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Invasive fungal infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336168/-pseudo-tumoral-invasive-fungus-infection-of-the-maxillary-sinus-in-abidjan
#1
A K Tanon, C Assouan, E Anzouan-Kacou, D N'guessan, A Salami, S Boni, E Konan
INTRODUCTION: The invasive fungal infection of the maxillary sinus is a rare and serious disease generally favored by immunosuppression. We report an exceptional case of pseudotumoral invasive fungal infection of the maxillary sinus in an immunocompetent patient. OBSERVATION: A 32-year-old patient consulted for labial and left temporal swelling associated with proptosis and chemosis that has been developing for 18 months. The scanner objectified a filling of the left maxillary sinus, and the ipsilateral orbital cavity, and the surrounding muscles...
March 20, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335642/voriconazole-for-prophylaxis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
David I Marks, Qifa Liu, Monica Slavin
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) are associated with a high mortality, and accordingly most alloHSCT recipients receive prophylaxis with antifungal agents. Despite some improvement in outcomes of IFIs over time, they continue to represent substantial clinical risk, mortality, and financial burden. Areas covered: We review the main pathogens responsible for IFIs in recipients of alloHSCT, current treatment recommendations, and discuss clinical and economic considerations associated with voriconazole prophylaxis of IFIs in these patients...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334041/virus-mediated-suppression-of-host-non-self-recognition-facilitates-horizontal-transmission-of-heterologous-viruses
#3
Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329348/outcome-and-treatment-of-nocardiosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-new-insights-from-a-european-study
#4
David Lebeaux, Romain Freund, Christian van Delden, Hélène Guillot, Sierk D Marbus, Marie Matignon, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Benoit Douvry, Julien De Greef, Fanny Vuotto, Leïla Tricot, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jacques Dantal, Cédric Hirzel, Jean-Philippe Jais, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Frédérique Jacobs, Olivier Lortholary, Julien Coussement
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of nocardiosis, a rare opportunistic bacterial infection, but prognosis and outcome of these patients are poorly defined. Our objectives were to identify factors associated with one-year mortality after nocardiosis and describe the outcome of patients receiving short-course antibiotics (≤120 days). Methods: We analyzed data from a multicenter European case-control study that included 117 SOT recipients with nocardiosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2014...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327806/invasive-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#5
Milton Camplesi, Hildene Meneses Silva, Adriano Moraes Arantes, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Fábio Silvestre Ataides, Thaisa Cristina Silva, Maysa de Paula Costa Dos Reis, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325761/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-governs-epithelial-cell-invasion-during-oropharyngeal-candidiasis
#6
Norma V Solis, Marc Swidergall, Vincent M Bruno, Sarah L Gaffen, Scott G Filler
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), caused predominantly by Candida albicans, is a prevalent infection in patients with advanced AIDS, defects in Th17 immunity, and head and neck cancer. A characteristic feature of OPC is fungal invasion of the oral epithelial cells. One mechanism by which C. albicans hyphae can invade oral epithelial cells is by expressing the Als3 and Ssa1 invasins that interact with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on epithelial cells and stimulate endocytosis of the organism. However, the signaling pathways that function downstream of EGFR and mediate C...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324245/comparison-of-dna-microarray-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-and-real-time-pcr-with-dna-sequencing-for-identification-of-fusarium-spp-obtained-from-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#7
Marcela de Souza, Tetsuhiro Matsuzawa, Kanae Sakai, Yasunori Muraosa, Luzia Lyra, Ariane Fidelis Busso-Lopes, Anna Sara Shafferman Levin, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Yuzuru Mikami, Tohoru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Maria Luiza Moretti, Plínio Trabasso
The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%...
March 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323096/nanoparticles-as-safe-and-effective-delivery-systems-of-antifungal-agents-achievements-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Ghareb M Soliman
Invasive fungal infections are becoming a major health concern in several groups of patients leading to severe morbidity and mortality. Moreover, cutaneous fungal infections are a major cause of visits to outpatient dermatology clinics. Despite the availability of several effective agents in the antifungal drug arena, their therapeutic outcome is less than optimal due to limitations related to drug physicochemical properties and toxicity. For instance, poor aqueous solubility limits the formulation options and efficacy of several azole antifungal drugs while toxicity limits the benefits of many other drugs...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321926/evaluation-of-30-cases-of-mucormycosis-at-a-university-hospital-in-iran
#9
Reza Samarei, Naser Gharebaghi, Salar Zayer
Mucormycosis is a deadly invasive fungal infection and mainly affects immunocompromised patients. To investigate the clinical features of patients who developed mucormycosis and to determine the parameters, which influenced the outcome following mycotic infection. The current investigation retrospectively evaluated the demographic characteristics, clinical features, therapeutic data, as well as the outcomes of treatment in all cases of proven and probable mucormycosis diagnosed from 2002 until 2016 in our hospital...
March 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317569/oral-fungal-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#10
REVIEW
David R Telles, Niraj Karki, Michael W Marshall
Oral and maxillofacial fungal infections can appear in high-risk patients, including those immunocompromised. This article explores common oral manifestations of fungal infections in the oral cavity as primary lesions or as a result of disseminated disease. By far the most common oral fungal infection experienced in dentistry is oral candidiasis, which is reviewed in depth from simple oral infections to invasive candidiasis. The review aids the dental practitioner in understanding the full scope of Candida infections and other fungal infections...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306618/impact-of-the-cyp2c19-genotype-on-voriconazole-exposure-in-adults-with-invasive-fungal-infections
#11
Issam S Hamadeh, Kenneth P Klinker, Samuel J Borgert, Ashley I Richards, Wenhui Li, Naveen Mangal, John W Hiemenz, Stephan Schmidt, Taimour Y Langaee, Charles A Peloquin, Julie A Johnson, Larisa H Cavallari
OBJECTIVES: Voriconazole, a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), is metabolized by CYP2C19. A significant proportion of patients fail to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations with standard weight-based voriconazole dosing, placing them at increased risk for treatment failure, which can be life threatening. We sought to test the association between the CYP2C19 genotype and subtherapeutic voriconazole concentrations in adults with IFIs. PATIENT AND METHODS: Adults receiving weight-based voriconazole dosing for the treatment of IFIs were genotyped for the CYP2C19*2, *3, and *17 polymorphisms, and CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303817/screening-of-invasive-fungal-infections-by-a-real-time-panfungal-pan-acf-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancy
#12
Malini Rajinder Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Ritin Mohindra, Dinesh Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Verma, Ranadeep Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a fatal infection in haematology patients. There is an urgent need for reliable screening methods facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment. A real-time panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on TaqMan technology targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene was used to screen whole blood specimen obtained from series of Haematology malignancy patients for IFIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panfungal (Pan-ACF) assay was employed to investigate specimen from 133 patients in duplicate with suspected IFI...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303122/antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-candida-species-isolated-from-hiv-positive-patients-recruited-at-a-public-hospital-in-s%C3%A3-o-lu%C3%A3-s-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#13
Ana L G Terças, Sirlei G Marques, Eduardo B Moffa, Márcia B Alves, Conceição M P S de Azevedo, Walter L Siqueira, Cristina A Monteiro
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in hospitalized patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its progression results in invasive infections, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to quickly and accurately identify Candida spp. from oral mucosa of AIDS patients recruited at Presidente Vargas Hospital, in São Luís city, Brazil and to evaluate the sensitivity profile of these fungi to antifungals by using an automated system. Isolates were collected from oropharyngeal mucosa of 52 hospitalized AIDS patients, under anti-viral and antifungal therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302347/fungemia-due-to-saprochaete-capitata-in-a-non-neutropenic-patient-hospitalized-in-an-intensive-care-unit-after-cardiac-surgery
#14
C Cavanna, F Lallitto, F Mangione, F Tamarozzi, P Marone, P Ceriana
The majority of invasive fungal infections observed in non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit are caused by Candida spp and current guidelines recommend echinocandins as the first-line treatment. Fungemias caused by filamentous or arthrosporic fungi such as Saprochaete capitata (previously named Geotrichum capitatum) are extremely rare. In fact, invasive infections due to S. capitata have been reported almost exclusively in neutropenic oncohematological patients. In this report, we describe a case of fungemia caused by S...
March 14, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298477/central-role-of-the-trehalose-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-fungal-infections-opportunities-and-challenges-for-therapeutic-development
#15
REVIEW
Arsa Thammahong, Srisombat Puttikamonkul, John R Perfect, Richard G Brennan, Robert A Cramer
Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in part due to a limited antifungal drug arsenal. One therapeutic challenge faced by clinicians is the significant host toxicity associated with antifungal drugs. Another challenge is the fungistatic mechanism of action of some drugs. Consequently, the identification of fungus-specific drug targets essential for fitness in vivo remains a significant goal of medical mycology research. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway is found in a wide variety of organisms, including human-pathogenic fungi, but not in humans...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297793/-research-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-liver-failure-in-2016
#16
F J Yang, L Peng, Y Y Liu, Z L Gao, T Han, J R Huang
Liver failure has various clinical types, a complex pathogenesis, and rapid disease progression, as well as a high mortality rate. Liver failure caused by hepatitis B virus infection is the most common type in China with severe conditions, various complications, and a mortality rate as high as 40%-90%. Invasive fungal disease secondary to acute-on-chronic liver failure can affect patients' prognosis and increase mortality rate. This article introduces the research advances in hepatitis B-related liver failure, artificial liver, and invasive fungal disease secondary to acute-on-chronic liver failure in 2016...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295178/granulocyte-transfusions-in-the-management-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#17
REVIEW
Kamille A West, Juan Gea-Banacloche, David Stroncek, Sameer S Kadri
Granulocyte transfusions have a long history of being used in patients with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction to prevent and treat invasive fungal infections. However, there are limited and conflicting data concerning its clinical effectiveness, considerable variations in current granulocyte transfusion practices, and uncertainties about its benefit as an adjunct to modern antifungal therapy. In this review, we provide an overview on granulocyte transfusions and summarize the evidence on their role in the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294067/the-infectious-etiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Marta Sochocka, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially late-onset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades...
March 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293759/serious-fungal-diseases-in-the-republic-of-uzbekistan
#19
S A Tilavberdiev, D W Denning, N N Klimko
We have undertaken the first and preliminary estimation of severe and chronic mycotic diseases in the Republic of Uzbekistan, using a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculation was carried out based on data from 2014. Published results describing mycoses in Uzbekistan were identified. In the absence of published or official data, information about the frequency of mycoses from scientific literature elsewhere in groups at risk of development of fungal infections were taken into account...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292985/binding-of-candida-albicans-to-human-ceacam1-and-ceacam6-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#20
Esther Klaile, Mario M Müller, Miriam R Schäfer, Ann-Katrin Clauder, Sabina Feer, Kerstin A Heyl, Magdalena Stock, Tilman E Klassert, Peter F Zipfel, Bernhard B Singer, Hortense Slevogt
Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa, including the gastrointestinal tract, as a commensal. In immunocompromised patients, C. albicans can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause fatal invasive infections. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA), and CEACAM6 (CD66c) are immunomodulatory receptors expressed on human mucosa and are recruited by bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we show for the first time that a fungal pathogen (i.e., C. albicans) also binds directly to the extracellular domain of human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5, and CEACAM6...
March 14, 2017: MBio
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