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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629500/altered-structural-brain-connectivity-involving-the-dorsal-and-ventral-language-pathways-in-16p11-2-deletion-syndrome
#1
Banu Ahtam, Naira Link, Erikson Hoff, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im
Copy number variants at the chromosomal locus 16p11.2 contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and language and articulation disorders. Here, we provide detailed findings on the disrupted structural brain connectivity in 16p11.2 deletion syndrome (patients: N = 21, age range: 8-16 years; typically developing (TD) controls: 18, 9-16 years) using structural and diffusion MRI. We performed global short-, middle-, long-range, and interhemispheric connectivity analysis in the whole brain using gyral topology-based cortical parcellation...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628403/spanish-validation-of-the-negative-symptom-assessment-16-nsa-16-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Leticia Garcia-Alvarez, María Paz Garcia-Portilla, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero, María Teresa Bobes-Bascaran, Jesús Gomar, José Muñiz, Julio Bobes
INTRODUCTION: Negative symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia and associated with a poorer outcome. Validated newer psychometric instruments could contribute to better assessment and improved treatment of negative symptoms. The Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) has been shown to have strong psychometric properties, but there is a need for validation in non-English languages. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the NSA-16 (Sp-NSA-16). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Observational, cross-sectional validation study in a sample of 123 outpatients with schizophrenia...
April 5, 2018: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#3
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580271/local-adaptation-in-european-populations-affected-the-genetics-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-behavioral-traits
#4
Renato Polimanti, Manfred H Kayser, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have used genome-wide data to investigate evolutionary mechanisms related to behavioral phenotypes, identifying widespread signals of positive selection. Here, we conducted a genome-wide investigation to study whether the molecular mechanisms involved in these traits were affected by local adaptation. METHODS: We performed a polygenic risk score analysis in a sample of 2455 individuals from 23 European populations with respect to variables related to geo-climate diversity, pathogen diversity, and language phonological complexity...
March 26, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570965/can-aripiprazole-worsen-psychosis-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Ali Fathi, Sadhana Thiyanavadivel, Ofer Agid, Gary Remington
BACKGROUND: Numerous case reports have reported psychotic worsening when switching to or adding aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of psychotic worsening related to aripiprazole was evaluated through a systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched using the following keywords: (schizophr* or schizoaff*) AND aripiprazole, with a limitation of randomized controlled trial and English language (last search: September 9, 2016) by the authors in an independent fashion...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569473/neurofeedback-based-enhancement-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-treatment-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#6
Kathryn Rieger, Marie-Helene Rarra, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
Auditory verbal hallucinations depend on a broad neurobiological network ranging from the auditory system to language as well as memory-related processes. As part of this, the auditory N100 event-related potential (ERP) component is attenuated in patients with schizophrenia, with stronger attenuation occurring during auditory verbal hallucinations. Changes in the N100 component assumingly reflect disturbed responsiveness of the auditory system toward external stimuli in schizophrenia. With this premise, we investigated the therapeutic utility of neurofeedback training to modulate the auditory-evoked N100 component in patients with schizophrenia and associated auditory verbal hallucinations...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568276/effects-of-continuing-oral-risperidone-vs-switching-from-risperidone-to-risperidone-long-acting-injection-on-cognitive-function-in-stable-schizophrenia-patients-a-pilot-study
#7
Hikaru Hori, Asuka Katsuki, Kiyokazu Atake, Reiji Yoshimura
Objectives: Risperidone is the first new generation antipsychotic drug to become available as a long-acting injection (LAI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of switching from oral risperidone to risperidone LAI (RLAI) on cognitive function in stable schizophrenia patients compared with the effects of continuing oral risperidone. Methods: Sixteen stable patients who had received risperidone monotherapy for at least 3 months were enrolled (the RLAI group)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559372/a-double-dissociation-between-two-psychotic-phenotypes-periodic-catatonia-and-cataphasia
#8
Foucher Jack René, Zhang Yi Fan, Roser Mathilde, Lamy Julien, De Sousa Paulo Loureiro, Weibel Sébastien, Vidailhet Pierre, Mainberger Olivier, Berna Fabrice
Schizophrenia as a single liability model was confronted to the multiple psychotic phenotypes model proposed by the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard school, focusing on two: periodic catatonia (PC) and cataphasia (C). Both are stable and heritable psychotic phenotypes with no crossed liability and are coming with the buildup of specific residual symptoms: impairment of psychomotricity for PC and a specific disorganization of thought and language in C. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was used as a biomarker. We attempted to refute the single phenotype model by looking at relevant and specific rCBF anomalies for PC and C, that would exceed anomalies in common relative to controls (CTR), i...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554995/autistic-traits-in-a-sample-of-adult-patients-with-schizophrenia-prevalence-and-correlates
#9
S Barlati, G Deste, M Gregorelli, A Vita
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently conceptualized as distinct disorders. However, the relationship between these two disorders has been revisited in recent years due to evidence that they share phenotypic and genotypic expressions. This study aimed to identify ASD traits in patients with schizophrenia, and to define their demographic, psychopathological, cognitive and functional correlates. METHOD: Seventy-five schizophrenia patients (20 females, mean age 42 ± 12) were evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539617/psychosis-is-mutable-over-time-a-longitudinal-psychopathology-study
#10
Moritz E Wigand, Fabian U Lang, Annabel S Müller-Stierlin, Lea Reichhardt, Silvana Trif, Thomas G Schulze, Werner Strik, Thomas Becker, Markus Jäger
BACKGROUND: A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months...
March 14, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529472/construct-validity-and-parent-child-agreement-of-the-six-new-or-modified-disorders-included-in-the-spanish-version-of-the-kiddie-schedule-for-affective-disorders-and-schizophrenia-present-and-lifetime-version-dsm-5-k-sads-pl-5
#11
Francisco R de la Peña, Marcos F Rosetti, Andrés Rodríguez-Delgado, Lino R Villavicencio, Juan D Palacio, Cecilia Montiel, Pablo A Mayer, Fernando J Félix, Marcela Larraguibel, Laura Viola, Silvia Ortiz, Sofía Fernández, Aurora Jaímes, Miriam Feria, Liz Sosa, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Rosa E Ulloa
Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510928/is-formal-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia-related-to-structural-and-functional-aberrations-in-the-language-network-a-systematic-review-of-neuroimaging-findings
#12
REVIEW
Marialuisa Cavelti, Tilo Kircher, Arne Nagels, Werner Strik, Philipp Homan
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core feature of schizophrenia, a marker of illness severity and a predictor of outcome. The underlying neural mechanisms are still a matter of debate. This study aimed at 1) reviewing the literature on the neural correlates of FTD in schizophrenia, and 2) testing the hypothesis that FTD correlates with structural and functional aberrations in the language network. Medline, PsychInfo, and Embase were searched for neuroimaging studies, which applied a clinical measure to assess FTD in adults with schizophrenia and were published in English or German in peer-reviewed journals until December 2016...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503778/transgender-associations-and-possible-etiology-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Transgender or gender dysphoria has been defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as distress resulting from the incongruence between one's experienced gender and one's assigned gender, along with a persistent and strong desire to be of another gender, and accompanied by clinically significant distress. Adolescents referred for evaluation often want hormonal therapy and several among them also express a desire for gender reassignment surgery. Furthermore, evidence shows that adolescents and adults with gender dysphoria without a sex development disorder, before gender reassignments, are at increased risk for suicide...
December 24, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501256/-computer-assisted-therapy-and-video-games-in-psychosocial-rehabilitation-for-schizophrenia-patients
#14
G Brun, H Verdoux, G Couhet, C Quiles
OBJECTIVES: Video games and virtual reality have recently become used by clinicians for training or information media or as therapeutic tools. The purpose is to review the use of these technologies for therapy destined for schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We conducted a review in October 2016 using Pubmed, Scopus and PsychInfo using the following Medical Subject Headings (MESH): "video games", "virtual reality" and "therapy, computer-assisted/methods", each associated with "schizophrenia"...
February 28, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482040/cognitive-impairments-and-low-bdnf-serum-levels-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Lijuan Man, Xiaoli Lv, Xiang-Dong Du, Guangzhong Yin, Xiaomin Zhu, Yingyang Zhang, Jair C Soares, Xu-Na Yang, Xingshi Chen, Xiang Yang Zhang
Evidence shows that BDNF may regulate activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. Previous studies reported low BDNF levels and cognitive impairment in the early stage of schizophrenia. Our current study aimed to explore the association between serum BDNF and cognitive functions in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia, which has been under-investigated. We recruited 80 FEDN patients and 80 healthy controls and examined the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and serum BDNF in both groups...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468930/navigating-nuances-of-language-and-meaning-challenges-of-cross-language-ethnography-involving-shona-speakers-living-with-schizophrenia
#16
Sherphard Chidarikire, Merylin Cross, Isabelle Skinner, Michelle Cleary
For people living with schizophrenia, their experience is personal and culturally bound. Focused ethnography enables researchers to understand people's experiences in-context, a prerequisite to providing person-centered care. Data are gathered through observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews with cultural informants. Regardless of the culture, ethnographic research involves resolving issues of language, communication, and meaning. This article discusses the challenges faced by a bilingual, primary mental health nurse researcher when investigating the experiences of people living with schizophrenia in Zimbabwe...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460905/-multi-centre-clinical-assessment-of-the-russian-language-version-of-the-diagnostic-interview-for-psychoses
#17
D A Smirnova, N N Petrova, A V Pavlichenko, I A Martynikhin, M V Dorofeikova, V I Eremkin, O V Izmailova, Yu Yu Osadshiy, D V Romanov, D A Ubeikon, I A Fedotov, M S Sheifer, A D Shustov, A A Yashikhina, M Clark, J Badcock, A Watterreus, V Morgan, A Jablensky
OBJECTIVES: The Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP) was developed to enhance the quality of diagnostic assessment of psychotic disorders. The aim of the study was the adaptation of the Russian language version and evaluation of its validity and reliability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with psychotic disorders (89 video recordings) were assessed by 12 interviewers using the Russian version of DIP at 7 clinical sites (in 6 cities of the Russian Federation)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460820/association-between-mental-disorders-cognitive-disturbances-and-vitamin-d-serum-level-current-state
#18
Paul P Lerner, Laura Sharony, Chanoch Miodownik
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a global problem. Approximately 14% of the world population has inadequate vitamin D levels. This vitamin has been usually associated with bone disorders such as rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, these disorders present only a small part of all the disturbances which can be induced by its deficiency. Low serum vitamin D is associated with development of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and even cancer...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456122/blood-perfusion-in-left-inferior-and-middle-frontal-gyrus-predicts-communication-skills-in-schizophrenia
#19
Andrea Cantisani, Katharina Stegmayer, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders, severely affecting patients' community functioning. Functional capacity (FC) describes the skills necessary for successful functional outcome (FO), such as financial knowledge or communication skills. We investigated whether resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured at baseline with arterial spin labeling (ASL) would predict FC or FO at a 6-months follow-up in 27 schizophrenia patients. A negative linear association was noted between FC and rCBF in the left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, areas involved in language processing, suggesting a potential relationship between cerebral perfusion and prospective FC in schizophrenia...
April 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454512/frontal-and-temporal-cortical-volume-white-matter-tract-integrity-and-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-schizotypal-personality-disorder
#20
Chi C Chan, Philip R Szeszko, Edmund Wong, Cheuk Y Tang, Caitlin Kelliher, Justin D Penner, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez, Daniel R Rosell, Margaret McClure, Panos Roussos, Antonia S New, Larry J Siever, Erin A Hazlett
Abnormalities in temporal and frontal cortical volume, white matter tract integrity, and hemispheric asymmetry have been implicated in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Schizotypal personality disorder can provide insight into vulnerability and protective factors in these disorders without the confounds associated with chronic psychosis. However, multimodal imaging and asymmetry studies in SPD are sparse. Thirty-seven individuals with SPD and 29 healthy controls (HC) received clinical interviews and 3T magnetic resonance T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging scans...
February 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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