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Xin-Sheng Deng, Xianzhong Meng, Rui Song, David Fullerton, James Jaggers
BACKGROUND: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is an age-related and slowly progressive valvular disorder. We have previously found that the increased inflammatory and osteogenic responses to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation is correlated with lower signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity in aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Rapamycin, a drug used clinically, induces feedback activation of Akt. Akt in turn may upregulate Stat3. Therefore we hypothesized that rapamycin will decrease TLR4-induced osteogenic response in human AVICs through modulation of Stat3 activity...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Andrew K Capulli, Luke A MacQueen, Blakely B O'Connor, Stephanie Dauth, Kevin Kit Parker
Medications based on ergoline-derived dopamine and serotonin agonists are associated with off-target toxicities that include valvular heart disease (VHD). Reports of drug-induced VHD resulted in the withdrawal of appetite suppressants containing fenfluramine and phentermine from the US market in 1997 and pergolide, a Parkinson's disease medication, in 2007. Recent evidence suggests that serotonin receptor activity affected by these medications modulates cardiac valve interstitial cell activation and subsequent valvular remodeling, which can lead to cardiac valve fibrosis and dysfunction similar to that seen in carcinoid heart disease...
July 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Antonio Caracausi, Guillaume Avice, Peter G Burnard, Evelyn Füri, Bernard Marty
Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of the origins of planetary volatiles, and the accretion and evolution of the Earth. The compositions of magmatic gases provide insights into the evolution of the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. Despite recent analytical progress in the study of planetary materials and mantle-derived gases, the possible dual origin of the planetary gases in the mantle and the atmosphere remains unconstrained. Evidence relating to the relationship between the volatiles within our planet and the potential cosmochemical end-members is scarce...
May 5, 2016: Nature
Bok-Rye Lee, Rashed Zaman, Jean-Christophe Avice, Alain Ourry, Tae-Hwan Kim
To investigate the varietal difference in sulfur use efficiency (SUE) and drought stress tolerance, Brassica napus 'Mosa' and 'Saturnin' were exposed to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress for 72 h. Direct quantification of S uptake, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was performed by tracing (34)S. The responses of photosynthetic activity in relation to SUE were also examined. The total amount of newly absorbed S decreased with drought stress in both cultivars but the decrease rate was significantly higher in Mosa (-64%) than in Saturnin (-41%)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marine Poret, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Renier A L van der Hoorn, Jean-Christophe Avice
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a crop plant characterized by a poor nitrogen (N) use efficiency that is mainly due to low N remobilization efficiency during the sequential leaf senescence of the vegetative stage. As a high leaf N remobilization efficiency was strongly linked to a high remobilization of proteins during leaf senescence of rapeseed, our objective was to identify senescence-associated protease activities implicated in the protein degradation. To reach this goal, leaf senescence processes and protease activities were investigated in a mature leaf becoming senescent in plants subjected to ample or low nitrate supply...
May 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Alain Mollier, François Kauffmann, Jean-Christophe Avice, Damien Goudier, Emmanuelle Sénécal, Philippe Etienne
Sulfur (S) nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, predicting plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant's compartments) and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non-mobile-S fractions) until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Toward Rapeseed Improvement), was developed up to the onset of pod formation...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yusuke Sakamoto, Rachel M Buchanan, Michael S Sacks
Heart valve interstitial cells (VICs) play a critical role in the maintenance and pathophysiology of heart valve tissues. Normally quiescent in the adult, VICs can become activated in periods of growth and disease. When activated, VICs exhibit increased levels of cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, and upregulated expression and strong contraction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) fibers. However, it remains unknown how expression and contraction of the α-SMA fibers, which vary among different VIC types, contribute to the overall VIC mechanical responses, including the nucleus and cytoskeleton contributions...
February 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Zhao-shun Yuan, Yang-zhao Zhou, Xiao-bo Liao, Jia-wen Luo, Kang-jun Shen, Ye-rong Hu, Lu Gu, Jian-ming Li, Chang-ming Tan, He-ming Chen, Xin-min Zhou
Aortic valve calcification (AVC), which used to be recognized as a passive and irreversible process, is now widely accepted as an active and regulated process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Apelin, the endogenous ligand for G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, was found to have protective cardiovascular effects in several studies. However, the effects and mechanisms of apelin on osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs have not been elucidated. Using a pro-calcific medium, we devised a method to produce calcific human AVICs...
December 2015: Amino Acids
Qingzhou Yao, Rui Song, Lihua Ao, Qiong Zhan, Joseph C Cleveland, Xiyong Yu, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
UNLABELLED: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a leading cardiovascular disorder in the elderly. While aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) are the main cells that express osteogenic mediators, the molecular mechanism that mediates AVIC osteogenic responses is incompletely understood. This study aims to identify pro-osteogenic factors in human AVICs affected by CAVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microarray analysis identified 11 up-regulated genes in AVICs of diseased valves...
September 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Iker Aranjuelo, Gorka Erice, Alvaro Sanz-Sáez, Cyril Abadie, Françoise Gilard, Erena Gil-Quintana, Jean-Christophe Avice, Christiana Staudinger, Stefanie Wienkoop, Jose L Araus, Jacques Bourguignon, Juan J Irigoyen, Guillaume Tcherkez
C sink/source balance and N assimilation have been identified as target processes conditioning crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 . However, little is known about phenology-driven modifications of C and N primary metabolism at elevated CO2 in cereals such as wheat. Here, we examined the differential effect of elevated CO2 at two development stages (onset of flowering, onset of grain filling) in durum wheat (Triticum durum, var. Sula) using physiological measurements (photosynthesis, isotopes), metabolomics, proteomics and (15) N labelling...
December 2015: Plant, Cell & Environment
Joseph Chen, Larisa M Ryzhova, M K Sewell-Loftin, Christopher B Brown, Stacey S Huppert, H Scott Baldwin, W David Merryman
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a significant cardiovascular disorder, and controversy exists as to whether it is primarily a dystrophic or osteogenic process in vivo. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism of CAVD by assessing a genetic mutation, Notch1 heterozygosity, which leads to CAVD with 100% penetrance in humans. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Murine immortalized Notch1(+/-) aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) were isolated and expanded in vitro...
July 2015: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Neil Venardos, Daine Bennett, Michael J Weyant, Thomas Brett Reece, Xianzhong Meng, David A Fullerton
BACKGROUND: The aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. In response to proinflammatory stimulation, the AVIC undergoes a phenotypic change from that of a myofibroblast phenotype to that of osteoblast-like cell. Matrix Gla-protein (MGP) has been identified as an important inhibitor of vascular calcification. We therefore hypothesized that MGP expression is reduced in diseased AVICs, and loss of this protective protein contributes to calcification of the aortic valve...
November 2015: Journal of Surgical Research
Fuqiang Sun, Jiawei Shi, Si Chen, Cheng Deng, Xingjian Hu, Huadong Li, Geng Li, Yi Liu, Nianguo Dong
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve calcification is characterized as the active process of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), and considered as an inflammatory disease. As an antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory activity of Lazaroid has been exhibited in various models. We hypothesized that Lazaroid U-74389G would inhibit the osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs induced by IL-1β. METHODS: Normal tricuspid aortic valve leaflets were collected from patients with acute aortic dissection (Type A) undergoing the Bentall procedure...
August 2015: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sophie Brunel-Muguet, Philippe D'Hooghe, Marie-Paule Bataillé, Colette Larré, Tae-Hwan Kim, Jacques Trouverie, Jean-Christophe Avice, Philippe Etienne, Carolyne Dürr
In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO(2-) 4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO(2-) 4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings)...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alexandra Girondé, Philippe Etienne, Jacques Trouverie, Alain Bouchereau, Françoise Le Cahérec, Laurent Leport, Mathilde Orsel, Marie-Françoise Niogret, Nathalie Nesi, Deleu Carole, Fabienne Soulay, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Jean-Christophe Avice
BACKGROUND: Oilseed rape is the third largest oleaginous crop in the world but requires high levels of N fertilizer of which only 50% is recovered in seeds. This weak N use efficiency is associated with a low foliar N remobilization, leading to a significant return of N to the soil and a risk of pollution. Contrary to what is observed during senescence in the vegetative stages, N remobilization from stems and leaves is considered efficient during monocarpic senescence. However, the contribution of stems towards N management and the cellular mechanisms involved in foliar remobilization remain largely unknown...
2015: BMC Plant Biology
Qiong Zhan, Rui Song, Qingchun Zeng, Qingzhou Yao, Lihua Ao, Dingli Xu, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
UNLABELLED: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive calcification in valve leaflets. Aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of CAVD. Previous studies show that stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4 in AVICs in vitro up-regulates the expression of osteogenic mediators. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can activate pro-inflammatory signaling through TLR3, the NLRP3 inflammasome and RIG-I-like receptors...
2015: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Alexandra Girondé, Marine Poret, Philippe Etienne, Jacques Trouverie, Alain Bouchereau, Françoise Le Cahérec, Laurent Leport, Mathilde Orsel, Marie-Françoise Niogret, Carole Deleu, Jean-Christophe Avice
Oilseed rape, a crop requiring a high level of nitogen (N) fertilizers, is characterized by low N use efficiency. To identify the limiting factors involved in the N use efficiency of winter oilseed rape, the response to low N supply was investigated at the vegetative stage in 10 genotypes by using long-term pulse-chase (15)N labelling and studying the physiological processes of leaf N remobilization. Analysis of growth and components of N use efficiency allowed four profiles to be defined. Group 1 was characterized by an efficient N remobilization under low and high N conditions but by a decrease of leaf growth under N limitation...
May 2015: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vishal Patel, Katrina Carrion, Andrew Hollands, Andrew Hinton, Thomas Gallegos, Jeffrey Dyo, Roman Sasik, Emma Leire, Gary Hardiman, Salah A Mohamed, Sanjay Nigam, Charles C King, Victor Nizet, Vishal Nigam
Bicuspid aortic valves calcify at a significantly higher rate than normal aortic valves, a process that involves increased inflammation. Because we have previously found that bicuspid aortic valve experience greater stretch, we investigated the potential connection between stretch and inflammation in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Microarray, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and protein assays performed on AVICs exposed to cyclic stretch showed that stretch was sufficient to increase expression of interleukin and metalloproteinase family members by more than 1...
May 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Alexandra Girondé, Lucie Dubousset, Jacques Trouverie, Philippe Etienne, Jean-Christophe Avice
Our current knowledge about sulfur (S) management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase (34)SO(2-) 4 labeling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
Srinivasan Vedantham, Avice M O'Connell, Linxi Shi, Andrew Karellas, Alissa J Huston, Kristin A Skinner
OBJECTIVES: In this prospective pilot study, the feasibility of non-contrast dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) to determine primary tumor volume and monitor its changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women who underwent NAC were imaged with a clinical prototype dedicated bCT system at three time points - pre-, mid-, and post-treatment. The study radiologist marked the boundary of the primary tumor from which the tumor volume was quantified...
2014: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
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