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Invasive fungal infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090056/suspected-pulmonary-infection-with-trichoderma-longibrachiatum-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Tomoaki Akagi, Chizuko Kawamura, Norio Terasawa, Kohei Yamaguchi, Kohmei Kubo
Aspergillus and Candida species are the main causative agents of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised human hosts. However, saprophytic fungi are now increasingly being recognized as serious pathogens. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has recently been described as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a case of isolated suspected invasive pulmonary infection with T. longibrachiatum in a 29-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089099/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-in-a-medical-center-in-taiwan
#2
Gu-Lung Lin, Hsiu-Hao Chang, Chun-Yi Lu, Chung-Ming Chen, Meng-Yao Lu, Ping-Ing Lee, Shiann-Tarng Jou, Yung-Li Yang, Li-Min Huang, Luan-Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, especially those with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), recurrent acute leukemia, high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcome of IFIs in pediatric AML patients in a medical center in Taiwan. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart reviews...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087464/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-fungal-protease-induced-inflammatory-responses
#3
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#4
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080920/phaeohyphomycosis-associated-with-ossification-of-the-skull-and-cervical-vertebrae-in-a-swell-shark-cephaloscyllium-ventriosum
#5
Claire D Erlacher-Reid, Hendrik H Nollens, Todd L Schmitt, Judy St Leger, Sarena Sunico
A female, captive bred, juvenile swell shark ( Cephaloscyllium ventriosum ) was observed swimming in tight circles and rolling. Radiographs and computed tomography of this individual revealed extensive cartilage mineralization of the skull and cranial cervical vertebrae compared with diagnostic images of clinically healthy conspecifics. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed ossification and fibrosis of the cartilaginous matrix of the skull and cervical vertebrae with deep invasion by a pigmented hyphal fungus...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079179/transcriptome-and-network-analyses-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-reveal-that-amphotericin-b-and-lactoferrin-synergy-disrupt-metal-homeostasis-and-stress-response
#6
Chi Nam Ignatius Pang, Yu-Wen Lai, Leona T Campbell, Sharon C-A Chen, Dee A Carter, Marc R Wilkins
Invasive fungal infections are difficult to treat. The few available antifungal drugs have problems with toxicity or efficacy, and resistance is increasing. To overcome these challenges, existing therapies may be enhanced by synergistic combination with another agent. Previously, we found amphotericin B (AMB) and the iron chelator, lactoferrin (LF), were synergistic against a range of different fungal pathogens. This study investigates the mechanism of AMB-LF synergy, using RNA-seq and network analyses. AMB treatment resulted in increased expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis and ATP synthesis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079053/molecular-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-a-polygalacturonase-inhibiting-protein-ghpgip1-in-enhanced-resistance-to-verticillium-and-fusarium-wilts-in-cotton
#7
Nana Liu, Xueyan Zhang, Yun Sun, Ping Wang, Xiancai Li, Yakun Pei, Fuguang Li, Yuxia Hou
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), belonging to a group of plant defence proteins, specifically inhibits endopolygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Herein, we showed that purified GhPGIP1 is a functional inhibitor of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the two fungal pathogens causing cotton wilt. Transcription of GhPGIP1 was increased in cotton upon infection, wounding, and treatment with defence hormone and H2O2. Resistance by GhPGIP1 was examined by its virus-induced gene silencing in cotton and overexpression in Arabidopsis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076396/neutrophil-interactions-stimulate-evasive-hyphal-branching-by-aspergillus-fumigatus
#8
Felix Ellett, Julianne Jorgensen, Galit H Frydman, Caroline N Jones, Daniel Irimia
Invasive aspergillosis (IA), primarily caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, is an opportunistic fungal infection predominantly affecting immunocompromised and neutropenic patients that is difficult to treat and results in high mortality. Investigations of neutrophil-hypha interaction in vitro and in animal models of IA are limited by lack of temporal and spatial control over interactions. This study presents a new approach for studying neutrophil-hypha interaction at single cell resolution over time, which revealed an evasive fungal behavior triggered by interaction with neutrophils: Interacting hyphae performed de novo tip formation to form new hyphal branches, allowing the fungi to avoid the interaction point and continue invasive growth...
January 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074867/the-role-of-macrophages-in-the-susceptibility-of-fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice-to-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Saowapha Surawut, Thunnicha Ondee, Sujittra Taratummarat, Tanapat Palaga, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Ariya Chindamporn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Dysfunctional polymorphisms of FcγRIIb, an inhibitory receptor, are associated with Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus (SLE). Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in SLE, perhaps due to the de novo immune defect. We investigated cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb-/- mouse-lupus-model. Mortality, after intravenous C. neoformans-induced cryptococcosis, in young (8-week-old) and older (24-week-old) FcγRIIb-/- mice, was higher than in age-matched wild-types. Severe cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb-/- mice was demonstrated by high fungal burdens in the internal organs with histological cryptococcoma-like lesions and high levels of TNF-α and IL-6, but not IL-10...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068483/immunity-to-commensal-fungi-detente-and-disease
#10
Matthew L Wheeler, Jose J Limon, David M Underhill
Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut)...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066814/species-in-the-cryptococcus-gattii-complex-differ-in-capsule-and-cell-size-following-growth-under-capsule-inducing-conditions
#11
Kenya E Fernandes, Christine Dwyer, Leona T Campbell, Dee A Carter
Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058138/dying-with-or-because-of-invasive-fungal-infection-the-role-of-immunity-exhaustion-on-patient-outcome
#12
Andrea Cortegiani, Vincenzo Russotto, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Cesare Gregoretti, Antonino Giarratano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058135/should-we-administer-antifungal-drugs-before-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infection-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients
#13
Andrea Cortegiani, Vincenzo Russotto, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Cesare Gregoretti, Antonino Giarratano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056742/fungal-biofilm-a-real-obstacle-against-an-efficient-therapy-lessons-from-candida
#14
Thaís Pereira de Mello, Lívia de Souza Ramos, Lys Adriana Braga-Silva, Marta Helena Branquinha, André Luis Souza Dos Santos
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in invasive fungal infections, especially caused by different species belonging to the Candida genus. Nowadays, even after many improvements in several medical procedures, Candida infections (candidiasis) still account for an unacceptable high rate of morbimortality in hospital settings. Corroborating this statement, fungal biofilms formed on both abiotic and living surfaces are responsible for an important medical and economic burden, since biofilm lifestyle confers numerous advantages to the pathogens, including high tolerance to environmental stresses such as antimicrobials and host immune responses...
January 5, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052853/activity-of-a-long-acting-echinocandin-cd101-and-seven-comparator-antifungal-agents-tested-against-a-global-collection-of-contemporary-invasive-fungal-isolates-in-the-sentry-2014-antifungal-surveillance-program
#15
Michael A Pfaller, Shawn A Messer, Paul R Rhomberg, Mariana Castanheira
The activity of CD101 and comparators was evaluated against 606 invasive fungal isolates collected worldwide during 2014 using the CLSI method. All C. albicans (n=251), C. tropicalis (n=51), C. krusei (n=16), and C. dubliniensis (n=11) were inhibited by ≤0.12 μg/ml of CD101 and were susceptible or wild type to other echinocandins. Five C. glabrata (n=100) displayed CD101 MIC values of 1-4 μg/ml, elevated caspofungin (2->8 μg/ml), anidulafungin (2-4 μg/ml), and micafungin (2-4 μg/ml) MICs, and carried mutations on fks1/fks2 C...
January 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051303/tackling-fungal-resistance-by-biofilm-inhibitors
#16
Shanchao Wu, Yan Wang, Na Liu, Guoqiang Dong, Chunquan Sheng
The high incidence and mortality of invasive fungal infections and serious drug resistance have become a global public health issue. The ability of fungal cells to form biofilms is an important reason for the emergence of severe resistance to most clinically available antifungal agents. Targeting fungal biofilm formation by small molecules represents a promising new strategy for the development of novel antifungal agents. This perspective will provide a comprehensive review of fungal biofilm inhibitors. In particular, discovery strategies, chemical structures, antibiofilm/antifungal activities and structure-activity relationship studies will be discussed...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045065/high-diversity-of-airborne-fungi-in-the-hospital-environment-as-revealed-by-meta-sequencing-based-microbiome-analysis
#17
Xunliang Tong, Hongtao Xu, Lihui Zou, Meng Cai, Xuefeng Xu, Zuotao Zhao, Fei Xiao, Yanming Li
Invasive fungal infections acquired in the hospital have progressively emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infection. In particular, airborne fungi in hospitals are considered critical pathogens of hospital-associated infections. To identify the causative airborne microorganisms, high-volume air samplers were utilized for collection, and species identification was performed using a culture-based method and DNA sequencing analysis with the Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq 2000 sequencing systems. Few bacteria were grown after cultivation in blood agar...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043539/invasive-forms-of-candida-and-aspergillus-in-sputum-samples-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-attending-the-tuberculosis-reference-laboratory-in-ghaemshahr-northern-iran-an-analysis-of-samples-collected-during-the-past-10years
#18
Mohammad Reza Jabbari Amiri, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Mahdi Abastabar, Masoud Aliyali, Masoumeh Jabbari Amiri, Hamid Hasanpour
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. This is especially true in Northern Iran, which has high TB prevalence. The chronic nature of this disease is further exacerbated if it is accompanied by fungal infection, which usually remains undiagnosed and thus untreated. Thus, mycotic infections add fatal dimensions to pulmonary TB. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of invasive forms of fungal elements in sputum samples collected from patients with pulmonary TB at a reference laboratory in Ghaemshahr, Northern Iran, during the past 10years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040409/antifungal-effects-of-phytocompounds-on-candida-species-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole
#19
REVIEW
Mengjiao Lu, Tao Li, Jianjian Wan, Xiuyun Li, Lei Yuan, Shujuan Sun
Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. remain the most predominant nosocomial fungal infections. Owing to the increased use of antifungal agents, resistance of Candida spp. to antimycotics has emerged frequently, especially to fluconazole (FLC). To cope with this issue, new efforts have been dedicated to discovering novel antimycotics or new agents that can enhance the susceptibility of Candida spp. to existing antimycotics. The secondary metabolites of plants represent a large library of compounds that are important sources for new drugs or compounds suitable for further modification...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031265/the-carbohydrate-lectin-receptor-dectin-1-mediates-immune-response-to-exserohilum-rostratum
#20
Jennifer L Reedy, Paige E Negoro, Marianela Feliu, Allison K Lord, Nida S Khan, Dan P Lukason, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jenny M Tam, Michael K Mansour, Thomas F Patterson, Jatin M Vyas
Dematiaceous molds are found ubiquitously in the environment and cause a wide spectrum of human disease including infections associated with high rates of mortality. Despite this, the mechanism of innate immune response has been less well studied, although it is key in the clearance of fungal pathogens. Here, we focus on Exserohilum rostratum, a dematiaceous mold that caused 751 infections during a multistate outbreak due to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. We show that macrophages are incapable of phagocytosing Exserohilum Despite lack of phagocytosis, macrophage production of TNFα is triggered by hyphae, but not spores, and depends upon Dectin-1, a C-type lectin receptor...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
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