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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201010/microglia-and-brain-plasticity-in-acute-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-illness-course-a-meta-review
#1
REVIEW
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188908/anticholinergic-burden-and-cognition-in-older-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Christopher Tsoutsoulas, Benoit H Mulsant, Sanjeev Kumar, Zaid Ghazala, Aristotle N Voineskos, Mahesh Menon, Bruce G Pollock, Tarek K Rajji
OBJECTIVE: Older individuals with schizophrenia are at risk of being treated with anticholinergic medications due to the prevalence of medical comorbidities and polypharmacy. High anticholinergic burden impairs cognition and is a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. Thus, we assessed the impact of anticholinergic burden on Alzheimer's dementia-related and schizophrenia-related cognitive functions in older patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Anticholinergic burden was measured using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale (ACB) in 60 community-dwelling patients aged ≥ 50 years who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia between May 2007 and November 2011...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188628/-effect-of-mthfr-gene-on-the-schizophrenia-and-its-cognitive-function
#3
Weiping Wang, Weixing Fan, Bo Shi, Chunnan Tong, Xiaorong Wang, Jun Cai, Chen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of MTHFR gene on schizophrenia and its cognitive function. METHODS: We recruited 254 schizophrenia patients with stable condition, 339 healthy controls for genetic analysis and 72 healthy controls for cognitive evaluation. The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) was used for cognitive measurement. PCR-RFLP technique was carried out to genotype 677C/T polymorphism. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in genotypic or allelic frequencies of the 677C/T polymorphism between the case and control groups (P> 0...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186155/using-iterative-learning-to-improve-understanding-during-the-informed-consent-process-in-a-south-african-psychiatric-genomics-study
#4
Megan M Campbell, Ezra Susser, Sumaya Mall, Sibonile G Mqulwana, Michael M Mndini, Odwa A Ntola, Mohamed Nagdee, Zukiswa Zingela, Stephanus Van Wyk, Dan J Stein
Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC) was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158676/role-of-3-monthly-long-acting-injectable-paliperidone-in-the-maintenance-of-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Claudio Brasso, Silvio Bellino, Paola Bozzatello, Cristiana Montemagni, Paola Rocca
Aims: Paliperidone palmitate 3-month (PP3M) represents a new long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapeutic option. This review aims: 1) to summarize available data relating to efficacy, safety, tolerability and costs of PP3M; 2) to describe hospitalization rate, occupational status, treatment preference, satisfaction, adherence and caregiver burden of patients with schizophrenia who participate in PP3M clinical trials; 3) to examine ethical implications, pros and cons of PP3M use and 4) to propose study designs to further assess PP3M...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153448/evidence-of-disturbances-of-deep-levels-of-semantic-cohesion-within-personal-narratives-in-schizophrenia
#6
Jon A Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N Jones, Kyle S Minor, Paul H Lysaker
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents...
November 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144549/zuclopenthixol-dihydrochloride-for-schizophrenia
#7
REVIEW
Edward J Bryan, Marie Ann Purcell, Ajit Kumar
BACKGROUND: Oral zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride (Clopixol) is an anti-psychotic treatment for people with psychotic symptoms, especially those with schizophrenia. It is associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a prolongation of the QTc interval, extra-pyramidal reactions, venous thromboembolism and may modify insulin and glucose responses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for treatment of schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (latest search 09 June 2015)...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127368/diagnostic-value-of-blood-derived-micrornas-for-schizophrenia-results-of-a-meta-analysis-and-validation
#8
Sha Liu, Fuquan Zhang, Xijin Wang, Yin Yao Shugart, Yingying Zhao, Xinrong Li, Zhifen Liu, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Kerang Zhang, Weihua Yue, Xin Yu, Yong Xu
There is an increasing interest in searching biomarkers for schizophrenia (SZ) diagnosis, which overcomes the drawbacks inherent with the subjective diagnostic methods. MicroRNA (miRNA) fingerprints have been explored for disease diagnosis. We performed a meta-analysis to examine miRNA diagnostic value for SZ and further validated the meta-analysis results. Using following terms: schizophrenia/SZ, microRNA/miRNA, diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity, we searched databases restricted to English language and reviewed all articles published from January 1990 to October 2016...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#9
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105665/s-ketamine-induced-nmda-receptor-blockade-during-natural-speech-production-and-its-implications-for-formal-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia-a-pharmaco-fmri-study
#10
Arne Nagels, Maurice Cabanis, Andrea Oppel, Andre Kirner-Veselinovic, Christian Schales, Tilo Kircher
Structural and functional changes in the lateral temporal language areas have been related to formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. Continuous, natural speech production activates the right lateral temporal lobe in schizophrenia, as opposed to the left in healthy subjects. Positive and negative FTD can be elicited in healthy subjects by glutamatergic NMDA blockade with ketamine. It is unclear, whether the glutamate system is related to the reversed hemispheric lateralization during speaking in patients...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055381/mimetic-theory-and-the-evolutionary-paradox-of-schizophrenia-the-archetypal-scapegoat-hypothesis
#11
Daniel Vincent Riordan
Schizophrenia poses an evolutionary paradox, being genetically mediated yet associated with reduced fecundity. Numerous hypotheses have attempted to address this, but few describe how the schizophrenic phenotype itself might constitute an evolutionary adaptation. This paper draws on René Girard's theory on human origins, which claims that humans evolved a tendency to mimic both the desires and the behaviours of each other (mimetic theory). This would have promoted social cohesion and co-operation, but at the cost of intra-group rivalry and conflict...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042823/digital-health-technology-for-use-in-patients-with-serious-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Sonal Batra, Ross A Baker, Tao Wang, Felicia Forma, Faith DiBiasi, Timothy Peters-Strickland
BACKGROUND: As the capabilities and reach of technology have expanded, there is an accompanying proliferation of digital technologies developed for use in the care of patients with mental illness. The objective of this review was to systematically search published literature to identify currently available health technologies and their intended uses for patients with serious mental illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline, Embase, and BIOSIS Previews electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed English language articles that reported the use of digital, mobile, and other advanced technology in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033858/honosca-d-as-a-measure-of-the-severity-of-diagnosed-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-psychometric-properties-of-the-german-translation
#13
Agnes von Wyl, Stephan Toggweiler, Ruedi Zollinger
The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA), in use worldwide, is a 13-item measure assessing the biopsychosocial severity of mental health problems in children and adolescents. This article introduces the authorized German-language version of HoNOSCA, the HoNOSCA-D, and examines and discusses its psychometric properties based on a clinical sample of 1,533 children and adolescents aged 4;0 to 17;11 years. For the HoNOSCA-D total score (severity of mental health problems), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960019/yoga-as-part-of-a-package-of-care-versus-standard-care-for-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Julie Broderick, Davy Vancampfort
BACKGROUND: Yoga is an ancient spiritual practice that originated in India and is currently accepted in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia to determine the efficacy of yoga delivered as a package of care versus standard care. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of yoga as a package of care versus standard care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (latest 30 March 2017) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSS, AMED, PsychINFO, and registries of clinical trials...
September 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956893/yoga-versus-non-standard-care-for-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Julie Broderick, Niall Crumlish, Alice Waugh, Davy Vancampfort
BACKGROUND: Yoga is an ancient spiritual practice that originated in India and is currently accepted in the Western world as a form of relaxation and exercise. It has been of interest for people with schizophrenia as an alternative or adjunctive treatment. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the effects of yoga versus non-standard care for people with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: The Information Specialist of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group searched their specialised Trials Register (latest 30 March 2017), which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials...
September 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955138/alpha7-nachr-agonists-for-cognitive-deficit-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trials
#16
Ye Jin, Qi Wang, Yan Wang, Mengxi Liu, Anji Sun, Zhongli Geng, Yiwei Lin, Xiaobai Li
BACKGROUND: Previous clinical trials of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (α7-nAChR agonists) showed mixed results in treating the cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. AIMS: To assess the efficacy and safety of α7-nAChR agonists in treating the cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials for schizophrenia published before May 26, 2017, by searching PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials...
August 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945106/development-of-a-stated-preference-instrument-to-prioritize-treatment-goals-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia
#17
Kathleen Beusterien, Elcie Chan, Pedro Such, Anne de Jong Laird, Stephan Heres, Kaitlan Amos, Jean-Yves Loze, Anna-Greta Nylander, Paul Robinson, John F P Bridges
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate a new stated-preference instrument to prioritize multiple treatment goals among people with recent onset schizophrenia. METHODS: A draft survey instrument was developed to assess preferences for 13 key treatment goals that were identified based on the literature. The survey incorporates best-worst scaling (BWS), which shows repeated subsets comprising 4 of the 13 goals, and respondents identify which is most important and which is least important to them...
October 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940256/chlorpromazine-versus-penfluridol-for-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
Naemeh Nikvarz, Mostafa Vahedian, Navid Khalili
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of chlorpromazine, a benchmark antipsychotic, has not been fully assessed in direct comparison with different individual antipsychotics. Penfluridol is another old antipsychotic with a long half-life so one oral dose may last up to one week. This could confer advantage. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effects of chlorpromazine compared with penfluridol for adults with schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: On 31 March 2017, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, Embase, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials...
September 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931808/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#19
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
May 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926417/the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-validity-and-reliability-of-the-thai-version
#20
Thammanard Charernboon, Tiraya Lerthattasilp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Until now there has not been a validated measure of theory of mind available in the Thai language. Our goal in this study was to assess the validity and reliability of our Thai-language translation of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (the "Eyes Test"). METHODS: We gave our Thai version of the Eyes Test to 70 participants: 30 people with schizophrenia and 40 normal controls. We also gave Thai versions of the Faces Test and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination to assess convergent validity...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
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