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Red cell allo immunization

Jean Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
Neonates and children can develop rare bleeding disorders due to congenital/acquired coagulation Factor deficiencies, or allo-immune/autoimmune complications, or can undergo surgeries at high haemorrhagic risk. They then need specialized transfusion of blood components/products, or purified blood extracted products or recombinant proteins. Blood-derived therapies conventionally used for management of affected infants with genetic/acquired deficiencies, bleeding problems (coagulation Factor reduced or missing) or thrombotic disorders (reduced or missing anticoagulant proteins) pose some additional risks...
March 15, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
A Van Eyssen, N Novitsky, P De Wit, T Schlaphoff, V Thomas, D Pillay, M Hendricks, A Davidson
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (Allo-HSCT) is a specialised and costly intervention, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is used to treat a broad range of paediatric conditions. South Africa (SA) is an upper middle-income country with limitations on healthcare spending. The role of paediatric Allo-HSCT in this setting is reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To review paediatric patients who underwent Allo-HSCT at the Groote Schuur Hospital/University of Cape Town Private Academic Hospital transplant unit in Cape Town, South Africa, and received post-transplant care at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, over the period January 2006 - December 2014 in respect of indications for the transplant, donor sources, conditioning regimens, treatment-related morbidity and overall survival (OS)...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Tik Nga Tong, Donald R Branch
Although originally developed for predicting transfusion outcomes of serologically incompatible blood, the monocyte monolayer assay (MMA) is a highly versatile in vitro assay that can be modified to examine different aspects of antibody and Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytosis in both research and clinical settings. The assay utilizes adherent monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from mammalian whole blood. MMA has been described for use in both human and murine investigations. These monocytes express FcγRs (e...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ashish Jain, Ajju Agnihotri, Neelam Marwaha, Ratti Ram Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Red cell allo- and auto-immunization is a well recognized problem in multi-transfused thalassemic patients. We conducted this study on 301 multi-transfused thalassemic patients under the Thalassemia Transfusion Programme of Advanced Pediatric Centre of PGIMER. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to determine the frequency of alloimmunization and autoimmunization in multi-transfused thalassemic patients and to establish the specificity of alloantibody to red cell antigens, if alloimmunization is detected...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Vasilis Sitras
Fetal medicine is a subspecialty of obstetrics investigating the development, growth and disease of the human fetus. The advances in fetal imaging (ultrasonography, MRI) and molecular diagnostic techniques, together with the possibility of intervention in utero, make fetal medicine an important, rapidly developing field within women's healthcare. Therefore, a variety of specialists, such as neonatologists, pediatric cardiologists, medical geneticists, radiologists and pediatric surgeons, are necessary to adjunct in the diagnosis and treatment of the fetus as a patient...
August 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Umar Kangiwa, Obike Ibegbulam, Sunday Ocheni, Anazoeze Madu, Ndakosu Mohammed
BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECTIVES: Blood transfusion is central in the prevention and treatment of certain chronic complications of sickle cell disease. It is indispensible in correcting anaemias as well as in the practice of exchange blood transfusion. These gains are largely limited by formation of allo-antibodies. Several studies demonstrated varying frequencies of allo-immunization in various patient groups. The effect of the racial differences between the donor and recipient pool, which has been subsumed in this study, has continuously created a confounding effect on the results of previous studies...
2015: Biomarker Research
Hermann Dietzfelbinger, Max Hubmann
Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens...
August 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Wei Xu, Mei Zhu, Bao-Long Wang, Hong Su, Min Wang
BACKGROUND: The D antigen is highly immunogenic, requiring only a small quantity of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) to cause alloimmunization in D- immunocompetent recipients. DEL was reported arousing alloimmunization to true Rh- patients. Molecular studies of the RHD gene have revealed that DEL individuals retain a grossly intact RHD gene or have a portion of RHD in their genomes. Avoiding immunization with clinically important antibodies is a primary objective in transfusion medicine...
January 2015: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Mieke W H Roeven, Willemijn Hobo, Robbert van der Voort, Hanny Fredrix, Wieger J Norde, Kasper Teijgeler, Marcel H J Ruiters, Nicolaas Schaap, Harry Dolstra
Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is an appealing strategy to boost graft-versus-tumor immunity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), and thereby prevent or counteract tumor recurrence. By exploiting minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) presented on hematopoietic cells, donor CD8 T-cell immunity can be selectively targeted to patient's hematological tumor cells without the risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease. Previously, we demonstrated that silencing RNA (siRNA) of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 on DCs markedly augments the expansion and function of MiHA-specific CD8 T cells...
May 2015: Journal of Immunotherapy
Marlies E J Reinders, Jonna R Bank, Geertje J Dreyer, Helene Roelofs, Sebastian Heidt, Dave L Roelen, Volkert Al Huurman, Jan Lindeman, Cees van Kooten, Frans H J Claas, Wim E Fibbe, Ton J Rabelink, Johan W de Fijter
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation has improved survival and quality of life for patients with end-stage renal disease. Despite excellent short-term results due to better and more potent immunosuppressive drugs, long-term survival of transplanted kidneys has not improved accordingly in the last decades. Consequently there is a strong interest in immunosuppressive regimens that maintain efficacy for the prevention of rejection, whilst preserving renal structure and function. In this respect the infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may be an interesting immune suppressive strategy...
December 10, 2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
Caixia Gao, Lingxia Han, Jianlin Han, Jiasen Liu, Qian Jiang, Dongchun Guo, Liandong Qu
The highly polymorphic chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is associated with different levels of immunologic responses to certain avian pathogens. MHC-B haplotype chickens are an important genetic resource for studying the genetic determination of pathogen resistance and susceptibility. The BWEL chicken population is the only specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens bred and developed by the State Center of Poultry Genetic Resources of Laboratory Animals in China. In this study, we successfully established six homozygous MHC-B haplotype populations from the BWEL chickens using microsatellite marker technology, named as BW/G(1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7) lines, and their molecular genotypes were matched to six serologically defined MHC-B haplotypes, B13, B15, B2, B5, B21 and B19, respectively...
January 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Rahel Kasonta, Mark Holsteg, Karin Duchow, James W Dekker, Klaus Cussler, Justin G Bendall, Max Bastian
In 2006, a new haemorrhagic syndrome affecting newborn calves, Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP), was reported in southern Germany. It is characterized by severe bleeding, destruction of the red bone marrow, and a high case fatality rate. The syndrome is caused by alloreactive, maternal antibodies that are ingested by the calf with colostrum and result from a dam vaccination with one particular vaccine against Bovine-Viral-Diarrhoea-Virus. Because bovine colostrum is increasingly gaining interest as a dietary supplement for human consumption, the current study was initiated to elucidate whether BNP alloantibodies from BNP dams (i...
2014: PloS One
Hari Krishan Dhawan, Vijay Kumawat, Neelam Marwaha, Ratti Ram Sharma, Suchet Sachdev, Deepak Bansal, Ram Kumar Marwaha, Satyam Arora
BACKGROUND: The development of anti-red blood cell antibodies (both allo-and autoantibodies) remains a major problem in thalassemia major patients. We studied the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization and autoimmunization among thalassemia patients who received regular transfusions at our center and analyzed the factors, which may be responsible for development of these antibodies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 319 multiply transfused patients with β-thalassemia major registered with thalassemia clinic at our institute...
July 2014: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Heather M Smith, Rosetta S Shirey, Sandra K Thoman, Jay B Jackson
More than 50 red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies are known to cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).Although Rh immune globulin (RhiG) prophylaxis has significantly reduced the incidence of pregnancies complicated by anti-D, the need to detect and monitor maternal allo antibodies capable of causing HDFN is still a concern. The prevalence and specificity of these alloantibodies were determined. In this retrospective study, the prevalence and specificities of unexpected RBC alloantibodies known to cause HDFN in pregnant women at a tertiary-care facility during a 5-year period were compiled and analyzed...
2013: Immunohematology
Elliott Vichinsky, Lynne Neumayr, Sean Trimble, Patricia J Giardina, Alan R Cohen, Thomas Coates, Jeanne Boudreaux, Ellis J Neufeld, Kristy Kenney, Althea Grant, Alexis A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Transfusions are the primary therapy for thalassemia but have significant cumulative risks. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established a national blood safety monitoring program for thalassemia. This report summarizes the population and their previous nonimmune and immune transfusion complications. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The CDC Thalassemia Blood Safety Network is a consortium of centers longitudinally following patients...
April 2014: Transfusion
Adiyyatu Sa'idu Usman, Rapiaah Mustaffa, Noraida Ramli, Sirajo A Diggi
OBJECTIVE: Maternal allo-antibody production is stimulated when fetal red blood cells are positive for an antigen absent on the mother's red cells. The maternal IgG antibodies produced will pass through the placenta and attack fetal red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. Allo-immune hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E rarely occurs. CASE SUMMARY: We report two cases of anti-E hemolytic diseases in neonates. One of the neonates had severe hemolysis presenting with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, while the other had moderate anemia and unconjugated hyperbilrubinemia...
January 2013: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Alison Hills, Edwin Massey, Sue Search, Joyce Poole, Stephen W Jones, John Moppett, Timothy Overton
A rare case of a low incidence red cell antigen causing severe fetal allo-immune red cell disease is presented. Discussion of how this can be diagnosed and successfully managed antenatally using middle cerebral artery Doppler ultrasound and maternal antibody titre levels for fetal surveillance and timing of intervention with intrauterine transfusion.
2013: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
I Ben Amor, N Louati, H Khemekhem, A Dhieb, H Rekik, M Mdhaffar, J Gargouri
AIMS: To estimate the rate of red cell immunization in hemoglobinopathies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective study (1990-2009) about 84 patients: 44 homozygous sickle cell anemia, one heterozygous sickle cell anemia S/C, 30 thalassemia and nine sickle cell anemia-thalassemia. The mean age was 10.13 years (extremes: 1-45). The red cell units transfused were ABORH1 compatible, then RH-KELL phenotyped after 2006 and phenocompatible after alloimmunisation. The cross-match was realized using indirect antiglobuline test...
December 2012: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
B-N Pham, P-Y Le Pennec, P Rouger
Red blood cell allo-immunization is the immune response of an individual to foreign red blood cell antigens not present on the surface of their own cells. The aim of that paper is to clarify the different factors influencing the antibody response against red blood cell antigens.
December 2012: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Lara M Leijser, Nikki Vos, Frans J Walther, Gerda van Wezel-Meijler
BACKGROUND: The main causes of severe fetal anaemia are red-cell allo-immunization, parvo B19 virus infection and feto-maternal haemorrhage. Treatment consists of intrauterine transfusion (IUT). Neuro-imaging studies in surviving neonates treated with IUT are scarce. AIMS: To assess if neonates treated with IUT for fetal anaemia are at risk for cerebral injury, report the incidence and severity of brain ultrasound (US) abnormalities and explore the relation between brain US findings and perinatal parameters and neurological outcome...
September 2012: Early Human Development
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