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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#1
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722404/high-performance-colorimetric-detection-of-thiosulfate-by-using-silver-nanoparticles-for-smartphone-based-analysis
#2
Chen Dong, Zhuqing Wang, Yujie Zhang, Xuehua Ma, M Zubair Iqbal, Lijing Miao, Zhuangwei Zhou, Zheyu Shen, Aiguo Wu
Developing thiosulfate (S2O32-) sensors with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for analysis of aqueous solutions with the interference of other anions remains challenging. In this study, we propose a new strategy for excellent selective colorimetric detection of S2O32-. The non-morphological transition of AgNPs leading to a color change from yellow to brown is verified by UV-vis, TEM, DLS, SEM, and XPS analyses. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity with detection limits of 1.0 µM by naked-eye determination and 0...
July 19, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722185/valsalva-maneuver-exacerbates-left-atrial-compression-in-patients-with-large-hiatal-hernia
#3
Christopher Naoum, Leonard Kritharides, Sonali R Gnanenthiran, David Martin, Gregory L Falk, John Yiannikas
INTRODUCTION: Hiatal hernia (HH) can cause left atrial (LA) compression and impair LA filling. We evaluated the cardiac effects of preload reduction and abdominal strain induced by Valsalva maneuver (VM) in large HH patients. METHODS: LA and left ventricular (LV) dimensions were measured using 2D transthoracic echocardiography at rest and during VM in HH patients (n=55, 70±10 years) and controls (n=22, 67±6 years). Biplane LV volumes (n=39) and mitral inflow pulse-wave Doppler parameters (n=27) were also evaluated...
July 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721998/in-vitro-effect-of-chlorhexidine-gel-on-torque-and-detorque-values-of-implant-abutment-screw
#4
Hamid Neshandar Asli, Bardia Vadiati Saberi, Arezoo Sadat Fatemi
PURPOSE: Use of chlorhexidine (CHX) gel to eliminate the malodor of implant cavity may decrease the friction coefficient and effective preload and result in abutment screw loosening. This study aimed to assess the effect of CHX gel on the preload, torque, and detorque values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on three groups of five implants. Group A (G1) was the control group and no material was applied to the implant cavity...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714668/self-registered-self-assembly-of-block-copolymers
#5
Lei Wan, Ricardo Ruiz, He Gao, Thomas R Albrecht
Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymer (BCP) thin films, especially with density multiplication, is one of the most promising options for further improving resolution and throughput in nanolithography. However, controlling defect density has been one of the major hurdles for many DSA applications. Both thermodynamically and kinetically, defect-free patterns favor the use of low density multiplication factors and thinner films, which undermine the promise of enhanced resolution and the formation of robust masks for pattern transfer...
July 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712493/crispr-cas9-enabled-multiplex-genome-editing-and-its-application
#6
Bastian Minkenberg, Matthew Wheatley, Yinong Yang
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a prevalent and versatile genome-editing tool of choice for basic and applied biological research. An exchange of a 20-bp spacer sequence in the gRNA can easily reprogram Cas9 to target a different DNA site. By expressing or providing multiple gRNAs, the system also enables multiplex genome editing at high efficiencies. Current approaches for providing multiple gRNAs in vivo include the use of multigene cassettes to express several gRNAs, Csy4-based excision, arrays of crRNAs, ribozyme-flanked gRNAs, tRNA-dependent cleavage of gRNAs, and direct introduction of Cas9 proteins preloaded with different gRNAs...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711411/efficacy-of-a-radial-based-thumb-metacarpophalangeal-stabilizing-orthosis-for-protecting-the-thumb-metacarpophalangeal-joint-ulnar-collateral-ligament
#7
Joseph A Gil, Kerry Ebert, Keri Blanchard, Avi D Goodman, Joseph J Crisco, Julia A Katarincic
STUDY DESIGN: Basic research (biomechanics). INTRODUCTION: The high degree of motion that occurs at the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint must be taken into account when immobilizing a partially torn or repaired thumb ulnar collateral ligament. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine the efficacy of a radial-based thumb MCP-stabilizing orthosis in resisting abduction across the thumb ulnar collateral ligament. METHODS: Ten fresh cadaveric hands were mounted to a custom board...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707021/the-response-to-trendelenburg-position-is-minimally-affected-by-underlying-hemodynamic-conditions-in-patients-with-aortic-stenosis
#8
Abraham Sonny, Daniel I Sessler, Jing You, Babak Kateby Kashy, Sheryar Sarwar, Akhil K Singh, Shiva Sale, Andrej Alfirevic, Andra E Duncan
PURPOSE: Trendelenburg positioning is commonly used to temporarily treat intraoperative hypotension. The Trendelenburg position improves cardiac output in normovolemic or anesthetized patients, but not hypovolemic or non-anesthetized patients. Therefore, the response to Trendelenburg positioning may vary depending on patient population or hemodynamic conditions. We thus tested the hypothesis that the effectiveness of the Trendelenburg position, as indicated by an increase in cardiac output, improves after replacement of a stenotic aortic valve...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701359/oxldl-induced-endothelial-proliferation-via-rho-rock-akt-p27-kip1-signaling-prevention-by-cholesterol-loading
#9
Chongxu Zhang, Crystal Adamos, Myung-Jin Oh, Jugajyoti Baruah, Manuela A A Ayee, Dolly Mehta, Kishore K Wary, Irena Levitan
Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) are known to play a major role in endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we provide comparative analysis of the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper oxidized LDL (Cu(2+)-oxLDL) and Lipoxygenase oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL) on proliferation of Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs). We show that Cu(2+)-oxLDL enhances HAECs proliferation in a dose and oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also has a positive effect on HAECs proliferation...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700618/micro-finite-element-models-of-the-vertebral-body-validation-of-local-displacement-predictions
#10
Maria Cristiana Costa, Gianluca Tozzi, Luca Cristofolini, Valentina Danesi, Marco Viceconti, Enrico Dall'Ara
The estimation of local and structural mechanical properties of bones with micro Finite Element (microFE) models based on Micro Computed Tomography images depends on the quality bone geometry is captured, reconstructed and modelled. The aim of this study was to validate microFE models predictions of local displacements for vertebral bodies and to evaluate the effect of the elastic tissue modulus on model's predictions of axial forces. Four porcine thoracic vertebrae were axially compressed in situ, in a step-wise fashion and scanned at approximately 39μm resolution in preloaded and loaded conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700513/sled-towing-acutely-decreases-acceleration-sprint-time
#11
Megan A Wong, Ian J Dobbs, Casey M Watkins, Saldiam R Barillas, A Lin, David C Archer, Robert G Lockie, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Sled towing is a common form of overload training in sports to develop muscular strength for sprinting. This type of training leads to acute and chronic outcomes. Acute training potentially leads to postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is when subsequent muscle performance is enhanced following a preload stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between rest intervals following sled towing on acute sprint speed. Twenty healthy recreationally trained males (age= 22.3 ± 2.4yrs, height= 176...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694225/dynamic-arterial-elastance-obtained-using-arterial-signal-does-not-predict-an-increase-in-arterial-pressure-after-a-volume-expansion-in-the-operating-room
#12
Romain Lanchon, Karine Nouette-Gaulain, Laurent Stecken, Musa Sesay, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Matthieu Biais
INTRODUCTION: Dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn) is defined as the ratio between pulse pressure variations (PPV) and stroke volume variations (SVV). Eadyn has been proposed to predict an increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) after volume expansion with conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability of Eadyn in hypotensive patients (MAP<65mmHg) in the operating room (OR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study pooled data from 51 patients...
July 7, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692632/high-habitual-physical-activity-improves-acute-energy-compensation-in-nonobese-adults
#13
Kristine Beaulieu, Mark Hopkins, Cecilia Long, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads...
July 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691283/a-soft-total-artificial-heart-first-concept-evaluation-on-a-hybrid-mock-circulation
#14
Nicholas H Cohrs, Anastasios Petrou, Michael Loepfe, Maria Yliruka, Christoph M Schumacher, A Xavier Kohll, Christoph T Starck, Marianne Schmid Daners, Mirko Meboldt, Volkmar Falk, Wendelin J Stark
The technology of 3D-printing has allowed the production of entirely soft pumps with complex chamber geometries. We used this technique to develop a completely soft pneumatically driven total artificial heart from silicone elastomers and evaluated its performance on a hybrid mock circulation. The goal of this study is to present an innovative concept of a soft total artificial heart (sTAH). Using the form of a human heart, we designed a sTAH, which consists of only two ventricles and produced it using a 3D-printing, lost-wax casting technique...
July 10, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687657/antigen-acquisition-enables-newly-arriving-b-cells-to-enter-ongoing-immunization-induced-germinal-centers
#15
Jackson S Turner, Zachary L Benet, Irina L Grigorova
Modern vaccines must be designed to generate long-lasting, high-affinity, and broadly neutralizing Ab responses against pathogens. The diversity of B cell clones recruited into germinal center (GC) responses is likely to be important for the Ag-neutralization potential of the Ab-secreting cells and memory cells generated upon immunization. However, the factors that influence the diversity of B cell clones recruited into GCs are unclear. As recirculating naive Ag-specific B cells arrive in Ag-draining secondary lymphoid organs, they may join the ongoing GC response...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684456/optimization-of-dsc-mri-echo-times-for-cbv-measurements-using-error-analysis-in-a-pilot-study-of-high-grade-gliomas
#16
L C Bell, M D Does, A M Stokes, L C Baxter, K M Schmainda, A C Dueck, C C Quarles
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal TE must be calculated to minimize the variance in CBV measurements made with DSC MR imaging. Simulations can be used to determine the influence of the TE on CBV, but they may not adequately recapitulate the in vivo heterogeneity of precontrast T2*, contrast agent kinetics, and the biophysical basis of contrast agent-induced T2* changes. The purpose of this study was to combine quantitative multiecho DSC MRI T2* time curves with error analysis in order to compute the optimal TE for a traditional single-echo acquisition...
July 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679580/use-of-an-ipad-app-to-simulate-pressure-volume-loops-and-cardiovascular-physiology
#17
Staci Leisman, Daniel Burkhoff
The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to model the changes in preload, afterload, and contractility on a simulated pressure-volume loop and to correlate those findings with common measurements of clinical cardiovascular physiology. Once students have modeled these changes on a healthy heart, the students are asked to look at a simulated case of cardiogenic shock. Effects on preload, contractility, and afterload are explored, as well as the hemodynamic effects of a number of student-suggested treatment strategies...
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679570/cardiopulmonary-physiology-why-the-heart-and-lungs-are-inextricably-linked
#18
Kevin Verhoeff, Jamie R Mitchell
Because the heart and lungs are confined within the thoracic cavity, understanding their interactions is integral for studying each system. Such interactions include changes in external constraint to the heart, blood volume redistribution (venous return), direct ventricular interaction (DVI), and left ventricular (LV) afterload. During mechanical ventilation, these interactions can be amplified and result in reduced cardiac output. For example, increased intrathoracic pressure associated with mechanical ventilation can increase external constraint and limit ventricular diastolic filling and, therefore, output...
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665712/left-ventricular-end-diastole-hemodynamics-is-strongly-associated-with-spontaneous-cardiac-baroreflex-in-humans
#19
Karol Makowski, Elżbieta Kramarz, Grzegorz Kamiński, Monika Grzęda, Paulina Kramarz, Grzegorz Kade
BACKGROUND: In animals, hemodynamic conditions during left ventricular (LV) end-diastole are crucial for the excitation of autonomic afferents distributed throughout cardiac chambers and large thoracic vessels. The objective of the study was to select the echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function that are the most potent predictors of the heart's spontaneous baroreflex in humans. METHODS: In 47 untreated hypertensive patients (26 with normal and 21 with increased left atrium diameter) and 24 healthy controls, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed in the low (αLF; 0...
June 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665469/central-venous-pressure-monitoring-via-peripherally-or-centrally-inserted-central-catheters-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Filippo Sanfilippo, Alberto Noto, Gennaro Martucci, Marco Farbo, Gaetano Burgio, Daniele G Biasucci
INTRODUCTION: The central venous pressure (CVP) is the most commonly used static marker of preload for guiding fluid therapy in critically ill patients, though its usefulness remains controversial. Centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) are the gold-standard devices for CVP monitoring but peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) may represent a valid alternative. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim to investigate whether the difference between PICC- and CICC-measured CVP is not significant...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
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