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Sarcopenia in the elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918964/sarcopenia-in-older-mice-is-characterized-by-a-decreased-anabolic-response-to-a-protein-meal
#1
Miriam van Dijk, Jolanda Nagel, Francina J Dijk, Jerôme Salles, Sjors Verlaan, Stephane Walrand, Klaske van Norren, Yvette Luiking
Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice...
November 27, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897411/skeletal-muscle-density-is-an-independent-predictor-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-outcomes-treated-with-rituximab-based-chemoimmunotherapy
#2
Michael P Chu, Jessica Lieffers, Sunita Ghosh, Andrew Belch, Neil S Chua, Amelie Fontaine, Randeep Sangha, Robert A Turner, Vickie E Baracos, Michael B Sawyer
BACKGROUND: While much cancer research focuses on tumours and their microenvironment, malignancies cause widespread physiologic changes. Cancer and treatment-related sarcopenia, measured with quantitative imaging or as a decrease in overall body mass, are indicative of poor prognosis in elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) may be a better prognostic marker. SMD, a measure of muscle radiation attenuation on CT imaging, is more prognostic than sarcopenia or International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores in follicular lymphoma and multiple solid organ malignancies...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897406/integrated-care-for-geriatric-frailty-and-sarcopenia-a-randomized-control-trial
#3
Ding-Cheng Derrick Chan, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Chirn-Bin Chang, Rong-Sen Yang, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Ching-Yu Chen, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ya-Ting Hsu, Chia-Hui Chen, Shu-Fang Chang, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Ken N Kuo
BACKGROUND: Exercise, nutrition, and psychological interventions may all have positive impacts on frailty and sarcopenia. However, it is not known whether an integrated care programme with all three components can be beneficial and the intensity of such programme is also not certain. In this study, we aim to determine the effectiveness of two levels of integrated care on frailty and sarcopenia. METHODS: A randomized control trial was conducted at two community hospitals in Taiwan...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896949/sarcopenia-predicts-readmission-and-mortality-in-elderly-patients-in-acute-care-wards-a-prospective-study
#4
Ming Yang, Xiaoyi Hu, Haozhong Wang, Lei Zhang, Qiukui Hao, Birong Dong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate the associations between sarcopenia and long-term mortality and readmission in a population of elderly inpatients in acute care wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in the acute care wards of a teaching hospital in western China. The muscle mass was estimated according to a previously validated anthropometric equation. Handgrip strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance was measured via a 4 m walking test...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886695/pathogenesis-and-management-of-sarcopenia
#5
REVIEW
Robinder J S Dhillon, Sarfaraz Hasni
Sarcopenia represents a loss of muscle strength and mass in older individuals. Sarcopenia in the elderly has now become a major focus of research and public policy debate due to its impact on morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Despite its clinical importance, sarcopenia remains under-recognized and poorly managed in routine clinical practice. This is, in part, due to a lack of available diagnostic testing and uniform diagnostic criteria. The management of sarcopenia is primarily focused on physical therapy for muscle strengthening and gait training...
February 2017: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885423/publication-trends-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-in-elderly-heart-failure-patients
#6
REVIEW
Jochen Springer, Stefan D Anker
The loss of skeletal mass - sarcopenia and cachexia - is considered to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF). Unfortunately, sarcopenia is generally considered to be a geriatric syndrome, but not necessarily seen as a comorbidity in CHF, even though it has a wide range of adverse health outcomes. While there were 15,574 publication with the title word "heart failure" in PubMed in the 5‑year period from 1 June 2011 to 31 May 2016, only 22 or 71 publications were found with the search combination "sarcopenia" or "cachexia" (title word) and "heart failure" (all fields), respectively...
November 24, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885226/association-between-the-nutritional-status-and-the-severity-of-sarcopenia-among-community-dwelling-elderly-japanese-people
#7
Satsuki Komai, Yutaka Watanabe, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Hunkyung Kim, Ayako Edahiro, Hisashi Kawai, Hideyo Yoshida, Shuichi Obuchi, Yayoi Tanaka, Hirohiko Hirano
AIM: To investigate the association between nutritional evaluation indices (body mass index, albumin, and weight loss) and sarcopenia severity among community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 758 community-dwelling elderly people ≥65 years of age, categorized into two groups by based on Operation of long life medical care system (medical care system for elderly in the latter stage of life), the cut-off value for age used was 75...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875962/the-beneficial-effects-of-taurine-to-counteract-sarcopenia
#8
Bianca M Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832209/handgrip-strength-and-factors-associated-in-poor-elderly-assisted-at-a-primary-care-unit-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#9
Valéria Teresa Saraiva Lino, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues, Gisele O'Dwyer, Mônica Kramer de Noronha Andrade, Inês Echenique Mattos, Margareth Crisóstomo Portela
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is a condition diagnosed when the patient presents low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Muscle weakness in the oldest (dynapenia) is a major public health concern because it predicts future all-cause mortality and is associated with falls, disability, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Grip strength is a simple method for assessment of muscle function in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the grip strength and identify factors associated with handgrip strength variation in elderly people with low socioeconomic status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831968/poor-nutrition-status-and-lumbar-spine-fusion-surgery-in-the-elderly-readmissions-complications-and-mortality
#10
Varun Puvanesarajah, Amit Jain, Khaled Kebaish, Christopher I Shaffrey, Daniel M Sciubba, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, A Jay Khanna, Hamid Hassanzadeh
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database review. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the medical and surgical risks associated with elective lumbar spine fusion surgery in patients with poor pre-operative nutritional status and to assess how nutritional status alters length of stay and readmission rates. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been recent interest in quantifying the increased risk of complications caused by frailty, an important consideration in elderly patients that is directly related to comorbidity burden...
November 9, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820555/sarcopenia-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-elderly-blunt-trauma-patients-comparing-the-masseter-to-the-psoas-using-computed-tomography
#11
James D Wallace, Richard Y Calvo, Paul R Lewis, Jason B Brill, Steven R Shackford, Michael J Sise, C Beth Sise, Vishal Bansal
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, or age-related loss of muscle mass, is measureable by computed tomography (CT). In elderly trauma patients, increased mortality is associated with decreased psoas muscle cross-sectional area (P-Area) on abdominal CT. Fall is the leading cause of injury in the elderly and head CT is more often obtained. Masseter muscle cross-sectional area (M-Area) is readily measured on head CT. Hypothesizing that M-Area is a satisfactory surrogate for P-Area, we compared the two as markers of sarcopenia and increased mortality in elderly trauma patients...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809450/sarcopenia-and-sarcopenic-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Kyung Mook Choi
Sarcopenia is an age-associated loss of muscle mass and decline in muscle strength; it is common in older adults and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite its prevalence, there is currently no universally adopted definition of sarcopenia. In addition to low muscle mass measurements, recent research has recognized the importance of muscle strength and physical performance. Aging induces changes in body composition, such as an increase in visceral fat and reduced muscle mass. Recently, the new concept of sarcopenic obesity has emerged, reflecting a combination of sarcopenia and obesity...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803626/body-fat-and-physical-activity-modulate-the-association-between-sarcopenia-and-osteoporosis-in-elderly-korean-women
#13
Inhwan Lee, Jinkyung Cho, Youngyun Jin, Changduk Ha, Taehee Kim, Hyunsik Kang
This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800156/sarcopenia-and-sarcopenic-obesity-do-they-predict-inferior-oncologic-outcomes-after-gastrointestinal-cancer-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Kimberly L Mei, John A Batsis, Jeannine B Mills, Stefan D Holubar
Sarcopenia, or loss of skeletal muscle mass and quality, has been studied as part of aging and adverse health outcomes in elderly patients but has only recently been evaluated as a separate condition in cancer patients and important indicator of adverse outcomes. Currently, its definition and method of assessment are still being debated. Sarcopenia within an increasingly obese population has led to a subgroup with sarcopenic obesity, at even higher risk of adverse outcomes. Yet, sarcopenia often goes undiagnosed in these patients, hidden beneath higher body mass index...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799234/low-body-mass-index-serum-creatinine-and-cause-of-death-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#15
Kashish Goel, Rajiv Gulati, Guy S Reeder, Ryan J Lennon, Bradley R Lewis, Atta Behfar, Gurpreet S Sandhu, Charanjit S Rihal, Mandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Low body mass index (BMI) and serum creatinine are surrogate markers of frailty and sarcopenia. Their relationship with cause-specific mortality in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is not well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in 9394 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2000 to 2011. BMI and serum creatinine were divided into 4 categories...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779822/frailty-is-a-major-related-factor-for-at-risk-of-malnutrition-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#16
Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754073/os-18-05-sarcopenia-is-independently-associated-with-arterial-stiffness-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Yuki Imaizumi, Kazuo Eguchi, Toshiki Kaihara, Kumiko Urano, Rieko Shinagawa, Minoru Araki, Koji Inoue, Koichiro Hokao, Yuka Tsujita, Takuya Furusawa, Ryuichiro Kaku, Kazuomi Kario
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that sarcopenia, an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes (DM). DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 65 hypertensives in the Real BP study, an observational study of home BP telemonitoring system. As parameters of sarcopenia, we used locomotive syndrome scale, circumference of the wrist, lower leg, and thigh (10 cm above the patella), grip strength, and 6 minute-walk test...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749712/relevance-of-vitamin-d-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-frailty
#18
Olivier Bruyère, Etienne Cavalier, Fanny Buckinx, Jean-Yves Reginster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this geriatric condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent studies have found a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, considered the best marker of vitamin D status, in frail individuals. All prospective studies consistently report that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of becoming frail...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743615/both-basal-and-post-prandial-muscle-protein-synthesis-rates-following-the-ingestion-of-a-leucine-enriched-whey-protein-supplement-are-not-impaired-in-sarcopenic-older-males
#19
Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette C Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725625/nutritional-deficiencies-and-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-a-therapeutic-opportunity-to-reduce-hospitalization-and-death
#20
Peter A McCullough, Mohammad Kazem Fallahzadeh, Refaat M Hegazi
There is an expanding prevalence pool of heart failure (HF) due to the increasing prevalence of survivors of myocardial infarction, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. There is increasing interest in the role of nutrition in all forms of HF, given observations concerning micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, loss of lean body mass or sarcopenia, and their relationships with hospitalization and death. This review examines the relationships among loss of lean body mass, macro- and micronutrient intake, and the natural history of HF, particularly in the elderly, in whom the risks for all-cause rehospitalization, infection, falls, and mortality are increased...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
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