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Sarcopenia in the elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523252/prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-the-world-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-general-population-studies
#1
REVIEW
Gita Shafiee, Abbasali Keshtkar, Akbar Soltani, Zeinab Ahadi, Bagher Larijani, Ramin Heshmat
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in muscle mass and function, is one of the most important health problems in elderly with a high rate of adverse outcomes. However, several studies have investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in the world, the results have been inconsistent. The current systematic review and meta- analysis study was conducted to estimate the overall prevalence of sarcopenia in both genders in different regions of the world. METHODS: Electronic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS and Web of Science were searched between January 2009 and December 2016...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511733/similarities-and-interactions-between-the-ageing-process-and-high-chronic-intake-of-added-sugars
#2
Eva Gatineau, Sergio Polakof, Dominique Dardevet, Laurent Mosoni
In our societies, the proportions of elderly people and of obese individuals are increasing. Both factors are associated with high health-related costs. During obesity, many authors suggest that it is a high chronic intake of added sugars (HCIAS) that triggers the shift towards pathology. However, the majority of studies were performed in young subjects and only a few were interested in the interaction with the ageing process. Our purpose was to discuss the metabolic effects of HCIAS, compare with the effects of ageing, and evaluate how deleterious the combined action of HCIAS and ageing could be...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502778/the-joint-association-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-physical-activity-on-the-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-performance-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#3
Chuan-Wei Yang, Chia-Ing Li, Tsai-Chung Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Wen-Yuan Lin, Cheng-Chieh Lin
BACKGROUND: Many well-known risk factors that may lead to sarcopenia are already discovered. However, their combined effects on sarcopenia components remain unclear. This study aims to explore the joint association of physical activity and insulin sensitivity on skeletal muscle mass and performance of Taiwanese elder people from a metropolitan community. METHODS: The study sample involved 844 elders who were examined through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and who underwent tests for fasting blood glucose and serum insulin level...
May 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501109/sarcopenia-a-new-predictor-of-postoperative-complications-for-elderly-gastric-cancer-patients-who-underwent-radical-gastrectomy
#4
Chong-Jun Zhou, Feng-Min Zhang, Fei-Yu Zhang, Zhen Yu, Xiao-Lei Chen, Xian Shen, Cheng-Le Zhuang, Xiao-Xi Chen
BACKGROUND: A geriatric assessment is needed to identify high-risk elderly patients with gastric cancer. However, the current geriatric assessment has been considered to be either time-consuming or subjective. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of sarcopenia on the postoperative complications for elderly patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477106/sarcopenia-in-gastric-cancer-when-the-loss-costs-too-much
#6
REVIEW
Elena Ongaro, Vanessa Buoro, Marika Cinausero, Riccardo Caccialanza, Annalisa Turri, Valentina Fanotto, Debora Basile, Maria Grazia Vitale, Paola Ermacora, Giovanni Gerardo Cardellino, Laura Nicoletti, Lorenzo Fornaro, Andrea Casadei-Gardini, Giuseppe Aprile
Sarcopenia is a complex syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Malignancy is a major determinant of sarcopenia, and gastric cancer (GC) is among the most common causes of this phenomenon. As sarcopenia is a well-recognized poor prognostic feature in GC and has been associated with worse tolerance of surgical and medical treatments, members of the multidisciplinary team should be aware of the clinical relevance, pathogenic mechanisms, and potential treatments for this syndrome...
May 5, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437312/assessment-of-sarcopenia-as-a-predictor-of-poor-outcomes-after-esophagectomy-in-elderly-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#7
Yuichiro Nakashima, Hiroshi Saeki, Ryota Nakanishi, Masahiko Sugiyama, Junji Kurashige, Eiji Oki, Yoshihiko Maehara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the impact of sarcopenia in elderly patients with esophageal cancer on postoperative complications and long-term survival after surgery for esophageal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass with age, has been identified as a poor prognostic factor for malignancies. This retrospective study investigated the effect of sarcopenia on surgical outcomes among young and elderly patients with esophageal cancer...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421788/factors-associated-with-sarcopenia-in-institutionalized-elderly
#8
Alice Ferreira Mesquita, Emanuelle Cruz da Silva, Michaela Eickemberg, Anna Karla Carneiro Roriz, Jairza Maria Barreto-Medeiros, Lílian Barbosa Ramos
INTRODUCTION: The sarcopenia is a negative aspect for the health of the elderly, increased the risk for disease and mortality. Additionally can contributes greatly to functional reducing capacity and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted with 216 elderly people, aged ≥ 60 years, of both sexes, residents in long-term care facilities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417963/loop-diuretics-affect-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-and-exercise-induced-muscle-hypertrophy
#9
Shintaro Mandai, Susumu Furukawa, Manami Kodaka, Yutaka Hata, Takayasu Mori, Naohiro Nomura, Fumiaki Ando, Yutaro Mori, Daiei Takahashi, Yuki Yoshizaki, Yuri Kasagi, Yohei Arai, Emi Sasaki, Sayaka Yoshida, Yasuro Furuichi, Nobuharu L Fujii, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
Muscle wasting or sarcopenia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, renal failure, or heart failure, and in elderly individuals. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) is highly expressed in mammalian skeletal muscle, where it contributes to the generation of membrane ion currents and potential. However, the physiologic function of NKCC1 in myogenesis is unclear. We investigated this issue using the NKCC1 inhibitors bumetanide and furosemide, which are commonly used loop diuretics...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412164/diagnosis-and-management-of-oropharyngeal-dysphagia-among-older-persons-state-of-the-art
#10
REVIEW
Omar Ortega, Alberto Martín, Pere Clavé
Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a condition recognized by the World Health Organization and defined as the difficulty or inability to move a bolus safely and effectively from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and can include aspirations, choking, and residue. OD is pandemic among different phenotypes of older people, affecting between 27% and 91% of the population 70 years or older. Although OD can be diagnosed by well-defined clinical methods and complementary explorations, in the clinical setting OD is seldom systematically screened and treated, and awareness among the medical/geriatric community is scarce...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411349/effect-of-low-appendicular-lean-mass-grip-strength-and-gait-speed-on-the-functional-outcome-after-surgery-for-distal-radius-fractures
#11
Young Hak Roh, Jung Ho Noh, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slow gait speed or weak grip strength are at risk for poor functional recovery after surgery for distal radius fracture, even when they have similar radiologic outcomes. INTRODUCTION: Loss of skeletal muscle mass and consequent loss in muscle function associate with aging, and this condition negatively impacts the activities of daily living and increases elderly individuals' frailty to falls. Thus, patients with low appendicular lean mass would show different functional recovery compared to those without this condition after surgery for distal radius fracture (DRF)...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388378/protein-turnover-and-metabolism-in-the-elderly-intensive-care-unit-patient
#12
Stuart M Phillips, Roland N Dickerson, Frederick A Moore, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Peter J M Weijs
Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients do not achieve target protein intakes particularly in the early days following admittance. This period of iatrogenic protein undernutrition contributes to a rapid loss of lean, in particular muscle, mass in the ICU. The loss of muscle in older (aged >60 years) patients in the ICU may be particularly rapid due to a perfect storm of increased catabolic factors, including systemic inflammation, disuse, protein malnutrition, and reduced anabolic stimuli. This loss of muscle mass has marked consequences...
April 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382531/resistance-training-for-glycemic-control-muscular-strength-and-lean-body-mass-in-old-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
JungHoon Lee, DoHoun Kim, ChangKeun Kim
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly patients is associated with accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. However, there are few meta-analysis reviews which investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) on glycemic control and skeletal muscle in the patients. METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched (from the earliest date available to November 2016). Studies were included according to the inclusion criteria: T2D patients at least 60 years old, fasting plasma glucose of at least 7...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378563/mean-hand-grip-strength-and-cut-off-value-for-sarcopenia-in-korean-adults-using-knhanes-vi
#14
Jun Il Yoo, Hana Choi, Yong Chan Ha
The purpose of this study was to report age- and gender-specific distribution of the hand grip strength (HGS) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-3 (2015) survey and determine cut-off values for low muscle strength of HGS of Koreans. Of a total of 7,380 participants, 4,553 were subjected to measurements of HGS, including 1,997 men and 2,556 women with a mean age of 49.3 years (range, 19-80 years). The mean ages of men and women were 49.0 and 49.5 years, respectively...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369482/impact-of-sarcopenia-on-the-outcomes-of-elective-total-arch-replacement-in-the-elderly%C3%A2
#15
Yuki Ikeno, Yutaka Koide, Noriyuki Abe, Takashi Matsueda, Naoto Izawa, Takahiro Yamazato, Shunsuke Miyahara, Yoshikatsu Nomura, Shunsuke Sato, Hiroaki Takahashi, Takeshi Inoue, Masamichi Matsumori, Hiroshi Tanaka, Satoshi Ishihara, Shinichi Nakayama, Koji Sugimoto, Yutaka Okita
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify the cut-off value of sarcopenia based on the psoas muscle area index and evaluate early and late outcomes following elective total arch replacement in the elderly. METHODS: Sarcopenia was assessed by the psoas muscle area index [defined as the psoas muscle area at the L3 level on computed tomography (cm 2 )/body surface area (m 2 )]. The cut-off value for sarcopenia was defined as > 2 standard deviations below the mean psoas muscle area index value obtained from 464 normal control patients...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331906/associations-between-sarcopenia-and-degenerative-lumbar-scoliosis-in-older-women
#16
Yawara Eguchi, Munetaka Suzuki, Hajime Yamanaka, Hiroshi Tamai, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Miyako Suzuki, Kazuhide Inage, Kazuki Fujimoto, Hirohito Kanamoto, Koki Abe, Yasuchika Aoki, Tomoaki Toyone, Tomoyuki Ozawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia can cause various forms of physical disabilities. We investigated how sarcopenia affects degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). METHODS: Subjects comprised 40 elderly women (mean age 74 years) with spinal disease whose chief complaints were low back pain and lower limb pain. They included 15 cases of DLS (mean 74.8 years) and 25 cases of LSCS (mean age 72.9 years). We performed whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to analyze body composition, including appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass index (SMI; lean mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and bone mineral density (BMD)...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329045/extensive-type-ii-muscle-fiber-atrophy-in-elderly-female-hip-fracture-patients
#17
Irene Fleur Kramer, Tim Snijders, Joey S J Smeets, Marika Leenders, Janneau van Kranenburg, Marcel den Hoed, Lex B Verdijk, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
Background: Sarcopenia, or the loss of muscle mass and strength, is known to increase the risk for falls and (hip) fractures in older people. The objective of this study was to assess the skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in elderly female hip fracture patients. Method: Percutaneous needle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle in 15 healthy young women (20 ± 0.4 years), 15 healthy elderly women (79 ± 1.7 years), and 15 elderly women with a fall-related hip fracture (82 ± 1...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318372/white-blood-cell-counts-insulin-resistance-vitamin-d-levels-and-sarcopenia-in-korean-elderly-men
#18
Sang-Hwan Kim, Hyun Seok Kwon, Hee-Jin Hwang
Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht(2)) that was <2 SD below the normal means for young adults. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index [(insulin (IU/mL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/18)/22...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303397/association-of-the-baltic-sea-and-mediterranean-diets-with-indices-of-sarcopenia-in-elderly-women-osptre-fps-study
#19
Masoud Isanejad, Joonas Sirola, Jaakko Mursu, Toni Rikkonen, Heikki Kröger, Marjo Tuppurainen, Arja T Erkkilä
PURPOSE: To examine whether higher adherence to Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and Mediterranean diet (MED) have beneficial association with sarcopenia indices in elderly women. METHODS: In total 554 women, aged 65-72 years belonging to OSTPRE-FPS study answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-day food record at baseline in 2002. Food consumptions and nutrient intakes were calculated. Nine components were selected to calculate BSD score. MED score was calculated using eight components...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294983/on-the-emerging-role-of-the-taste-receptor-type-1-t1r-family-of-nutrient-sensors-in-the-musculoskeletal-system
#20
REVIEW
Shoichiro Kokabu, Jonathan W Lowery, Takashi Toyono, Tsuyoshi Sato, Tetsuya Yoda
The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R) family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R) family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose...
March 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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