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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867090/visual-cortex-responses-reflect-temporal-structure-of-continuous-quasi-rhythmic-sensory-stimulation
#1
Christian Keitel, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG...
November 17, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445709/computational-modeling-and-neuroimaging-techniques-for-targeting-during-deep-brain-stimulation
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan Pace, Fady Girgis, Jonathan P Miller
Accurate surgical localization of the varied targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a process undergoing constant evolution, with increasingly sophisticated techniques to allow for highly precise targeting. However, despite the fastidious placement of electrodes into specific structures within the brain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that the clinical effects of DBS are likely due to the activation of widespread neuronal networks directly and indirectly influenced by the stimulation of a given target...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413158/eight-flurothyl-induced-generalized-seizures-lead-to-the-rapid-evolution-of-spontaneous-seizures-in-mice-a-model-of-epileptogenesis-with-seizure-remission
#3
Sridhar B Kadiyala, Joshua Q Yannix, Julia W Nalwalk, Dominick Papandrea, Barbara S Beyer, Bruce J Herron, Russell J Ferland
UNLABELLED: The occurrence of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is the hallmark of human epilepsy. Currently, only two-thirds of this patient population has adequate seizure control. New epilepsy models provide the potential for not only understanding the development of spontaneous seizures, but also for testing new strategies to treat this disorder. Here, we characterize a primary generalized seizure model of epilepsy following repeated exposure to the GABAA receptor antagonist, flurothyl, in which mice develop spontaneous seizures that remit within 1 month...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880095/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-a-functional-hypothesis-from-the-comparative-literature
#4
REVIEW
Nadine K Gut, Philip Winn
We present data from animal studies showing that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus-conserved through evolution, compartmentalized, and with a complex pattern of inputs and outputs-has functions that involve formation and updates of action-outcome associations, attention, and rapid decision making. This is in contrast to previous hypotheses about pedunculopontine function, which has served as a basis for clinical interest in the pedunculopontine in movement disorders. Current animal literature points to it being neither a specifically motor structure nor a master switch for sleep regulation...
May 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240420/using-perturbations-to-identify-the-brain-circuits-underlying-active-vision
#5
REVIEW
Robert H Wurtz
The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it...
September 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26118672/tool-use-associated-sound-in-the-evolution-of-language
#6
Matz Larsson
Proponents of the motor theory of language evolution have primarily focused on the visual domain and communication through observation of movements. In the present paper, it is hypothesized that the production and perception of sound, particularly of incidental sound of locomotion (ISOL) and tool-use sound (TUS), also contributed. Human bipedalism resulted in rhythmic and more predictable ISOL. It has been proposed that this stimulated the evolution of musical abilities, auditory working memory, and abilities to produce complex vocalizations and to mimic natural sounds...
September 2015: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26005122/-american-academy-of-neurology-washington-18-25%C3%A2-april%C3%A2-2015
#7
I Sibon, B de Toffol, J-P Azulay, F Sellal, C Thomas-Antérion, J-M Léger, C Pierrot-Deseilligny
CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: The benefit of the thrombectomy using stents retrievers in the acute stroke phase is now demonstrated when there is a proximal occlusion of an intracranial artery, whatever its mechanism. The place of the anticoagulants in the management of cervical artery dissections remains uncertain, while the benefit of the blood pressure control in the secondary prevention of deep and lobar intracerebral hemorrhages is critical. The development of cardiac MRI, prolonged cardiac monitoring and transcranial doppler seems to improve the diagnosis of cardio-embolic sources of stroke...
June 2015: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25866681/in-vitro-studies-of-neuronal-networks-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-invertebrates-and-in-mammals-using-multielectrode-arrays
#8
REVIEW
Paolo Massobrio, Jacopo Tessadori, Michela Chiappalone, Mirella Ghirardi
Brain functions are strictly dependent on neural connections formed during development and modified during life. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis and plastic changes involved in learning and memory have been analyzed in detail in simple animals such as invertebrates and in circuits of mammalian brains mainly by intracellular recordings of neuronal activity. In the last decades, the evolution of techniques such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs) that allow simultaneous, long-lasting, noninvasive, extracellular recordings from a large number of neurons has proven very useful to study long-term processes in neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro...
2015: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25436086/unilateral-hypothalamus-inactivation-prevents-ptz-kindling-development-through-hippocampal-orexin-receptor-1-modulation
#9
Nasibe Akbari, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Mahdi Goudarzvand, Taghi LashkarBoluki, Iran Goudarzi, Kataneh Abrari
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a neural disorder in which abnormal plastic changes during short and long term periods lead to increased excitability of brain tissue. Kindling is an animal model of epileptogenesis which results in changes of synaptic plasticity due to repetitive electrical or chemical sub-convulsive stimulations of the brain. Lateral hypothalamus, as the main niche of orexin neurons with extensive projections, is involved in sleep and wakefulness and so it affects the excitability of the brain...
2014: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25192576/semiautomatic-segmentation-of-brain-subcortical-structures-from-high-field-mri
#10
Jinyoung Kim, Christophe Lenglet, Yuval Duchin, Guillermo Sapiro, Noam Harel
Volumetric segmentation of subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia and thalamus, is necessary for noninvasive diagnosis and neurosurgery planning. This is a challenging problem due in part to limited boundary information between structures, similar intensity profiles across the different structures, and low contrast data. This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation system exploiting the superior image quality of ultrahigh field (7 T) MRI. The proposed approach utilizes the complementary edge information in the multiple structural MRI modalities...
September 2014: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25134639/sleepiness-induced-by-sleep-debt-enhanced-amygdala-activity-for-subliminal-signals-of-fear
#11
Yuki Motomura, Shingo Kitamura, Kentaro Oba, Yuri Terasawa, Minori Enomoto, Yasuko Katayose, Akiko Hida, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shigekazu Higuchi, Kazuo Mishima
BACKGROUND: Emotional information is frequently processed below the level of consciousness, where subcortical regions of the brain are thought to play an important role. In the absence of conscious visual experience, patients with visual cortex damage discriminate the valence of emotional expression. Even in healthy individuals, a subliminal mechanism can be utilized to compensate for a functional decline in visual cognition of various causes such as strong sleepiness. In this study, sleep deprivation was simulated in healthy individuals to investigate functional alterations in the subliminal processing of emotional information caused by reduced conscious visual cognition and attention due to an increase in subjective sleepiness...
2014: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24603302/nsf-workshop-report-discovering-general-principles-of-nervous-system-organization-by-comparing-brain-maps-across-species
#12
Georg F Striedter, T Grant Belgard, Chun-Chun Chen, Fred P Davis, Barbara L Finlay, Onur Güntürkün, Melina E Hale, Julie A Harris, Erin E Hecht, Patrick R Hof, Hans A Hofmann, Linda Z Holland, Andrew N Iwaniuk, Erich D Jarvis, Harvey J Karten, Paul S Katz, William B Kristan, Eduardo R Macagno, Partha P Mitra, Leonid L Moroz, Todd M Preuss, Clifton W Ragsdale, Chet C Sherwood, Charles F Stevens, Maik C Stüttgen, Tadaharu Tsumoto, Walter Wilczynski
Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data...
2014: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24596113/nsf-workshop-report-discovering-general-principles-of-nervous-system-organization-by-comparing-brain-maps-across-species
#13
Georg F Striedter, T Grant Belgard, Chun-Chun Chen, Fred P Davis, Barbara L Finlay, Onur Güntürkün, Melina E Hale, Julie A Harris, Erin E Hecht, Patrick R Hof, Hans A Hofmann, Linda Z Holland, Andrew N Iwaniuk, Erich D Jarvis, Harvey J Karten, Paul S Katz, William B Kristan, Eduardo R Macagno, Partha P Mitra, Leonid L Moroz, Todd M Preuss, Clifton W Ragsdale, Chet C Sherwood, Charles F Stevens, Maik C Stüttgen, Tadaharu Tsumoto, Walter Wilczynski
Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system 'maps' comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24552453/looking-for-the-bird-kiss-evolutionary-scenario-in-sauropsids
#14
Jérémy Pasquier, Anne-Gaëlle Lafont, Karine Rousseau, Bruno Quérat, Philippe Chemineau, Sylvie Dufour
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide Kiss and its receptor KissR are key-actors in the brain control of reproduction in mammals, where they are responsible for the stimulation of the activity of GnRH neurones. Investigation in other vertebrates revealed up to 3 Kiss and 4 KissR paralogs, originating from the two rounds of whole genome duplication in early vertebrates. In contrast, the absence of Kiss and KissR has been suggested in birds, as no homologs of these genes could be found in current genomic databases...
2014: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24443117/enhanced-phase-regression-with-savitzky-golay-filtering-for-high-resolution-bold-fmri
#15
Robert L Barry, John C Gore
Phase regression exploits the temporal evolution of phase in individual voxels to suppress blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations caused by larger vessels and draining veins while preserving signal changes from microvascular effects. However, this process does not perform well when phase time series have low signal-to-noise ratios because of high levels of physiological noise. We demonstrate that Savitzky-Golay filters may be used to recover the underlying change in phase and completely restore the efficacy of phase regression...
August 2014: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24305817/simultaneous-eeg-fmri-reveals-temporal-evolution-of-coupling-between-supramodal-cortical-attention-networks-and-the-brainstem
#16
Jennifer M Walz, Robin I Goldman, Michael Carapezza, Jordan Muraskin, Truman R Brown, Paul Sajda
Cortical and subcortical networks have been identified that are commonly associated with attention and task engagement, along with theories regarding their functional interaction. However, a link between these systems has not yet been demonstrated in healthy humans, primarily because of data acquisition and analysis limitations. We recorded simultaneous EEG-fMRI while subjects performed auditory and visual oddball tasks and used these data to investigate the BOLD correlates of single-trial EEG variability at latencies spanning the trial...
December 4, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24289839/present-and-future-of-fmri-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
Studies with functional MRI (fMRI) of the motor, visual and cognitive networks have consistently demonstrated functional cortical changes in the major multiple sclerosis (MS) clinical phenotypes. Compared with healthy subjects, these fMRI modifications are characterized by an altered recruitment of regions normally devoted to the performance of a given task, recruitment of additional areas, different resting state activity and disrupted connectivity. Studies that applied fMRI longitudinally have shown that such abnormalities vary over the course of the disease, not only after an acute relapse but also in clinically stable patients...
December 2013: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24192228/brain-size-and-visual-environment-predict-species-differences-in-paper-wasp-sensory-processing-brain-regions-hymenoptera-vespidae-polistinae
#18
Sean O'Donnell, Marie R Clifford, Sara DeLeon, Christopher Papa, Nazaneen Zahedi, Susan J Bulova
The mosaic brain evolution hypothesis predicts that the relative volumes of functionally distinct brain regions will vary independently and correlate with species' ecology. Paper wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) differ in light exposure: they construct open versus enclosed nests and one genus (Apoica) is nocturnal. We asked whether light environments were related to species differences in the size of antennal and optic processing brain tissues. Paper wasp brains have anatomically distinct peripheral and central regions that process antennal and optic sensory inputs...
2013: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24136826/visual-activity-predicts-auditory-recovery-from-deafness-after-adult-cochlear-implantation
#19
Kuzma Strelnikov, Julien Rouger, Jean-François Demonet, Sebastien Lagleyre, Bernard Fraysse, Olivier Deguine, Pascal Barone
Modern cochlear implantation technologies allow deaf patients to understand auditory speech; however, the implants deliver only a coarse auditory input and patients must use long-term adaptive processes to achieve coherent percepts. In adults with post-lingual deafness, the high progress of speech recovery is observed during the first year after cochlear implantation, but there is a large range of variability in the level of cochlear implant outcomes and the temporal evolution of recovery. It has been proposed that when profoundly deaf subjects receive a cochlear implant, the visual cross-modal reorganization of the brain is deleterious for auditory speech recovery...
December 2013: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24012650/contrast-reversal-of-the-eyes-impairs-infants-face-processing-a-near-infrared-spectroscopic-study
#20
Hiroko Ichikawa, Yumiko Otsuka, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Ryusuke Kakigi
Human can easily detect other's eyes and gaze from early in life. Such sensitivity is supported by the contrast polarity of human eyes, which have a white sclera contrasting with the darker colored iris (Kobayashi & Kohshima, (1997). Nature, 387, 767-768; Kobayashi & Kohshima, (2001). Journal of Human Evolution, 40, 419-435). Recent studies suggest that the contrast polarity around the eyes plays an important role in infants' face processing. Newborns preferred upright face images to inverted ones in contrast-preserved faces, but not in contrast-reversed faces (Farroni et al...
November 2013: Neuropsychologia
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