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Weightless osteoporosis

Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul J Childress, David C Scofield, Faisal Khan, Marta B Alvarez, Aamir T Tucker, Jonathan S Harris, Jessica L Peveler, Debra L Hickman, Tien-Min G Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents). Thus, the unique spaceflight laboratory on the International Space Station presents the opportunity to test bone healing agents during weightlessness. We are collaborating with NASA and the US Army to study bone healing in spaceflight. Given the unique constraints of spaceflight, study design optimization was required. Male mice were selected primarily because their femur is larger than females', allowing for more reproducible surgical outcomes...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Guangwei Zhang, Chenrui Li, Yinbo Niu, Qi Yu, Yulong Chen, Enqi Liu
A number of medicinal herbs have demonstrated therapeutic effects for the prevention and treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. As a common ingredient in proprietary traditional Chinese medicines, the anti-osteoporosis effects of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE, 50 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a hindlimb suspended rat model. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the micro-architecture observed by MicroCT assay with bone biomechanical properties evaluated by a three-point bending test...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Laurence Vico, Bert van Rietbergen, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Hervé Locrelle, Myriam Normand, Mohamed Zouch, Maude Gerbaix, Nicolas Bonnet, Valery Novikov, Thierry Thomas, Galina Vassilieva
Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts; the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established, although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength that could be uniquely affected by weightlessness is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after a 4-month to 6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Angelo A Licata
Bone loss due to weightlessness is a significant concern for astronauts' mission safety and health upon return to Earth. This problem is monitored with bone densitometry (DXA), the clinical tool used to assess skeletal strength. DXA has served clinicians well in assessing fracture risk and has been particularly useful in diagnosing osteoporosis in the elderly postmenopausal population for which it was originally developed. Over the past 1-2 decades, however, paradoxical and contradictory findings have emerged when this technology was widely employed in caring for diverse populations unlike those for which it was developed...
July 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Seyed Jafar Hashemian, Mojtaba Rismanchi, Ensiyeh Nasli Esfahani, Amir Khoshvaghti, Farideh Razi
BACKGROUND: Calcitriol is documented to cause significant increase in bone mass densitometry counteracting osteoporosis. Promising results of calcitriol supplementation in studies aiming space flight induced osteoporosis is little and the effect of this hormone on biomarkers of bone metabolism is not examined yet in space flight models of osteoporosis in rats. METHODS: This was an interventional animal study being performed in a 1-month period. We included 21 Sprague Dawley strain rats (>200 gr, >6 week) who were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation of oral 0...
2015: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
L W Sun, H Q Luan, Y F Huang, Y Wang, Y B Fan
We investigated the effects of vibration (35 Hz, 45 Hz and 55 Hz) as countermeasure locally applied to unloading hind limbs on bone, muscle and Achilles tendon. 40 female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n=8, each): tail-suspension (TS), TS plus 35 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV35), TS plus 45 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV45), TS plus 55 Hz/0.3 g vibration (TSV55) and control (CON). After 21 days, bone mineral density (BMD) and the microstructure of the femur and tibia were evaluated by μCT in vivo...
June 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Chen-Rui Li, Guang-Wei Zhang, Yin-Bo Niu, Ya-Lei Pan, Yuan-Kun Zhai, Qi-Bing Mei
Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sardar M Z Uddin, Yi-Xian Qin
Adult stem cells can differentiate into multiple lineages depending on their exposure to differing biochemical and biomechanical inductive factors. Lack of mechanical signals due to disuse can inhibit osteogenesis and induce adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Long-term bed rest due to both brain/spinal cord injury and space travel can lead to disuse osteoporosis that is in part caused by a reduced number of osteoblasts. Thus, it is essential to provide proper mechanical stimulation for cellular viability and osteogenesis, particularly under disuse conditions...
2013: PloS One
Wing Sum Siu, Chun Hay Ko, Leung Kim Hung, Ching Po Lau, Clara Bik San Lau, Kwok Pui Fung, Ping Chung Leung
Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments...
October 2013: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yiwen Huang, Rui Yang, Si Chen, Jia Sun, Rongping Chen, Zhen Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) signaling pathway in osteo- blast differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity. METHODS: Rat BMSCs were cultured in simulated microgravity (by rotating clinostat) in the presence of 10 µmol/L pioglitazone, 10 µmol/L GW9662, or both pioglitazone and GW9662, with the cells cultured in normal gravity as the control group...
April 2013: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Jian Chen, Cui Zhang, Yiding Feng, Chen Zong, Jiarong Chen, Zihua Tang, Bingbing Jia, Xiangming Tong, Qiang Zheng, Jinfu Wang
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are one of the important factors that regulate bone anabolism. Osteoporosis resulting from microgravity during spaceflight may possibly be due to a decrease in osteogenesis mediated by hMSCs. This speculation should be verified through culture and osteogenic induction of hMSCs in a microgravity environment during spaceflight. Control of CO2 is a key component in current experimental protocols for growth, survival, and proliferation of in vitro cultured cells. However, carrying CO2 tanks on a spaceflight and devoting space/mass allowances for classical CO2 control protocols make experimentation on culture and osteogenesis difficult during most missions...
April 2013: Astrobiology
Jean D Sibonga
Currently, the measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) is used at NASA to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on the skeletal health of astronauts. Notably, there are precipitous declines in aBMD with losses >10 % detected in the hip and spine in some astronauts following a typical 6-month mission in space. How those percentage changes in aBMD relate to fracture risk in the younger-aged astronaut is unknown. Given the unique set of risk factors that could be contributing to this bone loss (eg, adaptation to weightlessness, suboptimal diet, reduced physical activity, perturbed mineral metabolism), one might not expect skeletal changes due to spaceflight to be similar to skeletal changes due to aging...
June 2013: Current Osteoporosis Reports
A Leblanc, T Matsumoto, J Jones, J Shapiro, T Lang, L Shackelford, S M Smith, H Evans, E Spector, R Ploutz-Snyder, J Sibonga, J Keyak, T Nakamura, K Kohri, H Ohshima
UNLABELLED: We report the results of alendronate ingestion plus exercise in preventing the declines in bone mass and strength and elevated levels of urinary calcium and bone resorption in astronauts during 5.5 months of spaceflight. INTRODUCTION: This investigation was an international collaboration between NASA and the JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential value of antiresorptive agents to mitigate the well-established bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight...
July 2013: Osteoporosis International
Bin Zhu, Hua Guo, Xi-Juan Hao, Qian Fu, Su-Min Hu
Weightlessness environment can lead to the muscle atrophy and body fluid distribution upward,which can cause the bone calcium metabolism disorder and always accompanied by the loss of bone microstructure and increased rate of bone fracture. Under microgravity,the astronauts are much easier to decrease the Ca2+ ion in bone, which can cause serious osteoporosis. However the bone lost is not equilibrium, it is especially serious in the mechanism loading bone and the recovery process is more difficult. These are very different from the osteoporosis in older people and postmenopausal osteoporosis...
July 2012: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Bruno Beomonte Zobel, Riccardo Del Vescovo, Gabriele Oliva, Valentina Russo, Roberto Setola
A prolonged stay in microgravity has various negative effects on the human body; one of these problems is a noticeable demineralization of bone tissues. Such effects are quite similar to those experienced by subjects on earth affected by osteoporosis; therefore it seems quite straightforward to adopt a similar pharmacological therapy during the stay in the space. In this paper a first step in the identification of a monitoring procedure for the bone demineralization in microgravity, as well as some guidelines for the choice of adequate therapies are given...
December 2012: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Y Sun, F Shuang, D M Chen, R B Zhou
UNLABELLED: Treatment with molecular hydrogen alleviates microgravity-induced bone loss through abating oxidative stress, restoring osteoblastic differentiation, and suppressing osteoclast differentiation and osteoclastogenesis. INTRODUCTION: Recently, it has been suggested that hydrogen gas exerts a therapeutic antioxidant activity by selectively reducing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether treatment with molecular hydrogen alleviated bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats...
March 2013: Osteoporosis International
Wing-Sum Siu, Hing-Lok Wong, Ching-Po Lau, Wai-Ting Shum, Chun-Wai Wong, Si Gao, Kwok-Pui Fung, Clara Bik-San Lau, Leung-Kim Hung, Chun-Hay Ko, Ping-Chung Leung
An innovative anti-osteoporosis herbal formula containing epimedii herba, ligustri lucidi fructus and psoraleae fructus (ELP) has been previously shown its bone protecting effects in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats and also in post-menopausal osteopenic women. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ELP against bone loss during physical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model was used for studying the effects of ELP on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture...
April 2013: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Eric Hand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2012: Nature
Guoyun Bu, Feng Shuang, Ye Wu, Dongfeng Ren, Shuxun Hou
The aim of current study was to elucidate whether aquaporin-9 (AQP9) expression was involved in the progression of bone loss induced by microgravity. We used the hind-limb suspension (HLS) mice model to simulate microgravity and induce bone loss. It was found that HLS exposure decreased femur bone mineral density (BMD), and enhanced femur AQP9 mRNA and protein levels. Then, the relationship between AQP9 mRNA expression and BMD was studied and it was showed that femur AQP9 mRNA level was negatively related to femur BMD in mice exposed to HLS...
March 23, 2012: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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