding and is a limiting factor for uptake of this kind of surgery. Supply methods that simplify the procedure for surgeons are key to increasing uptake. This study compares two different shipping protocols for DMEK. METHODS: An 8.5 mm DMEK graft was punched, marked and loaded for transportation in two different conditions: (A) endothelium trifolded inwards in organ culture conditions (n=7) and (B) endothelium rolled outwards in hypothermic conditions (n=7)...
November 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132725/computational-study-of-the-role-of-fluid-content-and-flow-on-the-lumbar-disc-response-in-cyclic-compression-replication-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions
#4
Petra Velísková, Maxim Bashkuev, Aboulfazl Shirazi-Adl, Hendrik Schmidt
The intervertebral disc viscoelastic response is governed primarily by its fluid content and flow. Invivo measurements demonstrate that the disc volume, fluid content, height and nucleus pressure completely recover during resting even after diurnal loading with twice longer duration (16 vs. 8 h). In view of much longer periods required for the recovery of disc height and pressure in vitro, concerns have been raised on the fluid inflow through the endplates that might be hampered by clogged blood vessels post mortem...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131882/time-course-response-of-the-heart-and-circulatory-system-to-active-postural-changes
#5
Jo P Pauls, Llion Roberts, Tom Burgess, John/F Fraser, Shaun/D Gregory, Geoff Tansley
Rotary blood pumps (RBPs) used for mechanical circulatory support of heart failure patients cannot passively change pump flow sufficiently in response to frequent variations in preload induced by active postural changes. A physiological control system that mimics the response of the healthy heart is needed to adjust pump flow according to patient demand. Thus, baseline data is required on how the healthy heart (i.e. heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO)) and circulatory system (i.e. systemic vascular resistance (SVR)) respond...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126782/feasibility-and-limitations-of-mitral-valve-repair-with-or-without-left-ventricular-reconstruction-in-non-ischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Yasushige Shingu, Tomonori Ooka, Hiroki Katoh, Tsuyoshi Tachibana, Suguru Kubota, Yoshiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: Although non-transplant surgical interventions for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) are relatively effective, their feasibility and limitations have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to define the feasibility and limitations of mitral valve repair, with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction for patients with NIDCM in terms of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LOS). METHODS: Twenty non-transplant candidates (aged 57±13 years) with NIDCM and significant mitral regurgitation had undergone mitral valve repair combined with submitral procedures...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122952/organ-level-validation-of-a-cross-bridge-cycling-descriptor-in-a-left-ventricular-finite-element-model-effects-of-ventricular-loading-on-myocardial-strains
#7
Sheikh Mohammad Shavik, Samuel T Wall, Joakim Sundnes, Daniel Burkhoff, Lik Chuan Lee
Although detailed cell-based descriptors of cross-bridge cycling have been applied in finite element (FE) heart models to describe ventricular mechanics, these multiscale models have never been tested rigorously to determine if these descriptors, when scaled up to the organ-level, are able to reproduce well-established organ-level physiological behaviors. To address this void, we here validate a left ventricular (LV) FE model that is driven by a cell-based cross-bridge cycling descriptor against key organ-level heart physiology...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113010/comparison-of-four-methods-of-endotracheal-tube-passage-in-simulated-airways-there-is-room-for-improved-techniques
#8
Kirsten Kingma, Ross Hofmeyr, Irene Suilan Zeng, Christin Coomarasamy, Andrew Brainard
OBJECTIVE: Endotracheal intubation requires laryngoscopy followed by passage of the endotracheal tube (ETT). Tube passage can be difficult, but there is little evidence to support which adjunct for tube passage is most effective. METHODS: The four tube passage adjuncts tested were the naked ETT, stylet ETT, railroaded bougie and preloaded bougie. Participants completed pre- and post-test surveys identifying demographics, experience and method preference. After instruction, participants completed eight intubations on manikins with 'easy' and 'difficult' airways...
November 7, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111686/centrifugation-controlled-thermal-convection-and-its-application-to-rapid-microfluidic-pcr-devices
#9
Masato Saito, Kazuya Takahashi, Yuichiro Kiriyama, Wilfred Villariza Espulgar, Hiroshi Aso, Tadanobu Sekiya, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Tsuneo Sawazumi, Satoshi Furui, Eiichi Tamiya
Here we report the developed Cyclo olefin polymer (COP) microfluidic chip on a fabricated rotating heater stage that utiliz-es centrifugation-assisted thermal cycle in a ring-structured microchannel for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR solution could be driven by thermal convection and continuously exchanged high/low temperatures in a ring structured mi-cro-channel without the use of typical syringe pump. Especially, the flow rate was controlled by the relative gravitational acceleration only. The platform enables amplification within 10 min at 5G and has a detection limit of 70...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110749/salivary-leptin-and-tas1r2-tas1r3-polymorphisms-are-related-to-sweet-taste-sensitivity-and-carbohydrate-intake-from-a-buffet-meal-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099575/rheology-as-a-mechanoscopic-method-to-monitor-mineralization-in-hydrogels
#11
Abigail U Regitsky, Bavand Keshavarz, Gareth H McKinley, Niels Holten-Andersen
Biominerals have been widely studied due to their unique mechanical properties, afforded by their inorganic-organic composite structure and well-controlled growth in macromolecular environments. However, a lack of suitable characterization techniques for inorganic minerals in organic-rich media has prevented a full understanding of biomineralization. Here, we applied rheometry to study mineral nucleation and growth dynamics by measuring viscoelastic material properties of a hydrogel system during mineralization...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095962/preload-coefficient-of-friction-and-thread-friction-in-an-implant-abutment-screw-complex
#12
Stefan Wentaschek, Sven Tomalla, Irene Schmidtmann, Karl Martin Lehmann
PURPOSE: To examine the screw preload, coefficient of friction (COF), and tightening torque needed to overcome the thread friction of an implant-abutment-screw complex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a customized load frame, 25 new implant-abutment-screw complexes including uncoated titanium alloy screws were torqued and untorqued 10 times each, applying 25 Ncm. RESULTS: Mean preload values decreased significantly from 209.8 N to 129.5 N according to the number of repetitions...
November 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094351/standardized-comparison-of-selected-physiological-controllers-for-rotary-blood-pumps-in-vitro-study
#13
Anastasios Petrou, Jongseok Lee, Seraina Dual, Gregor Ochsner, Mirko Meboldt, Marianne Schmid Daners
Various physiological controllers for left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been developed to prevent flow conditions that may lead to left ventricular (LV) suction and overload. In the current study, we selected and implemented six of the most promising physiological controllers presented in literature. We tuned the controllers for the same objectives by using the loop-shaping method from control theory. The in vitro experiments were derived from literature and included different preload, afterload, and contractility variations...
November 2, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090350/longer-ischemic-time-is-associated-with-increased-ventricular-stiffness-as-measured-by-pressure-volume-loop-analysis-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#14
Luke W Schroeder, Shahryar M Chowdhury, Ali L Burnette, Minoo N Kavarana, G Hamilton Baker, Andrew J Savage, Andrew M Atz, Ryan J Butts
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between clinical factors and cardiac function as measured by pressure-volume loops (PVLs) in a pediatric heart transplant cohort. METHODS: Patients (age < 20 years) who underwent heart transplantation presenting for a clinically indicated catheterization were enrolled. PVLs were recorded using microconductance catheters (CD Leycom(®), Zoetermeer, Netherlands). Demographic data, serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), time from transplant, ischemic time, presence of transplant coronary artery disease, donor-specific antibodies, and history of rejection were recorded at the time of catheterization...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077636/effects-of-sedentary-aging-and-lifelong-exercise-on-left-ventricular-systolic-function
#15
Erin J Howden, Graeme Carrick-Ranson, Satyam Sarma, Michinari Hieda, Naoki Fujimoto, Benjamin D Levine
PURPOSE: The current study examined whether age-related changes in left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic function is an adaptation to a more sedentary lifestyle and can be preserved by lifelong exercise training. METHODS: A cross-sectional examination of 18 sedentary young (37±6 years), 29 sedentary seniors (71±5 years, 0-3 exercise sessions/wk), and 26 seniors (68±5 years) who had performed a committed level (4-7 exercise sessions/wk) of lifelong (>25 years) exercise...
October 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074465/comparison-of-three-dimensional-helical-axes-of-the-cervical-spine-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-testing
#16
René Jonas, Robert Demmelmaier, Steffen P Hacker, Hans-Joachim Wilke
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The range of motion is a well-accepted parameter for the assessment and evaluation of cervical motion. However, more qualitative data of the kinematics of the cervical spine is needed for the development and success of cervical disc arthroplasty [1]. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide basic information about helical axes of human cervical spine under in vitro conditions. Furthermore it should clarify whether the three-dimensional helical axes of cervical motion gained from in vitro experiments are in agreement with those gained from in vivo experiments and therefore to prove its reliability...
October 23, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074365/-snack-versus-meal-the-impact-of-label-and-place-on-food-intake
#17
Jane Ogden, Chloe Wood, Elise Payne, Hollie Fouracre, Frances Lammyman
Eating behaviour is influenced by both cognitions and triggers in the environment. The potential difference between a 'snack' and a 'meal' illustrates these factors and the way in which they interact, particularly in terms of the label used to describe food and the way it is presented. To date no research has specifically explored the independent and combined impact of label and presentation on eating behaviour. Using a preload/taste test design this experimental study evaluated the impact of label ('snack' vs...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074086/polyelectrolyte-capsules-preloaded-with-interconnected-alginate-matrix-an-effective-capsule-system-for-encapsulation-and-release-of-macromolecules
#18
Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy, Ashok K Sundramoorthy
In recent years, the design of stimuli-responsive hollow polymeric capsules is of tremendous interest for the scientific community because of the broad application of these capsules in the biomedical field. The use of weak polyelectrolytes as layer components for capsule fabrication is especially interesting as it results in hollow capsules that show unique release characteristics under physiological conditions. In this work, a methodology to prepare sub-micron sized alginate doped calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles through controlled precipitation in the presence of alginate is reported...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061576/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-in-heart-failure-potential-mechanisms-clinical-applications-and-summary-of-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
Yuliya Lytvyn, Petter Bjornstad, Jacob A Udell, Julie A Lovshin, David Z I Cherney
Despite current established therapy, heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. Novel therapeutic targets are therefore needed to improve the prognosis of patients with HF. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial ([Empagliflozin] Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) demonstrated significant reductions in mortality and HF hospitalization risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease with the antihyperglycemic agent, empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor...
October 24, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060112/synergy-of-first-principles-modelling-with-predictive-control-for-a-biventricular-assist-device-in-silico-evaluation-study
#20
Vivian C A Koh, Yong Kuen Ho, Michael C Stevens, Robert F Salamonsen, Nigel H Lovell, Einly Lim
Control for dual rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) used as a biventricular assist device (BiVAD) is challenging. If the control system fails, flow imbalance between the systemic and the pulmonary circulations would result, subsequently leading to ventricular suction or pulmonary congestion. With the expectation that advanced control approaches such as model predictive control could address the challenges naturally and effectively, we developed a synergistic first principles model predictive controller (MPC) for the BiVAD...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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