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Hemorrhagic transformation

J E Correia, C A Christofoletti, A C C Marcato, J F U Marinho, C S Fontanetti
Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Qiang Tan, Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Xia Shi, Jun Tang, Yihao Tao, Bing Jiang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Yunfeng Yang, Zhi Chen
Fibrosis in ventricular system has a role in hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been reported to participate in alleviating the fibrosis process of many diseases. However, its role in fibrosis after IVH was unclear so far, and we hypothesized that CB2 activation has potential to attenuate hydrocephalus after IVH via restricting fibrosis. So the present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a modified rat IVH model. Autologous non-anticoagulative blood injection model was induced to mimic ventricular extension of hemorrhage in adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Kaori Tamura, Takaaki Mizuba, Tsuyoshi Okamoto, Mayumi Matsufuji, Sachio Takashima, Keiji Iramina
INTRODUCTION: The level of residual cognitive function in patients with early brain injury is a key factor limiting rehabilitation and the quality of life. Although understanding residual function is necessary for appropriate rehabilitation, the extent of its effects on cognitive improvement remains unknown. The present study evaluated cognitive function in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities after early brain injuries due to cerebral hemorrhage (CH) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Joan Montaner, Alejandro Bustamante, Silvia García-Matas, Maite Martínez-Zabaleta, Carmen Jiménez, Javier de la Torre, Francisco R Rubio, Tomás Segura, Jaime Masjuán, David Cánovas, Mar Freijo, Raquel Delgado-Mederos, Javier Tejada, Aida Lago, Yolanda Bravo, Natália Corbeto, Dolors Giralt, Bárbara Vives-Pastor, Anna de Arce, Francisco Moniche, Pilar Delgado, Marc Ribó
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The STARS trial (Stroke Treatment With Acute Reperfusion and Simvastatin) was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of simvastatin treatment in acute stroke. METHODS: STARS07 was a multicentre, phase IV, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with Acute ischemic stroke recruited within 12 hours from symptom onset were randomized to oral simvastatin 40 mg or placebo, once daily for 90 days. Primary outcome was proportion of independent patients (modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2) at 90 days...
October 6, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Yoshitaka Tanaka, Yasushi Motoyama, Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: A spontaneous fusiform aneurysm in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can present with both ischemic and hemorrhagic symptoms, but the clinical course and prognosis are unclear because of its rarity. CASE DESCRIPTION: An asymptomatic fusiform shape aneurysm was found in a branch of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) incidentally on a medical check-up in a 51-year-old woman with no medical history. It was followed-up by magnetic resonance imaging every year with no medical treatment...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michelle P Lin, David S Liebeskind
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, acute stroke pathophysiology, and collateral circulation, which are pivotal in the modern imaging of ischemic stroke that guides the care of the patient with stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging provides extensive information on the brain and vascular health. Multimodal CT and MRI delineate the hemodynamics of ischemic stroke that may be used to guide treatment decisions and prognosticate regarding expected outcomes...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Maike Tahden, Juliane Manitz, Klaus Baumgardt, Gerhard Fell, Thomas Kneib, Guido Hegasy
In 2011, a large outbreak of entero-hemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred in Germany. The City of Hamburg was the first focus of the epidemic and had the highest incidences among all 16 Federal States of Germany. In this article, we present epidemiological characteristics of the Hamburg notification data. Evaluating the epicurves retrospectively, we found that the first epidemiological signal of the outbreak, which was in form of a HUS case cluster, was received by local health authorities when already 99 EHEC and 48 HUS patients had experienced their first symptoms...
2016: PloS One
William J Pearce, Coleen Doan, Desirelys Carreon, Dahlim Kim, Lara M Durrant, Anatol Manaenko, Lauren McCoy, Andre Obenaus, John H Zhang, Jiping Tang
This study explores the hypothesis that intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) promotes release of diffusible factors that can significantly influence the structure and function of cerebral arteries remote from the site of injury, through action on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors. Four groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were studied (n=8 each): 1) Sham; 2) Sham + 60 mg/kg IP imatinib; 3) ICH (collagenase method); and 4) ICH + 60 mg/kg IP imatinib given 60 min after injury. At 24 hours post-injury, sham artery passive diameters (+3 mM EGTA) averaged 244±7 µm (@60 mmHg)...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Y Q Song, H L Zou, Y J Zhao, L Q Yu, Z X Tan, R Kong
Inflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia reperfusion, which can cause severe damage to the brain and may lead to cerebral hemorrhage transformation. p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38mapk) has been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases because it is a cause of inflammation, but comparatively little research has been carried out into its role in the etiology of ischemia reperfusion. We investigated the expression of p38mapk in cerebral ischemia reperfusion to gain a better understanding of its potential role in hemorrhagic transformation (HT)...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Maurizio Paciaroni, Leonardo Pantoni
The administration of thrombolytic therapy in elderly patients with dementia and acute ischemic stroke may be controversial, because the reported risk of rt-PA associated intracerebral hemorrhage in these patients is higher compared with that of patients without dementia and because these patients are already disabled. Moreover, there are known risk factors for hemorrhagic transformation in patients with dementia: amyloid angiopathy, leukoaraiosis and the presence of microbleeds. In this review, we describe the impact of dementia on functional outcome following thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and discuss some of the issues related to the use of this therapy in this specific patient's population...
October 3, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Fan Liao, Gaofeng Li, Wen Yuan, Yujie Chen, Yuchun Zuo, Kauthar Rashid, John H Zhang, Hua Feng, Fei Liu
Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Elizabeth M Kander, Alison R Moliterno, Alfred Rademaker, Michael B Streiff, Jerry L Spivak, Brady L Stein
Polycythemia vera (PV) is an acquired clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications; and an increased risk of transformation to myelofibrosis and acute leukemia. In 1967, the Polycythemia Vera Study Group proposed the optimal approach to diagnosis and treatment of PV, and in 2002, investigators from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine surveyed the practice patterns of hematologists as they pertained to PV...
October 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Martin Krueger, Wolfgang Härtig, Clara Frydrychowicz, Wolf C Mueller, Andreas Reichenbach, Ingo Bechmann, Dominik Michalski
Stroke-induced blood-brain barrier breakdown promotes complications like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation, especially in association with therapeutical recanalization of occluded vessels. As arteries, capillaries and veins display distinct functional and morphological characteristics, we here investigated patterns of blood-brain barrier breakdown for each segment of the vascular tree in rodent models of embolic, permanent, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, added by analyses of human stroke tissue...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Kang-Ho Choi, Man-Seok Park, Joon-Tae Kim, Hyung-Seok Kim, Ja-Hae Kim, Tai-Seung Nam, Seong-Min Choi, Seung-Han Lee, Byeong-Chae Kim, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Ki-Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND: Alpha-lipoic acid (aLA) is a strong antioxidant commonly used for treating diabetic polyneuropathy. Previously, we demonstrated the neurorestorative effects of aLA after cerebral ischemia in rats. However, its effects on patients with stroke remain unknown. We investigated whether patients treated with aLA have better functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and reperfusion therapy than patients not receiving aLA. METHODS: In this retrospective study of 172 prospectively registered patients with diabetes and AIS treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), we investigated the relationship between aLA use and functional outcome both after 3 months and after 1 year...
2016: PloS One
Jeffrey L Saver, Mayank Goyal, Aad van der Lugt, Bijoy K Menon, Charles B L M Majoie, Diederik W Dippel, Bruce C Campbell, Raul G Nogueira, Andrew M Demchuk, Alejandro Tomasello, Pere Cardona, Thomas G Devlin, Donald F Frei, Richard du Mesnil de Rochemont, Olvert A Berkhemer, Tudor G Jovin, Adnan H Siddiqui, Wim H van Zwam, Stephen M Davis, Carlos Castaño, Biggya L Sapkota, Puck S Fransen, Carlos Molina, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Ángel Chamorro, Hester Lingsma, Frank L Silver, Geoffrey A Donnan, Ashfaq Shuaib, Scott Brown, Bruce Stouch, Peter J Mitchell, Antoni Davalos, Yvo B W E M Roos, Michael D Hill
IMPORTANCE: Endovascular thrombectomy with second-generation devices is beneficial for patients with ischemic stroke due to intracranial large-vessel occlusions. Delineation of the association of treatment time with outcomes would help to guide implementation. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the period in which endovascular thrombectomy is associated with benefit, and the extent to which treatment delay is related to functional outcomes, mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage...
September 27, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Robert Zant, Michael Melter, Christian Doerfler, Felix Schlachetzki, Ernst-Michael Jung, Stefan Schilling, Juergen Kunkel
Internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections with associated stroke are rare events in infants. The usual pathomechanisms include direct trauma to the artery, blunt intraoral trauma, or child abuse. We describe the case of a 4-month-old male patient with ICA dissection and associated middle cerebral artery territory infarction associated with hyperextension/hyperrotation after a minor head injury. Upon treatment with anticoagulants, the patient showed significant improvement of the left-sided hemiparesis. Hemorrhagic transformation that presented shortly after middle cerebral artery infarction did not further increase under heparin treatment and prevented further embolism...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Dezhi Liu, Fabien Scalzo, Neal M Rao, Jason D Hinman, Doojin Kim, Latisha K Ali, Jeffrey L Saver, Wen Sun, Qiliang Dai, Xinfeng Liu, David S Liebeskind
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In acute arterial occlusion, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity (FVH) has been linked to slow flow in leptomeningeal collaterals and cerebral hypoperfusion, but the impact on clinical outcome is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between FVH topography or FVH-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) pattern and outcome in acute M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion patients with endovascular treatment...
September 22, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kartik G Krishnan, Karsten Schöller, Eberhard Uhl
BACKGROUND: The basic necessities for surgical procedures are illumination, exposure and magnification. These have undergone transformation in par with technology. One of the recent developments is the compact magnifying exoscope system. In this report we describe the application of this system for surgical operations and discuss its advantages and pitfalls. METHODS: We used the ViTOM(®) exoscope mounted on the mechanical holding arm. The following surgical procedures were conducted: lumbar and cervical spinal canal decompression (n=5); laminotomy and removal of lumbar migrated disc herniations (n=4); anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (n=1); removal of intraneural schwannomas (n=2); removal of a acute cerebellar hemorrhage (n=1); removal of a parafalcine atypical cerebral hematoma caused by a dural arterio-venous fistula (n=1); microsutures and anastomoses of a nerve (n=1), an artery (n=1) and veins (n=2)...
September 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Chiharu Yoshimoto, Junko Takahama, Takuya Iwabuchi, Masato Uchikoshi, Hiroshi Shigetomi, Hiroshi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: Heme and iron accumulation due to repeated hemorrhage in endometriosis may contribute to a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. We evaluate the clinical application of MR relaxometry in a series of ovarian endometriosis (OE) and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of diagnostic accuracy was conducted among 82 patients (67 OE and 15 EAOC) to compare MR relaxometry and biochemical measurement of cyst fluid total iron concentration...
September 16, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Xingyong Chen, Yinzhou Wang, Ming Fu, Huixin Lei, Qiong Cheng, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Currently, blood biomarkers associated with an increased hemorrhagic transformation (HT) risk remain uncertain. We aimed to determine the significance of immunoproteasome as predictors of early HT in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: This study enrolled 316 patients with ischemic stroke. HT was assessed by computed tomography examination performed on day 5 ± 2 after stroke onset or immediately in case of clinical deterioration (CD)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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