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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223819/global-occurrence-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-their-hydroxylated-and-methoxylated-structural-analogues-in-an-important-animal-feed-fishmeal
#1
Xiaomin Li, Shujun Dong, Wei Zhang, Xia Fan, Yang Li, Ruiguo Wang, Xiaoou Su
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (MeO) structural analogues have been found widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems, and may exhibit potential adverse effects to humans due to their bioaccumulative behavior through food chain. Fishmeal is an important animal feed applied around the world and is generally of marine origin. However, the levels and sources of PBDEs in fishmeal have not been thoroughly evaluated and their structural analogues have not been reported to date...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223041/understanding-motivations-for-dietary-supplementation-during-pregnancy-a-focus-group-study
#2
Lenka Malek PhD, Wendy J Umberger PhD, Maria Makrides PhD, Carmel T Collins PhD, Shao Jia Zhou PhD
OBJECTIVE: to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. DESIGN: ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. SETTING: South Australia, Australia. SUBJECTS: 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant or<12 months postpartum...
November 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222655/levels-dietary-intake-and-health-risk-of-potentially-toxic-metals-in-vegetables-fruits-and-cereal-crops-in-pakistan
#3
Javed Nawab, Saad Farooqi, Wang Xiaoping, Sardar Khan, Asad Khan
Food safety is a major concern worldwide and human beings are frequently exposed to potentially toxic metals (PTMs) through consumption of vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops grown in contaminated areas. The present study investigates the concentrations of PTMs such as chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from different markets of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Samples of fruits (banana, tangerine, apple, and guava), vegetables (tomato, onion, potato, pea, and lady finger), and cereals (rice, kidney beans, and chick peas) were acid-extracted and analyzed using ICP-MS...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220861/do-we-need-plant-food-supplements-a-critical-examination-of-quality-safety-efficacy-and-necessity-for-a-new-regulatory-framework
#4
Mona Abdel-Tawab
Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs...
December 8, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220375/construction-and-validation-of-a-psychometric-scale-to-measure-awareness-on-consumption-of-irradiated-foods
#5
Tiago Rusin, Wilma Maria Coelho Araújo, Cristiane Faiad, Helio de Carvalho Vital
Although food irradiation has been used to ensure food safety, most consumers are unaware of the basic concepts of irradiation, misinterpreting information and demonstrating a negative attitude toward food items treated with ionizing radiation. This research is aimed at developing a tool to assess the awareness on the consumption of irradiated food. The sample was composed by employees from different social classes and school levels of Brazilian universities, who reflect the end-users of the irradiated foods, representative of the views of lay consumers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218681/management-strategies-to-facilitate-optimal-outcomes-for-patients-treated-with-delayed-release-dimethyl-fumarate
#6
Lori Mayer, Mary Kay Fink, Carrie Sammarco, Lisa Laing
Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate is an oral disease-modifying therapy that has demonstrated significant efficacy in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Incidences of flushing and gastrointestinal adverse events are common in the first month after delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation. Our objective was to propose mitigation strategies for adverse events related to initiation of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Studies of individually developed mitigation strategies and chart reviews were evaluated...
December 7, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215916/new-and-incremental-fda-black-box-warnings-from-2008-to-2015
#7
Michael T Solotke, Sanket S Dhruva, Nicholas S Downing, Nilay D Shah, Joseph S Ross
BACKGROUND: The boxed warning (also known as "black box warning [BBW]") is one of the strongest drug safety actions that the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) can implement, and often warns of serious risks. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize BBWs issued for drugs after FDA approval. METHODS: We identified all post-marketing BBWs from January 2008 through June 2015 listed on FDA's MedWatch and Drug Safety Communications websites...
December 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214572/incentivizing-orphan-product-development-united-states-food-and-drug-administration-orphan-incentive-programs
#8
Tran T Le
Over 30 years ago, the United States (US) Congress passed the Orphan Drug Act (ODA) to encourage the development of products for rare diseases or conditions ("orphan products"). The Act provided incentives to sponsors for developing products with orphan designation and established a grant program to fund studies of orphan products. Since its enactment in 1983, the ODA has been credited for bringing more than 590 orphan drugs to the market, inspiring the implementation of orphan legislation globally, and enabling the creation of other programs that extend existing knowledge of the natural history of rare diseases and stimulate the development of medical devices for children and patients with rare diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212782/trials-of-transvaginal-mesh-devices-for-pelvic-organ-prolapse-a-systematic-database-review-of-the-us-fda-approval-process
#9
Carl J Heneghan, Ben Goldacre, Igho Onakpoya, Jeffrey K Aronson, Tom Jefferson, Annette Pluddemann, Kamal R Mahtani
INTRODUCTION: Transvaginal mesh devices are approved in the USA by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), through the 510(k) system. However, there is uncertainty about the benefit to harm balance of mesh approved for pelvic organ prolapse. We, therefore, assessed the evidence at the time of approval for transvaginal mesh products and the impact of safety studies the FDA mandated in 2012 because of emerging harms. METHODS: We used FDA databases to determine the evidence for approval of transvaginal mesh...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210609/dietary-intakes-of-six-intense-sweeteners-by-irish-adults
#10
Maria Buffini, Séverine Goscinny, Ir Joris Van Loco, Anne P Nugent, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Michael J Gibney, Breige A McNulty
This research investigated the intakes of six intense sweeteners; acesulfame-K (E950), aspartame (E951), cyclamate (E952), saccharin (E954), sucralose (E955) and steviol glycosides (E960) in the diets of Irish adults, using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). A food label survey which included products currently available on the Irish market supplemented the analysis. Sweetener intakes were investigated using three different exposure scenarios; beginning with a crude assessment which assumed that all foods permitted to contain the additives of interest always did contain them, and at their maximum permitted level (Tier 1)...
December 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209498/intensifying-poultry-production-systems-and-the-emergence-of-avian-influenza-in-china-a-one-health-ecohealth-epitome
#11
Marius Gilbert, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson
Several kinds of pressure can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases. In the case of zoonoses emerging from livestock, one of the most significant changes that has taken place since the mid twentieth century is what has been termed the "livestock revolution", whereby the stock of food animals, their productivity and their trade has increased rapidly to feed rising and increasingly wealthy and urbanized populations. Further increases are projected in the future in low and middle-income countries. Using avian influenza as an example, we discuss how the emergence of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 in China was linked to rapid intensification of the poultry sector taking place in landscapes rich in wetland agriculture and wild waterfowls habitats, providing an extensive interface with the wild reservoir of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205206/applications-of-pharmacogenomics-in-regulatory-science-a-product-life-cycle-review
#12
W C Tan-Koi, P C Leow, Y Y Teo
With rapid developments of pharmacogenomics (PGx) and regulatory science, it is important to understand the current PGx integration in product life cycle, impact on clinical practice thus far and opportunities ahead. We conducted a cross-sectional review on PGx-related regulatory documents and implementation guidelines in the United States and Europe. Our review found that although PGx-related guidance in both markets span across the entire product life cycle, the scope of implementation guidelines varies across two continents...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204333/development-and-application-of-two-semi-automated-tools-for-targeted-medical-product-surveillance-in-a-distributed-data-network
#13
John G Connolly, Shirley V Wang, Candace C Fuller, Sengwee Toh, Catherine A Panozzo, Noelle Cocoros, Meijia Zhou, Joshua J Gagne, Judith C Maro
Purpose of Review: An important component of the Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel Initiative is the active post-market risk identification and analysis (ARIA) system, which utilizes semi-automated, parameterized computer programs to implement propensity-score adjusted and self-controlled risk interval designs to conduct targeted surveillance of medical products in the Sentinel Distributed Database. In this manuscript, we review literature relevant to the development of these programs and describe their application within the Sentinel Initiative...
December 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202912/assessing-almond-and-peanut-allergens-using-commercially-available-immunoanalytical-kits-and-lc-ms-ms-a-case-study
#14
Matthew Daly, Parisa Ansari, Georg Häubl, Adrian Rogers, Kurt Brunner
With an ever-increasing allergic population and an emerging market for allergen-free foods, accurate detectionof allergens in foods has never been more important. Although ELISA-based methods are the most widely used for detection of allergens in food, there is a need for the development of orthogonal approaches. A commercial ELISA detected a relatively high concentration of peanut and almond in an allergen-free product. However, another commercial ELISA declared a low peanut concentration and was negative for almond...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202909/commercial-elisa-measurement-of-allergens-and-gluten-what-we-can-learn-from-case-studies
#15
Markus Lacorn, Stella Lindeke, Susanne Siebeneicher, Thomas Weiss
During the last decade, results from ELISA test kits have often been criticized as being flawed. Therefore, itmay appear counterintuitive that ELISAs are used for most food allergen and gluten analytical needs. One reason, in addition to the nonavailability of comparable alternative methods, is the fact that the methods used underwent a long validation and learning period in the market. This publication presents several case studies on interference, cross-reactivity issues, calibrators, fragmented allergens and gluten, matrix influences, and misunderstood intended-use statements...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202906/managing-food-allergens-in-the-u-k-retail-supply-chain
#16
Michael J Walker, M Hazel Gowland, John Points
The U.K. food and grocery market is highly significant financially and dominated by 10 retailers within a regulated and extremely economically competitive environment. We summarize the approach of U.K. retailers to allergen risk assessment (RA) and risk management (RM) within the U.K. legal framework and explore public visibility of retailers' allergen policies. RA and RM of allergens appear effective in curtailing retail-triggered severe food allergy reactions. However, allergen recalls remain high, precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) remains an area of confusion, and there is no consistent Web-based provision of information for consumers who have allergies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201093/simultaneous-determination-of-residue-from-58-pesticides-in-the-wheat-flour-consumed-in-tehran-iran-by-gc-ms
#17
Mohammad Rezaei, Nabi Shariatifar, Shahram Shoeibi, Maryam Amir Ahmadi, Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki
Food safety has a direct impact on human health and as such is a growing concern worldwide. Presence of harmful pesticide residue in food is a serious cause for concern among consumers so it is important to monitor levels of pesticides in foods. The aim of this study was simultaneous determination of concentrations of 58 pesticides in 40 wheat flour samples collected from Tehran market in January, 2014. The city under study (Tehran) was divided into five districts and samples were collected independently from each district and sourced from different bakeries (n=40)...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200730/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-three-gelatinous-chinese-medicines-and-their-authentications-by-tryptic-digested-peptides-profiling-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Huan Yang, Jie Zheng, Hai-Yan Wang, Nan Li, Ya-Ya Yang, Yu-Ping Shen
Background: Gelatinous Chinese medicines (GCMs) including Asini Corii Colla, Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, and Cervi Cornus Colla, were made from reptile shell or mammalian skin or deer horn, and consumed as a popular tonic, as well as hemopoietic and hemostatic agents. Misuse of them would not exert their functions, and fake or adulterate products have caused drug market disorder and affected food and drug safety. GCMs are rich in denatured proteins, but insufficient in available DNA fragments, hence commonly used cytochrome c oxidase I barcoding was not successful for their authentication...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199629/exploring-the-association-of-urban-or-rural-county-status-and-environmental-nutrition-and-lifestyle-related-resources-with-the-efficacy-of-snap-ed-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-education-to-improve-food-security
#19
Rebecca L Rivera, Jennifer Dunne, Melissa K Maulding, Qi Wang, Dennis A Savaiano, Sharon M Nickols-Richardson, Heather A Eicher-Miller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of policy, systems and environmental factors with improvement in household food security among low-income Indiana households with children after a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) direct nutrition education intervention. DESIGN: Household food security scores measured by the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module in a longitudinal randomized and controlled SNAP-Ed intervention study conducted from August 2013 to April 2015 were the response variable...
December 4, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198740/early-transmissible-ampicillin-resistance-in-zoonotic-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhimurium-in-the-late-1950s-a-retrospective-whole-genome-sequencing-study
#20
Alicia Tran-Dien, Simon Le Hello, Christiane Bouchier, François-Xavier Weill
BACKGROUND: Ampicillin, the first semi-synthetic penicillin active against Enterobacteriaceae, was released onto the market in 1961. The first outbreaks of disease caused by ampicillin-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium were identified in the UK in 1962 and 1964. We aimed to date the emergence of this resistance in historical isolates of S enterica serotype Typhimurium. METHODS: In this retrospective, whole-genome sequencing study, we analysed 288 S enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates collected between 1911 and 1969 from 31 countries on four continents and from various sources including human beings, animals, feed, and food...
November 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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