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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920757/advances-and-challenges-in-viability-detection-of-foodborne-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Dexin Zeng, Zi Chen, Yuan Jiang, Feng Xue, Baoguang Li
Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology [conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR)] is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917984/the-futures-of-pastoralism-in-the-horn-of-africa-pathways-of-growth-and-change
#2
A Catley, J Lind, I Scoones
This paper reviews pastoralism in the Horn of Africa region with reference to the basic socio-economics of pastoralism, and the use of mobile livestock production to generate income and food for human consumption. The paper also examines long-term trends in pastoralist areas which, at first sight, appear to be contradictory. The first trend is the growth of a substantial domestic and export trade in livestock and meat across the region, driven largely by supplies from pastoralist areas and local and international demand...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917982/climate-change-and-pastoralism-impacts-consequences-and-adaptation
#3
M Herrero, J Addison, C Bedelian, E Carabine, P Havlík, B Henderson, J Van De Steeg, P K Thornton
The authors discuss the main climate change impacts on pastoralist societies, including those on rangelands, livestock and other natural resources, and their extended repercussions on food security, incomes and vulnerability. The impacts of climate change on the rangelands of the globe and on the vulnerability of the people who inhabit them will be severe and diverse, and will require multiple, simultaneous responses. In higher latitudes, the removal of temperature constraints might increase pasture production and livestock productivity, but in tropical arid lands, the impacts are highly location specific, but mostly negative...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917970/enhancing-the-economic-viability-of-pastoralism-the-need-to-balance-interventions
#4
H Rueff, I Rahim
Extensive mobile pastoral systems do not follow conventional marketing optimisation models, since they must deal with the factors of mobility, erratic environments, dependency on natural resources, seasonality, and distance to markets. While pastoralist systems contribute substantially to national economies, government investment to support pastoralism remains limited or non-existent. Pastoralists are becoming increasingly integrated into larger market systems and therefore need investment and specially adapted policies to supply a growing demand for livestock products and to support their livelihoods...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#5
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917565/market-competition-and-the-health-composition-of-manufactured-food
#6
Stephen F Hamilton, Vincent Réquillart
There has been surprisingly little research to date on the supply-side role of food manufacturers on equilibrium health outcomes for consumers. In this letter we consider an oligopoly model in which food processors choose the health composition of manufactured food. We show that price competition between food processors leads to unhealthy food composition in the market equilibrium, even under circumstances in which consumers know food composition is unhealthy. Taxes on manufactured food decrease the healthiness of manufactured foods whenever improved consumer health increases the price elasticity of food demand...
December 4, 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916004/sugars-and-health-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-future-policy
#7
Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
The automation of the process of extracting sugars in the 1900s reduced cost and increased availability of sugars leading to a dramatic rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1970s. There are different definitions for sugars not naturally available in foods, and free sugars is the term used by WHO. The epidemiological evidence of the associations between sugars and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is fairly strong and consistent, particularly for sugar sweetened drinks in adults. The Department of Health in the UK and many other countries have recently updated their recommendations for free sugars as a result of this scientific evidence...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914647/human-exposure-to-dietary-inorganic-arsenic-and-other-arsenic-species-state-of-knowledge-gaps-and-uncertainties
#8
Francesco Cubadda, Brian P Jackson, Kathryn L Cottingham, Yoshira Ornelas Van Horne, Margaret Kurzius-Spencer
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is ubiquitous in the environment as arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) compounds and biotransformation of these toxic chemicals leads to the extraordinary variety of organoarsenic species found in nature. Despite classification as a human carcinogen based on data from populations exposed through contaminated drinking water, only recently has a need for regulatory limits on iAs in food been recognized. The delay was due to the difficulty in risk assessment of dietary iAs, which critically relies on speciation analysis providing occurrence data for iAs in food - and not simply for total arsenic...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912772/food-systems-transformations-ultra-processed-food-markets-and-the-nutrition-transition-in-asia
#9
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel
BACKGROUND: Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911675/on-safety-margin-for-drug-interchangeability
#10
Jiayin Zheng, Shein-Chung Chow, Fuyu Song
As more and more generic (or biosimilar) drug products become available in the market place, it is a concern whether the approved generic (or biosimilar) drug products are safe and efficacious and hence can be used interchangeably. According to current regulation, most regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indicate an approved generic (or biosimilar) drug product can serve as a substitute for the innovative drug product. Bioequivalence (biosimilarity) assessment for regulatory approval among generic copies (or biosimilars) of the innovative drug product are not required...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#11
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905700/use-of-ozone-depleting-substances-direct-final-rule
#12
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905090/marker-assisted-breeding-of-the-rice-restorer-line-wanhui-6725-for-disease-resistance-submergence-tolerance-and-aromatic-fragrance
#13
Yanchang Luo, Tingchen Ma, Aifang Zhang, Kar Hui Ong, Zefu Li, Jianbo Yang, Zhongchao Yin
BACKGROUND: Rice is a staple food crop in the world. With the increase in world population and economic development, farmers need to produce more rice in limited field. However, the rice production is frequently affected by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of natural disease resistance and stress tolerance through genetic breeding is the most efficient and economical way to combat or acclimate to these stresses. In addition, rice with aromatic fragrance can significantly increase market value for its good grain quality...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904831/orphan-drug-development-in-china-turning-challenges-into-opportunities
#14
Xiaowei Jin, Li Chen
Of over 7,000 known rare diseases, only 5% currently have an available treatment option worldwide. Moreover, the vast majority of rare disease patients in China have no access to treatment due to limited availability and the lack of appropriate infrastructure in China's healthcare system. Despite increased interest in orphan drug development, drug companies in China with active programs on drugs to treat rare diseases are still limited. Hence, there is a huge unmet need in China, with over 10 million patients suffering from rare diseases...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901036/the-effects-of-policy-actions-to-improve-population-dietary-patterns-and-prevent-diet-related-non-communicable-diseases-scoping-review
#15
REVIEW
L Hyseni, M Atkinson, H Bromley, L Orton, F Lloyd-Williams, R McGill, S Capewell
Poor diet generates a bigger non-communicable disease (NCD) burden than tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity combined. We reviewed the potential effectiveness of policy actions to improve healthy food consumption and thus prevent NCDs. This scoping review focused on systematic and non-systematic reviews and categorised data using a seven-part framework: price, promotion, provision, composition, labelling, supply chain, trade/investment and multi-component interventions. We screened 1805 candidate publications and included 58 systematic and non-systematic reviews...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897111/aggressive-antioxidant-reductive-stress-impairs-brain-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-and-blood-brain-barrier-function
#16
Shireen Mentor, David Fisher
Oxidative stress in the brain microvasculature is a common characteristic in models of cerebrovascular disease. Considering the effects of reactive oxygen species activity in vascular-derived insults, it is naturally prudent to hypothesize those interventions inhibiting reactive oxygen species activity, such as antioxidant supplementation, may be beneficial for cerebrovascular disease. Hyper doses of antioxidant supplements, and foods with high antioxidant concentrations, are commonly used as an ongoing remedial and 'over-the-counter' treatments for most seasonal ailments...
November 29, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897085/bisphenol-a-in-soft-drinks-and-canned-foods-and-data-evaluation
#17
Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Vasiliki Karzi, Elena Vakonaki, Marina Goumenou, Matthaios Kavvalakis, Polychronis Stivaktakis, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Ioannis Tsakiris, Apostolos Rizos, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Bisphenol A is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied LC-MS (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0 % of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (and range) were 33...
November 29, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893282/plant-food-supplements-with-antioxidant-properties-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-benefits-or-risks
#18
Luca Piemontese
Wine by-products, in particular grape pomace, can be an important source of polyphenols and dietary fibers and are increasingly being used as a starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements, such as other matrices containing biomolecules, with antioxidant properties. The risk associated with the consumption of these products was recently analyzed through a study of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can be found in the marketed products. In particular, occurrence data about contamination with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A were also reported...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892828/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-monomers-in-polyesters-for-food-contact-materials
#19
Fabrian Brenz, Linke Susanne, Simat Thomas
Polyesters (PES) are gaining more importance on the food contact material (FCM) market and the variety of properties and applications is expected to be wide. In order to acquire the desired properties manufacturers can combine several FCM approved polyvalent carboxylic acids (PCA) and polyols as monomers. However, information about the qualitative and quantitative composition of FCM articles is often limited. The method presented here describes analysis of PES with the identification and quantification of 25 polyester monomers (10 PCA, 15 polyols) by HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis...
November 28, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891120/two-major-clades-of-bradyrhizobia-dominate-symbiotic-interactions-with-pigeonpea-in-fields-of-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#20
Romain K Fossou, Dominik Ziegler, Adolphe Zézé, François Barja, Xavier Perret
In smallholder farms of Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in the northeast of the country, Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) has become an important crop because of its multiple beneficial facets. Pigeonpea seeds provide food to make ends meet, are sold on local markets, and aerial parts serve as forage for animals. Since it fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria collectively known as rhizobia, C. cajan also improves soil fertility and reduces fallow time. Yet, seed yields remain low mostly because farmers cannot afford chemical fertilizers...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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