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Sarcopenia in the elderly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451419/physical-exercise-nutrition-and-hormones-three-pillars-to-fight-sarcopenia
#1
Paolo Sgrò, Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Sansone, Stefania Sabatini, Paolo Borrione, Francesco Romanelli, Luigi Di Luigi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a pathophysiological condition diffused in elderly people; it represents a social issue due to the longer life expectancy and the growing aging population. It affects negatively quality of life and it represents a risk factor for other pathologies, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. No silver bullet exists to hinder sarcopenia, but it may be counteracted by physical exercise, nutrition, and a proper endocrine milieu. Indeed, we aim to analyze the scientific literature to give to clinician effective advices to counteract sarcopenia...
February 16, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445830/bone-health-assessment-in-older-people-with-or-without-muscle-health-impairment
#2
M Locquet, C Beaudart, O Bruyère, J A Kanis, L Delandsheere, J-Y Reginster
This study investigated the relationship between muscle and bone status in elderly individuals. Our results suggested links between sarcopenia and osteoporosis; impairment in muscle status (i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance) is associated with deterioration in bone mass and texture subsequently leading to an increased risk of fracture. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has shown associations between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but existing studies face inconsistencies in the clinical definition of both conditions...
February 14, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436734/risk-of-malnutrition-evaluated-by-mini-nutritional-assessment-and-sarcopenia-in-noninstitutionalized-elderly-people
#3
Ilaria Liguori, Francesco Curcio, Gennaro Russo, Michele Cellurale, Luisa Aran, Giulia Bulli, David Della-Morte, Gaetano Gargiulo, Gianluca Testa, Francesco Cacciatore, Domenico Bonaduce, Pasquale Abete
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition indices and muscle mass and strength in the elderly are poorly investigated. Moreover, malnutrition seems to be 1 of the more important factors in the cause of sarcopenia. The presence of sarcopenia and its relationship with malnutrition indices were studied in noninstitutionalized elderly people who underwent Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). METHODS: A total of 473 elderly subjects (mean age, 80.9 ± 6.6 years) admitted to CGA were studied...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421351/age-related-remodelling-of-the-myotendinous-junction-in-the-mouse-soleus-muscle
#4
Kathrine B Nielsen, Navneet N Lal, Philip W Sheard
The age-related loss of muscle mass and function predominantly affect muscles of the lower limbs and have largely been associated with decline in muscle fibre size and number, although the exact mechanisms underlying these losses are poorly understood. In addition, consistent reports that the loss of muscle strength exceeds that which can be explained by declines in muscle mass has widened the search for causes of sarcopenia to include supporting tissues such as the extracellular matrix and tendons. Although the changes to both muscle and tendon with age are well characterised, little work has focused on the interface between these two tissues, the myotendinous junction (MTJ)...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416549/actn3-morbidity-and-healthy-aging
#5
REVIEW
Craig Pickering, John Kiely
As human longevity increases, recent research has focused on the maintenance of optimal health during old age. One such area of focus is that of muscle function in the elderly, with a loss of muscle mass increasing the risk of negative outcomes such as sarcopenia and a decrease in bone mineral density. In this mini-review, we focus on the impact of a single nucleotide polymorphism in ACTN3, shown to impact muscle phenotype in elite athletes, on loss of muscle function, maintenance of bone mineral density, and metabolic disorder risk in an elderly population...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412442/preliminary-study-on-prevalence-and-associated-factors-with-sarcopenia-in-a-geriatric-hospitalized-rehabilitation-setting
#6
K Pongpipatpaiboon, I Kondo, K Onogi, S Mori, K Ozaki, A Osawa, H Matsuo, N Itoh, M Tanimoto
The reported prevalence of sarcopenia has shown a wide range, crucially based on the diagnostic criteria and setting. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia and sought to identify factors associated with sarcopenia on admission in a specialized geriatric rehabilitation setting based on the newly developed the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia algorithm. Among 87 participants (mean age, 76.05 ± 7.57 years), 35 (40.2%) were classified as showing sarcopenia on admission. Prevalence was high, particularly among participants ≥80 years old, with tendencies toward lower body mass index, smoking habit, lower cognitive function, and greater functional impairment compared with the non-sarcopenic group...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412438/the-vicious-cycle-of-myostatin-signaling-in-sarcopenic-obesity-myostatin-role-in-skeletal-muscle-growth-insulin-signaling-and-implications-for-clinical-trials
#7
L A Consitt, B C Clark
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) is a major health concern as it is associated with physical disability, metabolic impairments, and increased mortality. The coexistence of sarcopenia with obesity, termed 'sarcopenic obesity', contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes, a disease prevalent with advancing age. Despite this knowledge, the mechanisms contributing to sarcopenic obesity remain poorly understood, preventing the development of targeted therapeutics...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397577/aging-affects-the-in%C3%A2-vivo-regenerative-potential-of-human-mesoangioblasts
#8
Alessio Rotini, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Robin Duelen, Domiziana Costamagna, Ester Sara Di Filippo, Giorgia Giacomazzi, Hanne Grosemans, Stefania Fulle, Maurilio Sampaolesi
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. Although the role of human satellite cells (SCs) as adult skeletal muscle stem cells has been deeply investigated, little is known about the impact of aging on muscle interstitial stem cells. Here, we isolated the non-SC CD56- fraction from human muscle biopsies of young and elderly subjects. The elderly interstitial cell population contained a higher number of CD15+ and PDGFRα+ cells when compared to young samples. In addition, we found that the CD56- /ALP+ cells were well represented as a multipotent stem cell population inside the CD56- fraction...
February 4, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397040/phase-angle-as-a-sarcopenia-marker-in-hospitalized-elderly-patients
#9
Natalia de Moraes Santana, Claudia Porto Sabino Pinho, Cristiane Pereira da Silva, Natalia Fernandes Dos Santos, Roberta Maria Lins Mendes
BACKGROUND: Phase angle (PhA) has been proposed as a parameter to predict clinical outcomes and mortality for various diseases. Several studies have considered it an important nutrition assessment tool. However, the usefulness of this parameter as a sarcopenia marker has not yet been evaluated. This study was developed to evaluate the performance of PhA as a sarcopenia marker in hospitalized elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elderly patients admitted to a hospital in northeastern Brazil...
February 3, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396436/effects-of-elastic-band-exercise-on-lean-mass-and-physical-capacity-in-older-women-with-sarcopenic-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Shih-Wei Huang, Jan-Wen Ku, Dun-Jen Hsiao, Tsan-Hon Liou
Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass as well as an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of elastic band resistance training (ERT) on muscle mass and physical function in older women with sarcopenic obesity. A randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. A total of 56 women (mean ± SD age 67.3 ± 5.1 years) were randomly assigned to the experimental group receiving 12 weeks of ERT and to the control group receiving no exercise intervention...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343989/comparison-of-the-performance-of-five-screening-methods-for-sarcopenia
#11
Médéa Locquet, Charlotte Beaudart, Jean-Yves Reginster, Jean Petermans, Olivier Bruyère
Background: Sarcopenia leads to serious adverse health consequences. There is a dearth of screening tools for this condition, and performances of these instruments have rarely been evaluated. Our aim was to compare the performance of five screening tools for identifying elders at risk of sarcopenia against five diagnostic definitions. Subjects and methods: We gathered cross-sectional data of elders from the SarcoPhAge ("Sarco"penia and "Ph"ysical Impairment with Advancing "Age") study...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324650/update-on-the-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-sarcopenia-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Alex Buoite Stella, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni, Michela Zanetti
Elderly and patients affected by chronic diseases face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function. Omega 3 fatty acids (FA) attenuate inflammation and age-associated muscle loss, prevent systemic insulin resistance and improve plasma lipids, potentially impacting on sarcopenia. This paper aims to review recent randomized clinical studies assessing the effects a chronic omega 3 FA supplementation on inflammatory and metabolic profile during conditions characterized by sarcopenia (aging, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure)...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298650/potential-application-of-centrifuges-to-protect-the-cns-in-space-and-on-earth
#13
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Yuki Shimizu, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Jianshe Wei, Makoto Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Centrifuges are the principal means of generating physiological hypergravity and have been used for many medical purposes, including the therapy of psychiatric diseases and evaluation of vestibular system in the pilots. In particular, modern centrifuges have evolved into mechanically sophisticated precision instruments compared to primitive ones in old times, indicating that centrifuges might possess great potential in modern medicine. Indeed, studies are in progress to apply centrifuges to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia...
December 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290364/association-of-sarcopenic-obesity-predicted-by-anthropometric-measurements-and-24-y-all-cause-mortality-in-elderly-men-the-kuakini-honolulu-heart-program
#14
Kiyoshi Sanada, Randi Chen, Bradley Willcox, Tomoyuki Ohara, Aida Wen, Cody Takenaka, Kamal Masaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between anthropometric measurements of sarcopenic obesity and all-cause mortality. METHODS: The study included 2309 Japanese-American men ages 71 to 93 y. Mortality data were available for up to 24 y of follow-up. Sarcopenic obesity defined by three patterns of obesity indexes (body mass index [BMI], percent body fat [%BF] and waist circumference [WC]) and skeletal muscle index estimated by anthropometric measurements...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287676/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-sarcopenia-in-a-western-population-nhanes-iii-the-importance-of-sarcopenia-definition
#15
Tao-Chun Peng, Li-Wei Wu, Wei-Liang Chen, Fang-Yih Liaw, Yaw-Wen Chang, Tung-Wei Kao
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that sarcopenia is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. We investigated whether NAFLD is associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia using a different definition in elderly patients. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of US patients was conducted, involving 2551 participants aged 60-75 years. NAFLD was measured by ultrasound. Sarcopenia was defined by both a low muscle mass and poor muscle function...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285609/functional-compromise-cohort-study-fccs-sarcopenia-is-a-strong-predictor-of-mortality-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#16
P A de Hoogt, K W Reisinger, J J W Tegels, J W A M Bosmans, F Tijssen, J H M B Stoot
BACKGROUND: Functional compromise in elderly patients is considered to be a significant contributing factor in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. It is described as a state of reduced physiologic reserves including, e.g., sarcopenia, cachexia, malnutrition and frailty with increased susceptibility to adverse health outcomes. Aim of this study was to investigate the association of sarcopenia with mortality in ICU patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a total of 687 patients admitted to the ICU from January 2013 until December 2014 was performed...
December 29, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279422/-aging-related-changes-in-motor-organs-and-energy-metabolism
#17
Mitsutaka Yakabe, Masahiro Akishita
Aging causes loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, which is termed as sarcopenia. Aging of the neurological system may affect motor organs. Reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass induce insulin resistance, which is one of the causes for impaired glucose tolerance in the elderly.
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259496/immunosenescence-in-aging-between-immune-cells-depletion-and-cytokines-up-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Ventura, Marco Casciaro, Sebastiano Gangemi, Rosalba Buquicchio
Background: The immunosenescence is a relatively recent chapter, correlated with the linear extension of the average life began in the nineteenth century and still in progress. The most important feature of immunosenescence is the accumulation in the "immunological space" of memory and effector cells as a result of the stimulation caused by repeated clinical and subclinical infections and by continuous exposure to antigens (inhalant allergens, food, etc.). This state of chronic inflammation that characterizes senescence has a significant impact on survival and fragility...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247259/effect-of-sarcopenia-on-clinical-and-surgical-outcome-in-elderly-patients-with-proximal-femur-fractures
#19
Ching-Di Chang, Jim S Wu, Jennifer Ni Mhuircheartaigh, Marry G Hochman, Edward K Rodriguez, Paul T Appleton, Colm J Mcmahon
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia with short-term surgical outcome in elderly patients with proximal femur fractures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Following Institutional Review Board approval, a database of patients receiving a pelvis CT scan for acute trauma between January 2000-August 2016 was screened for an isolated proximal femur fracture. Patients were excluded if they were: < 50 years old, had conditions predisposing to sarcopenia (renal failure, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophies), had undergone no surgical treatment, had other major traumatic injuries, or had a pathologic femur fracture...
December 15, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238004/frailty-in-elderly-diabetes-patients
#20
Toshihiko Yanase, Ikumi Yanagita, Kazuo Muta, Hajime Nawata
Frailty is a state of vulnerability and a consequence of cumulative decline in multiple physiological systems over a lifespan. The occurrence of frailty depends on deterioration in muscle and nerve function, declining cardiopulmonary reserve and loss of executive function. Diabetes mellitus (DM) often causes functional impairment in each of the above systems, thus leading to a loss of whole body homeostasis and deterioration in physical function. Inability of self-management in DM patients may also have considerable impact on the development of sarcopenia/frailty...
December 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
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