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Invasive fungal infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920389/resistance-in-persisting-bat-populations-after-white-nose-syndrome-invasion
#1
Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Katy L Parise, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915305/dna-barcoding-coupled-with-high-resolution-melting-analysis-enables-rapid-and-accurate-distinction-of-aspergillus-species
#2
Gabor Fidler, Sandor Kocsube, Eva Leiter, Sandor Biro, Melinda Paholcsek
We describe a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis method that is rapid, reproducible, and able to identify reference strains and further 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus (14), A. lentulus (3), A. terreus (7), A. flavus (8), A. niger (2), A. welwitschiae (4), and A. tubingensis (2). Asp1 and Asp2 primer sets were designed to amplify partial sequences of the Aspergillus benA (beta-tubulin) genes in a closed-, single-tube system. Human placenta DNA, further Aspergillus (3), Candida (9), Fusarium (6), and Scedosporium (2) nucleic acids from type strains and clinical isolates were also included in this study to evaluate cross reactivity with other relevant pathogens causing invasive fungal infections...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915301/assessing-the-risk-of-false-positive-serum-galactomannan-among-patients-receiving-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-febrile-neutropenia
#3
Hayati Demiraslan, M Altay Atalay, Esma Eren, Koray Demir, Leylagul Kaynar, A Nedret Koc, Mehmet Doganay
Galactomannan (GM) assay is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in high-risk hematology patients. False positivity is frequently observed in GM with the use of piperacillin/tazobactam. The usage of generic drugs over the original brand has a significant cost advantage. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of GM test among patients receiving original and generic piperacillin/tazobactam formulations. The study included 85 adult patients; 62.4% were male with hematological malignancy currently receiving piperacillin/tazobactam...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914593/systemic-and-localized-infection-by-candida-species-in-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases-receiving-anti-tnf-therapy
#4
Nadia E Aikawa, Daniela T A Rosa, Gilda M B Del Negro, Julio C B Moraes, Ana C M Ribeiro, Carla Gonçalves Saad, Clovis A Silva, Eloisa Bonfá
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of systemic and localized infection by Candida species and its possible association with demographic, clinical and laboratory manifestations and therapy in patients with rheumatic diseases taking TNF blockers. METHODS: Consecutive patients with rheumatic diseases receiving anti-TNF agents were included. The following risk factors up to four weeks prior to the study were analyzed: use of antibiotics, immunosuppressant drugs, hospitalization and invasive procedures...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913461/primary-immune-deficiencies-with-defects-in-neutrophil-function
#5
Mary C Dinauer
Immune deficiencies resulting from inherited defects in neutrophil function have revealed important features of the innate immune response. Although sharing an increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, these disorders each have distinctive features in their clinical manifestations and characteristic microbial pathogens. This review provides an update on several genetic disorders with impaired neutrophil function, their pathogenesis, and treatment strategies. These include chronic granulomatous disease, which results from inactivating mutations in the superoxide-generating nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913132/rapid-identification-of-candida-spp-frequently-involved-in-invasive-mycoses-by-using-flow-through-hybridization-and-gene-chip-fhgc-technology
#6
Chen Li, Xiurong Ding, Zhizhong Liu, Juanjuan Zhu
The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910211/comparison-of-serum-concentrations-between-different-dosing-strategies-of-posaconazole-delayed-release-tablet-at-a-large-academic-medical-centre
#7
Sarah Welch, Andrea Pallotta, Catherine Weber, Caitlin Siebenaller, Eric Cober, Elizabeth Neuner
It is unclear if the prophylaxis dose of 300 mg/day is sufficient for achieving serum concentrations targeting the treatment of invasive fungal infections. To evaluate differences between PCZ serum concentrations in patients receiving the DRT vs the OS and in patients receiving higher doses than 300 mg/day of the DRT, a retrospective review was conducted on inpatients who received PCZ for either treatment or prophylaxis. Baseline demographics including comorbid conditions, indication and dose of therapy were collected...
December 1, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904738/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-oncohematological-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Markus Ruhnke, Stefan Schwartz
Patients with hematological cancer have a high risk of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). These infections are mostly life threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other non-Aspergillus molds are increasingly be identified in cases of documented IFDs. Important risk factors are long lasting granulocytopenia with neutrophil counts below 500/μl for more than 10 days or graft-versus-host disease resulting from allogeneic stem-cell transplantation...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904061/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mucormycosis-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#9
Yuki Asano-Mori
The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-aspergillus prophylaxis. The aggressive nature of mucormycosis easily leads to high mortality because of delays in diagnosis and incorrect treatment decisions, which are due in part to lack of adjunctive diagnostic tools and having similar clinical and radiological features with aspergillosis...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903025/-antifungal-medication-new-substances-new-experiences
#10
Dieter Buchheidt, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann
The incidence of life threatening invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies during intensive chemotherapy or after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation, patients after solid organ transplantation, ICU patients and premature infants is rising. Mortality rates of invasive fungal infections, caused by Aspergillus species or mucormycetes, may reach 100%, in spite of considerable progress in diagnosis, antifungal prophylaxis and therapy. Comprehensive, profound knowledge of specific diagnostic and current treatment algorithms is essential to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from systemic fungal infections; this article encompasses recent developments in the field of antifungal treatment...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902424/clinical-evaluation-of-mucorales-specific-real-time-pcr-assay-in-tissue-and-serum-samples
#11
Jan Springer, Michaela Lackner, Christian Ensinger, Brigitte Risslegger, Charles Oliver Morton, David Nachbaur, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Hermann Einsele, Werner J Heinz, Juergen Loeffler
Molecular diagnostic assays can accelerate the diagnosis of fungal infections and subsequently improve patient outcomes. In particular, the detection of infections due to Mucorales is still challenging for laboratories and physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate a probe-based Mucorales-specific real-time PCR assay (Muc18S) using tissue and serum samples from patients suffering from invasive mucormycosis (IMM). This assay can detect a broad range of clinically relevant Mucorales species and can be used to complement existing diagnostic tests or to screen high-risk patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902377/comparison-of-susceptibility-patterns-using-commercially-available-susceptibility-testing-methods-performed-on-prevalent-candida-species
#12
David Cretella, Katie E Barber, S Travis King, Kayla R Stover
The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014-March 2015 using broth microdilution (BMD) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method, Etest, Vitek2 (YS-05), and Sensititre...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900825/fungal-infection-dynamics-in-response-to-temperature-in-the-lepidopteran-insect-galleria-mellonella
#13
Vadim Y Kryukov, Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Miranda M A Whitten, Maksim V Tyurin, Katherine J Ficken, Carolyn Greig, Nadja R Melo, Viktor V Glupov, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Tariq M Butt
This study examines how the dynamics of fungus - insect interactions can be modulated by temperature. The wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is a well-studied and important model insect whose larvae in the wild develop optimally at around 34°C in beehives. However, surprisingly little research on wax moths has been conducted at relevant temperatures. In this study, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii inflicted rapid and substantial mortality on wax moth larvae maintained at a constant temperature of 24°C, but at 34°C a ten-fold higher dose was required to achieve an equivalent mortality...
November 29, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900022/conversion-of-aspergilloma-to-chronic-necrotizing-pulmonary-aspergillosis-following-treatment-with-sunitinib-a-case-report
#14
Yeon Wook Kim, Hyun Woo Lee, Jaeyoung Cho, Han-Sol Choi, Jungsil Lee, Sung Soo Park, Eun Young Heo, Kwang Nam Jin, Deog Kyeom Kim
Semi-invasive or invasive aspergillosis occurring following chemotherapy with sunitinib is a rare condition with unknown incidence and prognosis. Here, we report a case involving a 59-year-old male who had a history of underlying stable aspergilloma and was newly diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Following surgical resection for renal cell carcinoma and adjuvant chemotherapy with sunitinib for 8 months, the patient presented with hemoptysis. Chest computed tomography revealed an increased soft tissue mass and air crescent sign of the underlying aspergilloma, combined with consolidation and bronchial artery hypertrophy around the lesion...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897041/novel-antifungal-agents-a-patent-review-2013-present
#15
María Victoria Castelli, Marcos Gabriel Derita, Silvia Noelí López
Superficial infections involving the skin and mucosa are the most common fungal disease in humans. Fungi can also produce invasive infections (IFI), which are increasing in incidence among the growing population of immunocompromised patients, and are characterized by a high mortality rate. Amphotericin B, new triazoles and echinocandins have improved treatment options in IFI. However, the frequency of less common and more resistant fungi, the limited activity of available antifungal drugs and their undesirable side effects reflect the urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894405/inhibition-of-matrix-metalloproteins-9-attenuated-candida-albicans-induced-inflammation-in-mouse-cornea
#16
C Dong, M G Yang
Since the severe corneal ulceration of mouse cornea is known to occur with inflammation. As one of imperative matrix metalloproteinase, the potential roles of matrix metalloproteins 9 (MMP9) in corneal ulceration and keratitis are still unveiled caused by fungal invasion. In this study, Candida albicans (CA) inoculated wild-type KM mice cornea was used as a model pathogen in corneal inflammation.  CA invasion significantly stimulated the expression of collagen IV and MMP9 detected by RT-PCR, Real-time PCR and Immunofluorescent staining in mouse cornea as soon as 6 hours post infection, and relatively decreased at 1 day post infection...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889253/blood-and-tissue-distribution-of-posaconazole-in-a-rat-model-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#17
E Cendejas-Bueno, A Forastiero, I Ruiz, E Mellado, J Gavaldà, A Gomez-Lopez
Posaconazole is the recommended prophylactic agent in patients at high risk of invasive fungal infection, since adequate drug levels seem to be reached in target sites despite the relatively low levels detected in blood. The objective of this study is to obtain pharmacokinetic (PK) information associated to blood and tissue distribution of posaconazole in an animal model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The PK parameters in lung samples were systematically higher than in serum. After multiple-dose administration of posaconazole, a significant accumulation of the drug was evident in lung tissue...
October 11, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887809/an-estimation-of-burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-france
#18
J-P Gangneux, M-E Bougnoux, C Hennequin, C Godet, J Chandenier, D W Denning, B Dupont
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: An estimation of burden of serious fungal diseases in France is essential data to inform public health priorities on the importance of resources and research needed on these infections. In France, precise data are available for invasive fungal diseases but estimates for several other diseases such as chronic and immunoallergic diseases are by contrast less known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the Web of Science Platform...
November 22, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884742/antifungals
#19
REVIEW
Sonia Campoy, José L Adrio
The need for new antifungal agents is undeniable. Current therapeutics choices for the treatment of invasive fungal infections are limited to three classes of drugs. Most used antifungals agents are not completely effective due to the development of resistance, host toxicity and undesirable side effects that limit their use in medical practice. Invasive fungal infections have significantly increased over the last decades and the mortality rates remain unacceptably high. More threatening, new resistance patterns have been observed including simultaneous resistance to different antifungal classes...
November 21, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881799/water-deficit-and-fungal-infection-can-differentially-affect-the-production-of-different-classes-of-defense-compounds-in-two-host-pines-of-mountain-pine-beetle
#20
Nadir Erbilgin, Jonathan A Cale, Inka Lusebrink, Ahmed Najar, Jennifer G Klutsch, Patrick Sherwood, Pierluigi Enrico Bonello, Maya L Evenden
Bark beetles are important agents of tree mortality in conifer forests and their interaction with trees is influenced by host defense chemicals, such as monoterpenes and phenolics. Since mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has expanded its host range from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. (var. latifolia Engelm.))-dominated forests to the novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forests in western Canada, studies investigating the jack pine suitability as a host for this beetle have exclusively focused on monoterpenes, and whether phenolics affect jack pine suitability to mountain pine beetle and its symbiotic fungus Grosmannia clavigera is unknown...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
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