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Sarcopenia in the elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052905/metabolic-changes-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-during-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Koji Mitsuzuka, Yoichi Arai
Androgen deprivation therapy continues to be widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer despite the appearance of new-generation androgen-receptor targeting drugs after 2000. Androgen deprivation therapy can alleviate symptoms in patients with metastatic prostate cancer and might have a survival benefit in some patients, but it causes undesirable changes in lipid, glucose, muscle or bone metabolism. These metabolic changes could lead to new onset or worsening of diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, sarcopenia or fracture...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050209/handgrip-strength-and-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-relation-to-platelet-levels-among-hypertensive-elderly-japanese
#2
Yuji Shimizu, Shimpei Sato, Jun Koyamatsu, Hirotomo Yamanashi, Mako Nagayoshi, Koichiro Kadota, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Keita Inoue, Yasuhiro Nagata, Takahiro Maeda
Age-related disruption of microvascular endothelium exacerbates hypertension and sarcopenia; and atherosclerosis is a well-known biological response to vascular endothelial injury. Therefore, prevalence of atherosclerosis among hypertensive elderly subjects may partly indicate the presence of an appropriate response to endothelial injury. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 795 elderly hypertensive Japanese subjects aged 60-89 years. Since platelet level is an indicator of vascular repair activity, subjects were stratified by platelet counts...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046390/novel-sarcopenia-related-alterations-in-sarcomeric-protein-post-translational-modifications-in-skeletal-muscles-identified-by-top-down-proteomics
#3
Liming Wei, Zachery R Gregorich, Ziqing Lin, Wenxuan Cai, Yutong Jin, Susan H McKiernan, Sean McIlwain, Judd M Aiken, Richard L Moss, Gary M Diffee, Ying Ge
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, is a significant cause of morbidity in the elderly and is a major burden on health care systems. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms in sarcopenia remain poorly understood. Herein, we utilized top-down proteomics to elucidate sarcopenia-related changes in the fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles of aging rats with a focus on the sarcomeric proteome, which includes both myofilament and Z-disc proteins-the proteins that constitute the contractile apparatuses...
October 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021612/il-15-promotes-human-myogenesis-and-mitigates-the-detrimental-effects-of-tnf%C3%AE-on-myotube-development
#4
Mary F O'Leary, Graham R Wallace, Andrew J Bennett, Kostas Tsintzas, Simon W Jones
Studies in murine cell lines and in mouse models suggest that IL-15 promotes myogenesis and may protect against the inflammation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy which occurs in sarcopenia and cachexia. The effects of IL-15 on human skeletal muscle growth and development remain largely uncharacterised. Myogenic cultures were isolated from the skeletal muscle of young and elderly subjects. Myoblasts were differentiated for 8 d, with or without the addition of recombinant cytokines (rIL-15, rTNFα) and an IL-15 receptor neutralising antibody...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977377/fnih-defined-sarcopenia-predicts-adverse-outcomes-among-community-dwelling-older-people-in-taiwan-results-from-i-lan-longitudinal-aging-study
#5
Ting-Ching Tang, An-Chun Hwang, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Liang-Yu Chen, Yi-Hui Wu, Chung-Yu Huang, Cheng-Hao Hung, Chih-Jen Wang, Ming-Hsien Lin, Li-Ning Peng, Liang-Kung Chen
Background: To evaluate the predictive validity of sarcopenia defined by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project among Asian older adults. Methods: Data of the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study were obtained for analysis. Overall, 1,839 community-dwelling people aged 50 years and older, capable of completing a 6-m walk, with life expectancy of more than 6 months, and not institutionalized at time of data collection were enrolled for study...
July 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967718/outcomes-after-non-cardiac-surgery-mortality-complications-disability-and-rehospitalization
#6
Bruno Amato, Mario Santoro, Giuseppe Giugliano, Giuseppe Servillo, Veronica Di Nardo, Lorenza Di Domenico, Rita Compagna, Raffaele Izzo
In the last 25 years, the number of patients aged ≥75 years undergoing non-cardiac surgery has greatly increased. In elderly patients, frailty is significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse events, functional decline, procedural complications, prolonged hospitalization, and mortality. The relationship between frailty and increased mortality and morbidity requires an appropriate tool of assessment to accurately quantify the patient's clinical and perioperative conditions. The preoperative evaluation of elderly patients candidate for non-cardiac surgery should include assessment of frailty, sarcopenia and malnutrition, as these are related to high surgical risk...
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956710/fermented-rice-germ-extract-alleviates-morphological-and-functional-damage-to-murine-gastrocnemius-muscle-by-inactivation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#7
Miyu Tanaka, Yuta Yoshino, Shogo Takeda, Kazuya Toda, Hiroshi Shimoda, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Sarcopenia, loss of muscle mass and function, is mainly observed in elderly people. In this study, we investigated whether fermented rice germ extract (FRGE) has some effects on the mouse gastrocnemius muscle by using behavioral and morphological analyses, Western blotting, and a murine model of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Daily oral FRGE administration increased muscle weight and strength. In addition, myofiber size in gastrocnemius muscle of FRGE-treated mice was increased as revealed by morphological quantification...
October 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954714/baseline-functional-status-as-the-strongest-predictor-of-in-hospital-mortality-in-elderly-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-results-of-the-nonavasc-registry
#8
A Gullón, F Formiga, M Camafort, J M Mostaza, J Díez-Manglano, J M Cepeda, I Novo-Veleiro, A Pose, C Suárez Fernández
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with higher mortality. We aimed to identify the baseline predictors of in-hospital mortality among elderly patients with non-valvular AF (NVAF) hospitalised for any reason. METHODS: Observational, prospective and multicentre study was carried out on patients with NVAF over the age of 75, who had been admitted for any acute medical condition to Internal Medicine departments in Spain. RESULTS: We evaluated 804 patients with a mean age of 85±5...
September 24, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934309/increased-plasma-proline-concentrations-are-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-the-elderly
#9
Kenji Toyoshima, Marie Nakamura, Yusuke Adachi, Akira Imaizumi, Tomomi Hakamada, Yasuko Abe, Eiji Kaneko, Soiciro Takahashi, Kentaro Shimokado
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. METHODS: A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931495/a-review-of-sarcopenia-enhancing-awareness-of-an-increasingly-prevalent-disease
#10
REVIEW
Eric Marty, Yi Liu, Andre Samuel, Omer Or, Joseph Lane
Sarcopenia is defined as an age associated decline in skeletal muscle mass. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial, with decreased caloric intake, muscle fiber denervation, intracellular oxidative stress, hormonal decline, and enhanced myostatin signaling all thought to contribute. Prevalence rates are as high as 29% and 33% in elderly community dwelling and long-term care populations, respectively, with advanced age, low body mass index, and low physical activity as significant risk factors. Sarcopenia shares many characteristics with other disease states typically associated with risk of fall and fracture, including osteoporosis, frailty, and obesity...
September 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903955/in-the-elderly-meat-protein-assimilation-from-rare-meat-is-lower-than-that-from-meat-that-is-well-done
#11
Caroline Buffière, Claire Gaudichon, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Carole Migné, Valérie Scislowsky, Nadezda Khodorova, Laurent Mosoni, Adeline Blot, Yves Boirie, Dominique Dardevet, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Didier Rémond
Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly.Objectives: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects.Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899369/nursing-care-needs-and-services-utilised-by-home-dwelling-elderly-with-complex-health-problems-observational-study
#12
Gro Næss, Marit Kirkevold, Wenche Hammer, Jørund Straand, Torgeir Bruun Wyller
BACKGROUND: In Norway, as in many Western countries, a shift from institutional care to home care is taking place. Our knowledge is limited regarding which needs for nursing interventions patients being cared for in their home have, and how they are met. We aimed at assessing aspects of health and function in a representative sample of the most vulnerable home-dwelling elderly, to identify their needs for nursing interventions and how these needs were met. METHODS: In this observational study we included patients aged 75+ living in their own homes in Oslo, who received daily home care, had three or more chronic diagnoses, received daily medication, and had been hospitalized during the last year...
September 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860423/prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-a-population-of-nursing-home-residents-according-to-their-frailty-status-results-of-the-senior-cohort
#13
F Buckinx, J Y Reginster, T Brunois, C Lenaerts, C Beaudart, J L Croisier, J Petermans, O Bruyère
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between frailty and sarcopenia, by evaluating the prevalence of sarcopenia among frail, pre-frail and robust elderly nursing home residents in Belgium. METHODS: This is an analysis of baseline data collected from the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. All subjects received a sarcopenia evaluation, based on the definition proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851881/the-increased-risk-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-suburb-dwelling-older-chinese-using-the-awgs-definition
#14
Peipei Han, Hairui Yu, Yixuan Ma, Li Kang, Liyuan Fu, Liye Jia, Xiaoyu Chen, Xing Yu, Lin Hou, Lu Wang, Wen Zhang, Haifang Yin, Kaijun Niu, Qi Guo
The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in the Chinese elderly. A total of 1611 elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were enrolled in this study. The well-established CVRF of diabetes, hypertensions, and dyslipidemia were assessed. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Multiple logistic regression analyses and the linear regressions were used to evaluate the components of CVRF and the number of CVRF of elderly patients with sarcopenia...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843526/validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-sarc-f-questionnaire-to-assess-sarcopenia-korean-frailty-and-aging-cohort-study
#15
Sunyoung Kim, Miji Kim, Chang Won Won
OBJECTIVES: The SARC-F is a simple sarcopenia screening tool comprising 5 assessment items: strength, assistance walking, rising from a chair, climbing stairs, and falls. The present study aimed to examine the validation of the Korean version of SARC-F for elderly individuals residing in communities. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: From the first year baseline data of Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study, a total of 1222 elderly individuals (70 years and older) who met the study's selection criteria were included in the analysis...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836306/can-grip-strength-and-or-walking-speed-be-simple-indicators-of-the-deterioration-in-tongue-pressure-and-jaw-opening-force-in-older-individuals
#16
Yoko Wakasugi, Haruka Tohara, Nami Machida, Ayako Nakane, Shunsuke Minakuchi
OBJECTIVES: Swallowing-related muscle strength decreases due to sarcopenia, and older people are at risk for sarcopenia and the resultant dysphagia. However, no studies have assessed the direct relationships between whole-body strength and swallowing-related muscles. Therefore, this study investigates the relationships between decreased whole-body strength, which is easily evaluated, and swallowing-related muscle strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 197 elderly individuals (97 men aged 78...
August 23, 2017: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814844/comparison-between-parameters-of-muscle-performance-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-non-sarcopenic-and-sarcopenic-elderly-women
#17
Lygia Paccini Lustosa, Patrícia Parreira Batista, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira, Aline Scianni, Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial geriatric syndrome with complex interrelationships. Increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators increase the catabolic stimuli of the musculature, thereby causing a decrease in mass and muscular function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knee extensors test (by isokinetic dynamometer) and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1) between sarcopenics and non-sarcopenics community-dwelling elderly women residents of Brazil...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#18
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802294/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-elderly-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function-in-urban-north-china
#19
Liping Meng, Qingqing Man, Linhong Yuan, Lingxia Shen, Weimin Li, Guiyuan Guo, Lixiang Li, Shanshan Jia, Yixiong Gao, Pengkun Song, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and function among the elderly in an urban area in northern China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 912 participants (316 men, 596 women) aged more than 60 years from 4 communities in Beijing were enrolled. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured through radioimmunoassay. SMM was assessed through bioelectrical impendence analysis, whereas skeletal muscle function was assessed through grip strength and 4-m regular gait speed measurements...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790226/effect-of-metformin-on-handgrip-strength-gait-speed-myostatin-serum-level-and-health-related-quality-of-life-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-among-non-diabetic-pre-frail-elderly-patients
#20
Purwita Wijaya Laksmi, Siti Setiati, Tirza Z Tamin, Pradana Soewondo, Wasilah Rochmah, Nafrialdi Nafrialdi, Joedo Prihartono
BACKGROUND: sarcopenia contributes to the development of frailty syndrome. Frailty syndrome is potentially improved by modifying insulin resistance, inflammation, and myostatin level. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on handgrip strength, gait speed, myostatin serum level, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among non-diabetic pre-frail elderly patients. METHODS: a double blind randomized controlled trial study was conducted on non-diabetic elderly outpatients aged ≥ 60 years with pre-frail status based on phenotype and/ or index criteria (Cardiovascular Health Study and/ or Frailty Index 40 items) consecutively recruited from March 2015 to June 2016 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
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