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Yunxiang Zang, Mingliang Jin, Huping Wang, Zhicheng Cui, Liangliang Kong, Caixuan Liu, Yao Cong
The eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC (or CCT) assists in the folding of 10% of cytosolic proteins. Here we present two cryo-EM structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TRiC in a newly identified nucleotide partially preloaded (NPP) state and in the ATP-bound state, at 4.7-Å and 4.6-Å resolution, respectively. Through inner-subunit eGFP tagging, we identified the subunit locations in open-state TRiC and found that the CCT2 subunit pair forms an unexpected Z shape. ATP binding induces a dramatic conformational change on the CCT2 side, thereby suggesting that CCT2 plays an essential role in TRiC allosteric cooperativity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Vinoth Kumar Vilvanathan, Budunur C Srinivas Prabhavathi Bhat, Manjunath Cholenahally Nanjappa, Bharathi Pandian, Vithal Bagi, Sridhar Kasturi, Shiva Kumar Bandimida
OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). This study was conducted to determine the maintenance of sinus rhythm with amiodarone therapy following DC cardioversion (DCCV), early after successful balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). METHODS: Patients were randomized to amiodarone group and placebo group and their baseline characteristics were recorded. DCCV was done 48h after BMV. After cardioversion, oral amiodarone was started initially 200mg three times a day for 2 weeks, then 200mg twice daily for two weeks followed by 200mg once daily for 12 months...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Jacob J Glaser, Cassandra Cardarelli, Samuel Galvagno, Thomas M Scalea, Sarah B Murthi
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound often includes cardiac ultrasound. It is commonly used to evaluate cardiac function in critically ill patients but lacks the specific quantitative anatomic assessment afforded by standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We developed the Focused Rapid Echocardiographic Examination (FREE), a hybrid between a cardiac ultrasound and TTE that places an emphasis on cardiac function rather than anatomy. We hypothesized that data obtained from FREE correlate well with TTE while providing actionable information for clinical decision making...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Matthew D Parker, Lynette A Jones, Ian W Hunter, A J Taberner, M P Nash, P M F Nielsen
A triaxial force-sensitive microrobot was developed to dynamically perturb skin in multiple deformation modes, in vivo. Wiener static nonlinear identification was used to extract the linear dynamics and static nonlinearity of the force-displacement behavior of skin. Stochastic input forces were applied to the volar forearm and thenar eminence of the hand, producing probe tip perturbations in indentation and extension. Wiener static nonlinear approaches increased the variance accounted for by 0.1 % to 3.4 % over linear approaches, to 94 % to 97 %...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A Helbing, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A P Steegers, Bero O Verburg
BACKGROUND: There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study examines fetal sex differences in cardiovascular development in utero. METHODS: In 1028 pregnant women, we assessed fetal circulation using pulsed wave Doppler examinations between 28 and 34 weeks gestation. To test associations between fetal sex and fetal circulation measurements, linear regression models were used adjusting for fetal size, gestational age, and fetal heart rate...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Tomomichi Ishizaka, Yu Yoshimatsu, Yu Maeda, Wataru Takasaki, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
INTRODUCTION: Load-independent cardiac parameters obtained from the ventricular pressure-volume relationship are recognized as gold standard indexes for evaluating cardiac inotropy.In this study, for better analyses of cardiac risks, load-independent pressure-volume loop parameters were assessed in addition to load-dependent inotropic, hemodynamic and electrocardiographic changes in isoflurane-anesthetized monkeys. METHODS: The animals were given milrinone (a PDE 3 inhibitor), metoprolol (a β-blocker), or dl-sotalol (a β+IKr blocker) intravenously over 10min at two dose levels including clinically relevant doses (n=5/drug)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Ruozhou Zhou, Zhiping Huang, Xiang Liu, Jie Tong, Wei Ji, Sheting Liu, Qingan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Polyetheretherketone rod constructs provide adequate spinal stability. Kinematics and load sharing of anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction with polyetheretherketone rods under preload remains unknown. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to a pure moment of 5.0Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation, and flexion-extension with a compressive preload of 300N. An anterior reconstruction of L1 corpectomy was conducted with a surrogate bone graft and anterior rod constructs (polyetheretherketone or titanium rods)...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model, however the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n=16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Krasimira Hristova, Rumen Marinov, Georgi Stamenov, Kristina Chacheva, Marina Michova, Sabina Persenska, Ani Racheva
OBJECTIVE: Normal pregnancy is associated with reversible changes in both systolic and diastolic mechanics, consistent with an increase in preload and decrease in afterload and systemic vascular resistance. The aim is to evaluate left ventricular (LV) twist and untwist mechanics in a population of pregnant women during differing stages of a healthy pregnancy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We included 22 pregnant patients, 10 with multiple pregnancy (mean age 36.5 ± 3 years) and 20 healthy non pregnant women (mean age 33 ± 4years)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
J E Dietrich, D L Yee, X M Santos, J L Bercaw-Pratt, J Kurkowski, H Soni, Y J Lee-Kim, M D Shah, D Mahoney, L V Srivaths
BACKGROUND: Bleeding disorders (BD) occur in up to 50% of adolescents with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This presents unique challenges to healthcare providers given the complexity of treating the condition and such complexity can result in difficulty with patients understanding basic information about their condition, limit communication with medical providers, and patient compliance. SPECIFIC AIMS: To use an electronic approach to enhance patient compliance with medications used to treat their HMB...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Lenny R Vartanian, Samantha Spanos, C Peter Herman, Janet Polivy
Objective: Social factors have a powerful influence on people's food intake but people typically fail to acknowledge the influence of such external cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of factors such as how hungry they are. We examined whether the tendency to explain one's food intake in terms of internal cues (i.e., hunger) rather than external cues (i.e., other people's behavior) would be apparent when those cues are in conflict with one another. Method: Female participants (n = 104) took part in a pizza taste test after having been food deprived for 18-hr or after consuming a meal-replacement preload...
October 17, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Kalpana Rajendra Kulkarni, Amruta Girish Naik, Sunetra Girish Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is a preferred technique over general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. It avoids maternal airway related complications, aspiration and neonatal depression. However hypotension following spinal anesthesia can lead to decrease in uterine blood flow and neonatal hypoxia. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 15 1of crystalloid preloading versus prophylactic intravenous bolus of 10 mg ephedrine as an antihypotensive measure for cesarean section...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Satoshi Masutani, Seiko Kuwata, Clara Kurishima, Yoichi Iwamoto, Hirofumi Saiki, Masaya Sugimoto, Hirotaka Ishido, Hideaki Senzaki
OBJECTIVE: The details of the ventricular-vascular dynamics of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in children remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that pediatric HFpEF patients have ventricular systolic, diastolic, and arterial stiffening at rest as well as impaired reserve function associated with coronary supply/demand imbalance. METHODS: We studied the ventricular pressure-area relationship in 22 pediatric HFpEF patients and 22 control subjects before and after dobutamine infusion and during abdominal compression...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Sotiria Palioura, Kathryn Colby
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty using grafts preloaded by an eye bank in a commercially available insertion device. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, a series of 35 eyes in 34 consecutive patients who underwent Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or previously failed full-thickness grafts at a single tertiary care center from March 2013 to March 2014 was included...
October 12, 2016: Cornea
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Vasilios Kamperidis, Charalampos Loutradis, Konstantinos Tsilonis, Fani Mpoutsiouki, Athanasios Saratzis, Georgios Giannakoulas, Georgios Sianos, Haralambos Karvounis
BACKGROUND: The effect of acute preload reduction during haemodialysis on left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) function is not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate acute changes in novel echocardiographic and tissue Doppler-derived indices of LV and RV function during the first and a standard weekly dialysis session and to examine the possible effect of acute intradialytic volume changes in LV and RV diastolic function and pulmonary circulation loading. METHODS: Forty-one adult patients receiving standard thrice-weekly haemodialysis participated in this study...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Madison B Schwartz, Jason A Ferreira, Patrick M Aaronson
BACKGROUND: The utilization of bolus-dose phenylephrine (PHE) has transitioned to the emergency department (ED) for the treatment of acutely hypotensive patients, despite a paucity of literature in this setting. METHODS: This was a single center retrospective chart review of the utilization of bolus-dosed PHE for acute hypotension in the ED at an academic non-forprofit hospital. The primary objective of this study is to report the frequency of patients that were initiated on a continuous vasopressor infusion (CVI) within 30 minutes after the first administration of bolus-dose PHE...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
P M Kapoor, Vandana Bhardwaj, Amita Sharma, Usha Kiran
A reliable estimation of cardiac preload is helpful in the management of severe circulatory dysfunction. The estimation of cardiac preload has evolved from nuclear angiography, pulmonary artery catheterization to echocardiography, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD). Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) is the combined end-diastolic volumes of all the four cardiac chambers. GEDV has been demonstrated to be a reliable preload marker in comparison with traditionally used pulmonary artery catheter-derived pressure preload parameters...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Jonathan W Hennek, Ashok A Kumar, Alex B Wiltschko, Matthew R Patton, Si Yi Ryan Lee, Carlo Brugnara, Ryan P Adams, George M Whitesides
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a nutritional disorder that impacts over one billion people worldwide; it may cause permanent cognitive impairment in children, fatigue in adults, and suboptimal outcomes in pregnancy. IDA can be diagnosed by detection of red blood cells (RBCs) that are characteristically small (microcytic) and deficient in hemoglobin (hypochromic), typically by examining the results of a complete blood count performed by a hematology analyzer. These instruments are expensive, not portable, and require trained personnel; they are, therefore, unavailable in many low-resource settings...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Nelson N Stone, Vladimir Mouraviev, David Schechter, Josh Goetz, M Scott Lucia, E Erin Smith, E David Crawford
OBJECTIVE: The biopsy needles currently used were designed for a transrectal biopsy and are known to experience significant deflection from the point of entry into the gland to the needle tip. METHODS: Five designs were selected for testing: 18-gauge Bard, 15-gauge lancet tip needle with 12° vet-point cannula, and trocar tip needle with 12°, 15°, and 20° vet-point cannulas. The 15-gauge needle was designed to take a variable specimen sample between 20 and 60 mm, whereas the Bard needle specimen bed was fixed at 20 mm...
October 5, 2016: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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