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Bone loss spaceflight

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198315/mimicking-the-effects-of-spaceflight-on-bone-combined-effects-of-disuse-and-chronic-low-dose-rate-radiation-exposure-on-bone-mass-in-mice
#1
Kanglun Yu, Alison H Doherty, Paula C Genik, Sara E Gookin, Danielle M Roteliuk, Samantha J Wojda, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Michael M Weil, Seth W Donahue
During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894789/impact-of-the-mk-vi-skinsuit-on-skin-microbiota-of-terrestrial-volunteers-and-an-international-space-station-bound-astronaut
#2
Richard A Stabler, Helena Rosado, Ronan Doyle, David Negus, Philip A Carvil, Juan G Kristjánsson, David A Green, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Cadi Davies, Andreas Mogensen, Jonathan Scott, Peter W Taylor
Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663380/bone-microvascular-flow-differs-from-skin-microvascular-flow-in-response-to-head-down-tilt
#3
Michelle Howden, Jamila H Siamwala, Alan R Hargens
Loss of hydrostatic pressures in microgravity may alter skin and bone microvascular flows in the lower extremities and potentially reduce wound healing and bone fracture repair. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate at which skin and bone microvascular flows respond to head-down tilt (HDT). We hypothesized that microvascular flows in tibial bone and overlying skin would increase at different rates during HDT. Tibial bone and skin microvascular flows were measured simultaneously using photoplethysmography (PPG) in a total of 17 subjects during sitting (control posture), supine, 6° HDT, 15° HDT, and 30° HDT postures in random order...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#4
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572612/one-month-spaceflight-compromises-the-bone-microstructure-tissue-level-mechanical-properties-osteocyte-survival-and-lacunae-volume-in-mature-mice-skeletons
#5
Maude Gerbaix, Vasily Gnyubkin, Delphine Farlay, Cécile Olivier, Patrick Ammann, Guillaume Courbon, Norbert Laroche, Rachel Genthial, Hélène Follet, Françoise Peyrin, Boris Shenkman, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Laurence Vico
The weightless environment during spaceflight induces site-specific bone loss. The 30-day Bion-M1 mission offered a unique opportunity to characterize the skeletal changes after spaceflight and an 8-day recovery period in mature male C57/BL6 mice. In the femur metaphysis, spaceflight decreased the trabecular bone volume (-64% vs. Habitat Control), dramatically increased the bone resorption (+140% vs. Habitat Control) and induced marrow adiposity invasion. At the diaphysis, cortical thinning associated with periosteal resorption was observed...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561779/transcriptomics-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-their-potential-spaceflight-related-health-consequences
#6
REVIEW
Ye Zhang, Maria Moreno-Villanueva, Stephanie Krieger, Govindarajan T Ramesh, Srujana Neelam, Honglu Wu
In space, living organisms are exposed to multiple stress factors including microgravity and space radiation. For humans, these harmful environmental factors have been known to cause negative health impacts such as bone loss and immune dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms by which spaceflight impacts human health at the molecular level is critical not only for accurately assessing the risks associated with spaceflight, but also for developing effective countermeasures. Over the years, a number of studies have been conducted under real or simulated space conditions...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533143/drugs-in-space-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-astronauts
#7
REVIEW
Johannes Kast, Yichao Yu, Christoph N Seubert, Virginia E Wotring, Hartmut Derendorf
Space agencies are working intensely to push the current boundaries of human spaceflight by sending astronauts deeper into space than ever before, including missions to Mars and asteroids. Spaceflight alters human physiology due to fluid shifts, muscle and bone loss, immune system dysregulation, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic enzymes. These alterations may change the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications used by astronauts and subsequently might impact drug efficacy and safety...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490676/excretion-of-zinc-and-copper-increases-in-men-during-3-weeks-of-bed-rest-with-or-without-artificial-gravity
#8
Hayley N Heacox, Patricia L Gillman, Sara R Zwart, Scott M Smith
Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions.Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457943/actin-cytoskeleton-mediates-bmp2-smad-signaling-via-calponin-1-in-preosteoblast-under-simulated-microgravity
#9
Hongjie Xu, Feng Wu, Hongyu Zhang, Chao Yang, Kai Li, Hailong Wang, Honghui Yang, Yue Liu, Bai Ding, Yingjun Tan, Ming Yuan, Yinghui Li, Zhongquan Dai
Microgravity influences the activity of osteoblast, induces actin microfilament disruption and leads to bone loss during spaceflight. Mechanical stress such as gravity, regulates cell function, response and differentiation through dynamic cytoskeleton changes, but the mechanotransduction mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Previous, we demonstrated actin microfilament mediated osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity (SMG). Here, we explored a potential molecular and its detailed mechanism of actin cytoskeleton functioning on BMP2-Smad signaling in MC3T3-E1 under SMG...
July 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212706/sclerostin-antibody-inhibits-skeletal-deterioration-in-mice-exposed-to-partial-weight-bearing
#10
J M Spatz, R Ellman, A M Cloutier, L Louis, M van Vliet, D Dwyer, M Stolina, H Z Ke, M L Bouxsein
Whereas much is known regarding the musculoskeletal responses to full unloading, little is known about the physiological effects and response to pharmacological agents in partial unloading (e.g. Moon and Mars) environments. To address this, we used a previously developed ground-based model of partial weight-bearing (PWB) that allows chronic exposure to reduced weight-bearing in mice to determine the effects of murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) on bone microstructure and strength across different levels of mechanical unloading...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004797/acute-transcriptional-up-regulation-specific-to-osteoblasts-osteoclasts-in-medaka-fish-immediately-after-exposure-to-microgravity
#11
Masahiro Chatani, Hiroya Morimoto, Kazuhiro Takeyama, Akiko Mantoku, Naoki Tanigawa, Koji Kubota, Hiromi Suzuki, Satoko Uchida, Fumiaki Tanigaki, Masaki Shirakawa, Oleg Gusev, Vladimir Sychev, Yoshiro Takano, Takehiko Itoh, Akira Kudo
Bone loss is a serious problem in spaceflight; however, the initial action of microgravity has not been identified. To examine this action, we performed live-imaging of animals during a space mission followed by transcriptome analysis using medaka transgenic lines expressing osteoblast and osteoclast-specific promoter-driven GFP and DsRed. In live-imaging for osteoblasts, the intensity of osterix- or osteocalcin-DsRed fluorescence in pharyngeal bones was significantly enhanced 1 day after launch; and this enhancement continued for 8 or 5 days...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885183/-osteoporosis-and-mechano-biosciences
#12
Toshio Matsumoto
Mechanical unloading due to long-term bedrest or microgravity during spaceflight causes a devastating influence on bone. Although bisphosphonates can prevent bone loss and hypercalciuria by mechanical unloading for up to 6 months, the influence of unloading for longer period of time is unknown. This is because mechanical loading is one of the most important stimuli for bone formation. Mechanical stress activates several intracellular signaling pathways. Among them, activation of stress-activated cation channel by fluid shear stress stimulates ERK-CREB signaling to enhance the expression of fos family transcription factors, which stimulates IL-11 expression in osteoblastic cells...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546500/systems-specificity-in-responsiveness-to-intermittent-artificial-gravity-during-simulated-microgravity-in-rats
#13
Li-Fan Zhang, Shu Zhang
It has been shown that the minimum gravity exposure requirements vary greatly among different physiological systems. A preliminary comparison between two extremes, vessels vs. bones, shows that not only the mechanostat at the tissue level differs greatly, but also the bone loss during weightlessness may also involve calcium deposition-resorption changes. It seems that the surprising efficacy of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG) is due to the vascular tissues possessing a strong resilience or "memory" function toward restoring their original pre-stress and tensegrity state at the 1 G environment...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538114/simulating-the-lunar-environment-partial-weightbearing-and-high-let-radiation-induce-bone-loss-and-increase-sclerostin-positive-osteocytes
#14
B R Macias, F Lima, J M Swift, Y Shirazi-Fard, E S Greene, M R Allen, J Fluckey, H A Hogan, L Braby, Suojin Wang, S A Bloomfield
Exploration missions to the Moon or Mars will expose astronauts to galactic cosmic radiation and low gravitational fields. Exposure to reduced weightbearing and radiation independently result in bone loss. However, no data exist regarding the skeletal consequences of combining low-dose, high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and partial weightbearing. We hypothesized that simulated galactic cosmic radiation would exacerbate bone loss in animals held at one-sixth body weight (G/6) without radiation exposure...
September 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463808/the-role-of-parathyroid-hormone-related-protein-pthrp-in-osteoblast-response-to-microgravity-mechanistic-implications-for-osteoporosis-development
#15
Anne Camirand, David Goltzman, Ajay Gupta, Mohammadi Kaouass, Dibyendu Panda, Andrew Karaplis
Prolonged skeletal unloading through bedrest results in bone loss similar to that observed in elderly osteoporotic patients, but with an accelerated timeframe. This rapid effect on weight-bearing bones is also observed in astronauts who can lose up to 2% of their bone mass per month spent in Space. Despite the important implications for Spaceflight travelers and bedridden patients, the exact mechanisms involved in disuse osteoporosis have not been elucidated. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates many physiological processes including skeletal development, and has been proposed as a mechanosensor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27032715/the-impact-of-microgravity-on-bone-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Grimm, Jirka Grosse, Markus Wehland, Vivek Mann, Janne Elin Reseland, Alamelu Sundaresan, Thomas Juhl Corydon
Experiencing real weightlessness in space is a dream for many of us who are interested in space research. Although space traveling fascinates us, it can cause both short-term and long-term health problems. Microgravity is the most important influence on the human organism in space. The human body undergoes dramatic changes during a long-term spaceflight. In this review, we will mainly focus on changes in calcium, sodium and bone metabolism of space travelers. Moreover, we report on the current knowledge on the mechanisms of bone loss in space, available models to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone on Earth as well as the combined effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on bone...
June 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930379/effects-of-high-let-radiation-exposure-and-hindlimb-unloading-on-skeletal-muscle-resistance-artery-vasomotor-properties-and-cancellous-bone-microarchitecture-in-mice
#17
Payal Ghosh, Brad J Behnke, John N Stabley, Cody R Kilar, Yoonjung Park, Anand Narayanan, Joshua S Alwood, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Ann-Sofie Schreurs, Ruth K Globus, Michael D Delp
Weightlessness during spaceflight leads to functional changes in resistance arteries and loss of cancellous bone, which may be potentiated by radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hindlimb unloading (HU) and total-body irradiation (TBI) on the vasomotor responses of skeletal muscle arteries. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to control, HU (13-16 days), TBI (1 Gy (56)Fe, 600 MeV, 10 cGy/min) and HU-TBI groups. Gastrocnemius muscle feed arteries were isolated for in vitro study...
March 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901697/the-potential-influence-of-the-microbiota-and-probiotics-on-women-during-long-spaceflights
#18
Camilla Urbaniak, Gregor Reid
Humans have been exploring space for almost 55 years but space travel comes with many psychological and physiological changes that astronauts have to adapt to, both during and post flight missions. Now, with the reality of such missions lasting years, maintaining proper health of the flight crew is a high priority. While conditions such as nausea, bone loss, renal calculi and depression have been recognized, and approaches to medical and surgical care in space considered, the influence of the microbiota could be of added significance in maintaining astronaut health...
2016: Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691062/effects-of-spaceflight-on-bone-microarchitecture-in-the-axial-and-appendicular-skeleton-in-growing-ovariectomized-rats
#19
Jessica A Keune, Adam J Branscum, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner
This study investigated the effects of a 14-day spaceflight on bone mass, density and microarchitecture in weight bearing (femur and humerus) and non-weight bearing (2(nd) lumbar vertebra and calvarium) bones in the context of ovarian hormone insufficiency. 12-week-old Fisher 344 rats were ovariectomized 2 weeks before flight and randomized into one of three groups: 1) baseline (n = 6), 2) ground control (n = 12) or 3) spaceflight (n = 12). Additional ground-based ovary-intact rats provided age-matched reference values at baseline (n = 8) and landing (n = 10)...
December 22, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26630194/evaluating-bone-loss-in-iss-astronauts
#20
Jean D Sibonga, Elisabeth R Spector, Smith L Johnston, William J Tarver
The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the Medical Assessment Test used at the NASA Johnson Space Center to evaluate whether prolonged exposure to spaceflight increases the risk for premature osteoporosis in International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The DXA scans of crewmembers' BMD during the first decade of the ISS existence showed precipitous declines in BMD for the hip and spine after the typical 6-mo missions. However, a concern exists that skeletal integrity cannot be sufficiently assessed solely by DXA measurement of BMD...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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