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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891433/the-clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-the-institutionalized-wandering-mentally-ill-in-india
#1
Gaurav Singh, Nilima Shah, Ritambhara Mehta
INTRODUCTION: There are estimated 400,000 wandering mentally ill persons in India, found in poor physical state wandering on streets and railway stations; mainly treated either by government run Hospitals for Mental Health (HMH) or Psychiatry units of a Government Medical College (GMC). They require psychosocial rehabilitation along with treatment. AIM: To study the presentation, clinical profile and rehabilitative outcome of wandering mentally ill admitted in government psychiatric care facilities...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888976/the-variability-of-nursing-attitudes-toward-mental-illness-an-integrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Krystyna de Jacq, Allison Andreno Norful, Elaine Larson
Mental illnesses are common worldwide, and nurses' attitudes toward mental illness have an impact on the care they deliver. This integrative literature review focused on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness. Four databases were searched between January 1, 1995 to October 31, 2015 selecting studies, which met the following inclusion criteria: 1) English language; and 2) Research in which the measured outcome was nurses' attitudes toward mental illness. Fourteen studies conducted across 20 countries that 4282 participants met the inclusion criteria...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884751/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-cannabidiol-on-cognitive-function-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Ashleigh L Osborne, Nadia Solowij, Katrina Weston-Green
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a core symptom domain of schizophrenia, neurological disorders and substance abuse. It is characterised by deficits in learning, memory, attention and executive functioning and can severely impact daily living. Antipsychotic drugs prescribed to treat schizophrenia provide limited cognitive benefits and novel therapeutic targets are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), a component of the cannabis plant, has anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve cognitive impairment has not been thoroughly explored...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881919/posttraumatic-stress-and-depression-in-yazidi-refugees
#4
Serhat Nasıroğlu, Veysi Çeri
AIM: The aim of this investigation was to determine the frequency of mental pathologies in children and adolescents of the Yazidi minority group who immigrated to Turkey from Iraq. The refugees were asked about preventive and risk factors that occurred before and after their immigration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample comprised 55 children and adolescents (30 males and 25 females) who were Yazidi refugees and had settled in the Uçkuyular, Oğuz, Onbaşı, and Uğurca villages of Batman, Turkey...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859903/corticostriatal-connectivity-fingerprints-probability-maps-based-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#5
Ellen Jaspers, Joshua H Balsters, Pegah Kassraian Fard, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Over the last decade, structure-function relationships have begun to encompass networks of brain areas rather than individual structures. For example, corticostriatal circuits have been associated with sensorimotor, limbic, and cognitive information processing, and damage to these circuits has been shown to produce unique behavioral outcomes in Autism, Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and healthy ageing. However, it remains an open question how abnormal or absent connectivity can be detected at the individual level...
November 12, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853371/the-ncan-gene-schizophrenia-susceptibility-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#6
Peirong Wang, Jun Cai, Jianliang Ni, Jiangtao Zhang, Wei Tang, Chen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction has been recognized as a cardinal feature of schizophrenia. Elucidating the neurobiological substrates of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia would help identify the underlying mechanism of this disorder. The rs1064395 single nucleotide polymorphism, within the gene encoding neurocan (NCAN), is reported to be associated with schizophrenia in European populations and may influence brain structure in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to explore whether NCAN rs1064395 confers some risk for schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunction in Han Chinese...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826194/validation-of-the-chinese-version-of-brief-assessment-of-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#7
Liang-Jen Wang, Pao-Yen Lin, Yu Lee, Yu-Chi Huang, Su-Ting Hsu, Chi-Fa Hung, Chih-Ken Chen, Yi-Chih Chen, Ya-Ling Wang, Ming-Che Tsai
OBJECTIVE: A test battery that measures cognitive function impairment in patients with schizophrenia, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), has been translated into various languages and validated. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the BACS in a Chinese-speaking population. METHODS: All participants in this study (66 patients with schizophrenia [mean age: 41.2 years, 57.6% male] and 66 age- and sex-matched healthy controls) were from Taiwan and assessed using the BACS and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Brief Version (UPSA-B)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825156/psychopathological-course-typology-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-heuristic-approach-in-a-sample-of-100-patients
#8
Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Thomas Becker, Thomas G Schulze, Werner Strik, Markus Jäger
BACKGROUND: Despite several previous attempts at subtyping schizophrenia, a typology that reflects neurobiological knowledge and reliably predicts course and outcome is lacking. We applied the system-specific concept of the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) to generate a course typology based on three domains: language, affectivity, and motor behaviour. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders according to DSM-IV criteria underwent psychopathological assessment, and all their available medical records were retrospectively analysed on the basis of the BPS...
November 9, 2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818011/human-grin2b-variants-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Chun Hu, Wenjuan Chen, Scott J Myers, Hongjie Yuan, Stephen F Traynelis
The development of whole exome/genome sequencing technologies has given rise to an unprecedented volume of data linking patient genomic variability to brain disorder phenotypes. A surprising number of variants have been found in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) gene family, with the GRIN2B gene encoding the GluN2B subunit being implicated in many cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, which are psychiatric conditions originating in childhood and include language, motor, and learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental delay, epilepsy, and schizophrenia...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815515/stigma-and-need-for-care-in-individuals-who-hear-voices
#10
REVIEW
Ruvanee P Vilhauer
BACKGROUND: Voice hearing experiences, or auditory verbal hallucinations, occur in healthy individuals as well as in individuals who need clinical care, but news media depict voice hearing primarily as a symptom of mental illness, particularly schizophrenia. AIMS: This article explores whether, and how, public perception of an exaggerated association between voice hearing and mental illness might influence individuals' need for clinical care. METHOD: A narrative literature review was conducted, using relevant peer-reviewed research published in the English language...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783555/integrated-pharmacies-at-community-mental-health-centers-medication-adherence-and-outcomes
#11
W Abel Wright, Jack M Gorman, Melissa Odorzynski, Mark J Peterson, Carol Clayton
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753728/subjective-versus-objective-weight-gain-during-acute-treatment-with-second-generation-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
Keming Gao, Fang Fang, Zuowei Wang, Joseph R Calabrese
OBJECTIVES: To compare objective and subjective weight gain of second-generation antipsychotics in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. METHODS: English-language literature published and cited in PubMed (MEDLINE) from January 1966 to December 2015 was searched with the keywords antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic, or generic/brand name of atypical antipsychotics, and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar mania, or bipolar depression, and safety, tolerability, weight gain, and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742234/brain-connectivity-and-auditory-hallucinations-in-search-of-novel-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-therapeutic-approaches-for-schizophrenia
#13
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
October 11, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732740/bifeprunox-versus-placebo-for-schizophrenia
#14
Arka Chattopadhyay, Stephen Frey, Ghiselle Green
BACKGROUND: Bifeprunox is a novel antipsychotic drug designed to treat schizophrenia. However, research into the drug was ceased in 2009 due to rejection of licence to go to market by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who could not approve the drug for acute or long-term symptoms of schizophrenia because more research was required to demonstrate convincing effects "beyond those already achieved" with currently licenced drugs. There were also concerns expressed over one death of a person whilst on the drug...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732103/efficacy-of-the-social-cognition-training-program-in-a-sample-of-outpatients-with-schizophrenia
#15
David Gil-Sanz, Mar Fernández-Modamio, Rosario Bengochea-Seco, Marta Arrieta-Rodríguez, Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients who presented with a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls...
2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716175/relationship-between-massachusetts-youth-screening-instrument-second-version-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-youths-in-welfare-and-juvenile-justice-institutions-in-switzerland
#16
L E W Leenarts, C Dölitzsch, K Schmeck, J M Fegert, T Grisso, M Schmid
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design...
September 30, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714552/mapping-temporo-parietal-and-temporo-occipital-cortico-cortical-connections-of-the-human-middle-longitudinal-fascicle-in-subject-specific-probabilistic-and-stereotaxic-talairach-spaces
#17
Nikos Makris, A Zhu, G M Papadimitriou, P Mouradian, I Ng, E Scaccianoce, G Baselli, F Baglio, M E Shenton, Y Rathi, B Dickerson, E Yeterian, M Kubicki
Originally, the middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) was defined as a long association fiber tract connecting the superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole with the angular gyrus. More recently its description has been expanded to include all long postrolandic cortico-cortical association connections of the superior temporal gyrus and dorsal temporal pole with the parietal and occipital lobes. Despite its location and size, which makes MdLF one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts, its discovery in humans is recent...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695666/the-neurobiological-basis-for-social-affiliation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#18
Amanda Crider, Anilkumar Pillai
Social interaction and communication are complex behavioral paradigms involving many components. Many different neurotransmitters, hormones, sensory inputs, and brain regions are involved in the act of social engagement and verbal or nonverbal communication. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are two neurodevelopmental disorders that have social and language deficits as hallmark symptoms, but show very different etiologies. The output of social dysfunction is common to both ASD and schizophrenia, but this likely arises from very different pathophysiological means...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679778/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-auditory-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#19
Maria Pontillo, Franco De Crescenzo, Stefano Vicari, Maria Laura Pucciarini, Roberto Averna, Ornella Santonastaso, Marco Armando
AIM: To provide an updated of recent findings about efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in reduction of command hallucinations. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrial.gov searches were performed using the keywords "hallucinations", "behavioural therapy" and " cognitive therapy" in order to identify relevant articles published during the years of 2011 to 2016. No language limits were used...
September 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663801/does-the-increased-rate-of-schizophrenia-diagnosis-in-african-caribbean-men-in-the-uk-shown-by-the-aesop-study-reflect-cultural-bias-in-healthcare
#20
Millie Ngaage, Mark Agius
INTRODUCTION: The UK-based AESOP study conducted over a two-year period in three UK sites simultaneously (London, Nottingham, and Bristol), is the largest study to date to conduct a first contact case-control study of psychosis. The study found that rates of schizophrenia were markedly elevated in both African-Caribbean and Black African people, in both sexes and across all age groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: English language literature published up to 2016 was searched...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
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