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Child death review

Yung-Kuan Tsou, Chia-Yuan Liu, Kuang-I Fu, Cheng-Hui Lin, Mu-Shien Lee, Ming-Yao Su, Ken Ohata, Cheng-Tang Chiu
BACKGROUND: Esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has rarely been reported for the treatment of cirrhotic patients. AIM: To report the results of ESD treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms (SENs) for cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Forty patients with 50 consecutive SENs undergoing 46 sessions of ESD were retrospectively reviewed. The cirrhotic group included eight patients (11 SENs) with liver cirrhosis consisting of six patients classified as Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis and two patients classified as class B liver cirrhosis...
October 21, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Tanja Radovanovic, Slobodan Spasojevic, Vesna Stojanovic, Aleksandra Doronjski
INTRODUCTION: An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as "an episode that is frightening to the observer and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change of muscle tone, choking, or gagging." OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine etiology and outcome of severe ALTE (requiring resuscitation measures) and to review diagnostic approaches in infants hospitalized after such an episode of ALTE. METHODS: Retrospective analysis included patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, after an episode of severe ALTE over a 4-year period...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Giancarlo Nicosia, Domenico Cicala, Giuseppe Mirone, Pietro Spennato, Vincenzo Trischitta, Claudio Ruggiero, Gianluigi Guarneri, Mario Muto, Giuseppe Cinalli
INTRODUCTION: Acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO) is an infrequent but potentially fatal cause of strokes in both adults and children, and it is usually due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD). VAD has been found to be usually a consequence of traumatic vertebral artery injury. ABAO usually presents with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) of the posterior circulation or transient ischemic attack (TIA). It may lead to death or long-term disability if not promptly recanalized. Basilar artery recanalization in children can be achieved safely and with excellent clinical outcome using endovascular thrombectomy with the new generation self-expanding and retrievable stents...
October 4, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Brande Brown, Levon Agdere, Cornelia Muntean, Karen David
BACKGROUND Allgrove syndrome, or triple "A" syndrome (3A syndrome), is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome with variable phenotype, and an estimated prevalence of 1 per 1,000,000 individuals. Patients usually display the triad of achalasia, alacrima, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) insensitive adrenal insufficiency, though the presentation is inconsistent. CASE REPORT Here, the authors report a case of Allgrove syndrome in a pediatric patient with delayed diagnosis in order to raise awareness of this potentially fatal disease as a differential diagnosis of alacrima...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Sitaram M Emani, Breanna L Piekarski, David Zurakowski, Christopher A Baird, Audrey C Marshall, James E Lock, Pedro J Del Nido
BACKGROUND: Options for cardiac valve replacement in children are limited to fixed-diameter prostheses that do not accommodate for somatic growth. An externally stented bovine jugular vein graft has been modified for surgical valve replacement in pediatric patients, with the intention of subsequent valve expansion in the catheterization laboratory as the child grows. METHODS: Pediatric patients at a single institution who underwent surgical implantation of an expandable bovine jugular vein valve between 2010 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
James Dodington, Pina Violano, Carl R Baum, Kirsten Bechtel
Significant breakthroughs in the field of injury prevention and childhood safety have occurred during the past half-century. For example, the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and the institution of child passenger safety laws are responsible for a significant reduction in injuries among children and adolescents. This review will focus on the following three topics because of their significant contribution to pediatric injury morbidity, especially among adolescents, and their promise for further effective prevention research...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Carla Sharp, Charles Jardin, Lochner Marais, Michael Boivin
While the number of new HIV infections has declined, the number of orphans as a result of AIDS-related deaths continues to increase. The aim of this paper was to systematically review empirical research on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world, specifically with an eye on developing a theoretical framework to guide intervention and research. Articles for review were gathered by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA standards), reviewed and then organized and synthesized with a Developmental Psychopathology framework...
November 2015: Journal of HIV and AIDS
Alan C Sing, Stephen Tsaur, Stephen M Paridon, Julie A Brothers
BACKGROUND: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is a congenital cardiac condition that can be associated with increased risk of sudden death. To date, quality of life and exercise performance have not been evaluated in patients with this condition who do not undergo surgical repair. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of patients with unoperated anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery at our institution from 1 January, 2000 to 31 January, 2016...
September 26, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Kirsten Risby, Steffen Husby, Niels Qvist, Marianne S Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: During the last decades neonatal outcomes for children born with gastroschisis have improved significantly. Survival rates >90% have been reported. Early prenatal diagnosis and increased survival enforce the need for valid data for long-term outcome in the pre- and postnatal counseling of parents with a child with gastroschisis. METHODS: Long-term follow-up on all newborns with gastroschisis at Odense University Hospital (OUH) from January 1 1997-December 31 2009...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jai K Das, Rehana A Salam, Ahmed Arshad, Zohra S Lassi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Vaccination strategies are among the most successful and cost-effective public health strategies for preventing disease and death. Until recently, most of the existing immunization programs targeted infants and children younger than 5 years which have successfully resulted in reducing global infant and child mortality. Adolescent immunization has been relatively neglected, leaving a quarter of world's population underimmunized and hence vulnerable to a number of preventable diseases. In recent years, a large number of programs have been launched to increase the uptake of different vaccines in adolescents; however, the recommended vaccination coverage among the adolescent population overall remains very low, especially in low- and middle-income countries...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Davide Rigamonti, Giacomo D Simonetti
: Overhydration, hypertension, anemia, or dyselectrolytemias sometimes cause cardiovascular impairment in childhood hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Here, we report the case of a 4.5-year-old boy with hemolytic-uremic syndrome and sudden onset, 6 h later, of hemodynamic compromise secondary to a cardiac thrombotic micro-angiopathy. The child died. In the literature, we found 18 further cases with cardiac compromise ≤25 days after diagnosis. The following causes were found: micro-angiopathy, pericardial blood causing tamponade, and myocarditis...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Maria L Escolar, Tara West, Alessandra Dallavecchia, Michele D Poe, Kathleen LaPoint
Krabbe disease (KD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the galactocerebrosidase enzyme. The early- and late-infantile subtypes, which are the most common forms of the disease, are rapidly progressive and lead to early death, whereas the later-onset types are clinically heterogeneous. The only disease-modifying treatment currently available is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which is effective only when performed early in the course of the disease. Because most patients with KD are diagnosed too late for treatment, primary care physicians are faced with the challenge of caring for a child with severe neurologic impairment...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sherri Ogston-Tuck, Kath Baume, Chris Clarke, Simon Heng
BACKGROUND: For decades film has proved to be a powerful form of communication. Whether produced as entertainment, art or documentary, films have the capacity to inform and move us. Films are a highly attractive teaching instrument and an appropriate teaching method in health education. It is a valuable tool for studying situations most transcendental to human beings such as pain, disease and death. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine how this helps students engage with their role as health care professionals; to determine how they view the personal experience of illness, disease, disability or death; and to determine how this may impact upon their provision of patient care...
November 2016: Nurse Education Today
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J Martin, David Coetzee, Chris Scott, Threnesan Naidoo, Yasheen Brijmohun, Karisha Quarrie
BACKGROUND: Child mortality trends in South Africa (SA) show a decrease, but remain high and appear to have plateaued. To attain the new sustainable development goals, we need a better understanding of causes of death and the associated factors. OBJECTIVES: To describe the SA child death review (CDR) pilot, the pattern of child deaths reviewed and the factors associated with these deaths. METHODS: CDR teams were established at two pilot sites, Salt River mortuary (Western Cape Province) and Phoenix mortuary (KwaZulu-Natal Province)...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Shanaaz Mathews, Lorna J Martin, David Coetzee, Chris Scott, Yasheen Brijmohun
South Africa (SA) has not met the child mortality target for the Millennium Development Goals, despite having invested substantially in programmes and policies to achieve these targets. The scale-up of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes reduced HIV transmission from mother to child, but this has not been sustained owing to limitations in community-based child health services. Child mortality has declined, but has now plateaued. Children continue to die from preventable and treatable causes of death...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Salih Kuk, Yunus Uyar, Serkan Karaca, Süleyman Yazar
Microorganisms colonize tissues and organs such as the skin and gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary systems. These microorganisms are generally called as "human microbiota". Human microbiota mostly consists of commensal microorganisms. The commensal microorganisms located on and in the human body are bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and parasites. The microbiota genome is 100 times bigger in size than the human genome. Although the human genome is stationary, microbial genome has a compatible flexible variability during human life...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Padma Bhate-Deosthali, Lakshmi Lingam
There are an estimated 7 million burn injuries in India annually, of which 700,000 require hospital admission and 140,000 are fatal. According to the National Burns Programme, 91,000 of these deaths are women; a figure higher than that for maternal mortality. Women of child bearing age are on average three times more likely than men to die of burn injuries. This paper reviews the existing literature on burn injuries in India and raises pertinent issues about prevalence, causes and gaps in recognising the gendered factors leading to a high number of women dying due to burns...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Riad Salem, Andrew C Gordon, Samdeep Mouli, Ryan Hickey, Joseph Kallini, Ahmed Gabr, Mary F Mulcahy, Talia Baker, Michael Abecassis, Frank Miller, Vahid Yaghmai, Kent Sato, Kush Desai, Bartley Thornburg, Al B Benson, Alfred Rademaker, Daniel Ganger, Laura Kulik, Robert J Lewandowski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) is used to treat patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radioembolization is a minimally invasive procedure that involves implantation of radioactive micron-sized particles loaded with yttrium-90 (Y90) inside the blood vessels that supply a tumor. We performed a randomized, phase 2 study to compare the effects of cTACE and Y90 radioembolization in patients with HCC. METHODS: From October 2009 through October 2015, we reviewed patients with HCC of all Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages for eligibility...
August 26, 2016: Gastroenterology
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