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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911199/age-dependent-effects-of-armc5-haploinsufficiency-on-adrenocortical-function
#1
A Berthon, F R Faucz, S Espiard, L Drougat, J Bertherat, C A Stratakis
Inactivating mutations in the Armadillo repeat-containing 5 (ARMC5) gene have recently been discovered in primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), a cause of Cushing syndrome. Biallelic ARMC5 inactivation in PMAH suggested that ARMC5 may have tumor suppressor functions in the adrenal cortex. We generated and characterized a new mouse model of Armc5 deficiency. Almost all Armc5 knockout mice died during early embryonic development, around 6.5 and 8.5 days. Knockout embryos did not undergo gastrulation, as demonstrated by the absence of mesoderm development at E7...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#2
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911143/assessment-of-vav2-expression-refines-prognostic-prediction-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#3
Silviu Sbiera, Iuliu Sbiera, Carmen Ruggiero, Mabrouka Doghman-Bouguerra, Esther Korpershoek, Ronald R de Krijger, Hester Ettaieb, Harm Haak, Marco Volante, Mauro Papotti, Giuseppe Reimondo, Massimo Terzolo, Michaela Luconi, Gabriella Nesi, Massimo Mannelli, Rossella Libé, Bruno Ragazzon, Guillaume Assié, Jérôme Bertherat, Barbara Altieri, Guido Fadda, Natalie Rogowski-Lehmann, Martin Reincke, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Fassnacht, Enzo Lalli
Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with overall poor prognosis. The Ki67 labeling index (LI) has a major prognostic role in localized ACC after complete resection, but its estimates may suffer from considerable intra- and interobserver variability. VAV2 overexpression induced by increased Steroidogenic Factor-1 dosage is an essential factor driving ACC tumor cell invasion. Objective: To assess the prognostic role of VAV2 expression in ACC by investigation of a large cohort of patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911133/kisspeptin-is-a-novel-regulator-of-human-fetal-adrenocortical-development-and-function-a-finding-with-important-implications-for-the-human-fetoplacental-unit
#4
Harshini Katugampola, Peter J King, Sumana Chatterjee, Muriel Meso, Andrew J Duncan, John C Achermann, Leo Guasti, Lea Ghataore, Norman F Taylor, Rebecca Allen, Shemoon Marlene, Joseph Aquilina, Ali Abbara, Channa N Jaysena, Waljit S Dhillo, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi, Helen L Storr
Context: The human fetal adrenal (HFA) is an integral component of the fetoplacental unit and important for the maintenance of pregnancy. Low kisspeptin levels during pregnancy are associated with miscarriage, and kisspeptin and its receptor are expressed in the HFA. However, the role of kisspeptin in fetal adrenal function remains unknown. Objective: To determine the role of kisspeptin in the developing HFA. Design: Experiments using H295R and primary HFA cells as in vitro models of the fetal adrenal...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910603/apolipoprotein-a-iv-constrains-hpa-and-behavioral-stress-responsivity-in-a-strain-dependent-manner
#5
Amy E B Packard, Jintao Zhang, Brent Myers, Chih-Wei Ko, Fei Wang, Patrick Tso, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus...
September 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904054/a-13-steroid-serum-panel-based-on-lc-ms-ms-use-in-detection-of-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#6
David R Taylor, Lea Ghataore, Lewis Couchman, Royce P Vincent, Ben Whitelaw, Dylan Lewis, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Gabriele Galata, Klaus-Martin Schulte, Simon Aylwin, Norman F Taylor
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, with an annual incidence of 1 or 2 cases per million. Biochemical diagnosis is challenging because up to two-thirds of the carcinomas are biochemically silent, resulting from de facto enzyme deficiencies in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Urine steroid profiling by GC-MS is an effective diagnostic test for ACC because of its capacity to detect and quantify the increased metabolites of steroid pathway synthetic intermediates...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903579/loneliness-social-isolation-and-cardiovascular-health
#7
Ning Xia, Huige Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and perceived social isolation (loneliness) are associated with increased mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902350/trophic-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-human-pituitary-adenomas-review
#8
Marialuisa Spoletini, Samanta Taurone, Mario Tombolini, Antonio Minni, Giancarlo Altissimi, Venceslao Wierzbicki, Felice Giangaspero, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Marco Artico, Lia Bardella, Enzo Agostinelli, Francesco Saverio Pastore
The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity...
October 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898715/cortisol-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-trajectories-following-a-group-social-evaluative-stressor-with-adolescents
#9
Deirdre A Katz, Melissa K Peckins
Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)...
August 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895102/the-impact-of-nodal-dissection-on-staging-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#10
Suraj Panjwani, Maureen D Moore, Katherine D Gray, Brendan M Finnerty, Toni Beninato, Laurent Brunaud, Thomas J Fahey, Rasa Zarnegar
BACKGROUND: The role of lymphadenectomy in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial, and formal lymph node (LN) dissection is not routine. We sought to determine the minimum number of LNs that must be examined to accurately identify a patient as node negative. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients diagnosed with ACC from 2004 to 2013 who underwent surgical resection. Patients with distant metastases, multivisceral resection, or missing surgical or lymphadenectomy data were excluded...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895001/regulation-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical-responses-to-stressors-by-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-dorsal-vagal-complex
#11
REVIEW
James P Herman
Hindbrain neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are critical for regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses to stress. It is well known that noradrenergic (as well as adrenergic) neurons in the NTS send direct projections to hypophysiotropic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and control activation of HPA axis responses to acute systemic (but not psychogenic) stressors. Norepinephrine (NE) signaling via alpha1 receptors is primarily excitatory, working either directly on CRH neurons or through presynaptic activation of glutamate release...
September 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894201/cortisol-overproduction-results-from-dna-methylation-of-cyp11b1-in-hypercortisolemia
#12
Mitsuhiro Kometani, Takashi Yoneda, Masashi Demura, Hiroshi Koide, Koshiro Nishimoto, Kuniaki Mukai, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Tadayuki Akagi, Takashi Yokota, Shin-Ichi Horike, Shigehiro Karashima, Isamu Miyamori, Masakazu Yamagishi, Yoshiyu Takeda
Adrenocortical hormone excess, due to primary aldosteronism (PA) or hypercortisolemia, causes hypertension and cardiovascular complications. In PA, hypomethylation of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is associated with aldosterone overproduction. However, in hypercortisolemia, the role of DNA methylation of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which catalyzes cortisol biosynthesis and is highly homologous to CYP11B2, is unclear. The aims of our study were to determine whether the CYP11B1 expression was regulated through DNA methylation in hypercortisolemia with cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA), and to investigate a possible relationship between DNA methylation and somatic mutations identified in CPA...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893836/immunotherapy-against-endocrine-malignancies-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-lead-the-way
#13
Lucas Leite Cunha, Marjory Alana Marcello, Vinicius Rocha-Santos, Laura Sterian Ward
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are agents that act by inhibiting the mechanisms of immune escape displayed by various cancers. The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors against several tumors has promoted a new treatment strategy in clinical oncology, and this has encouraged physicians to increase the number of patients who receive the immune checkpoint therapy. In the present article, we review the main concepts regarding immune checkpoint mechanisms and how cancer disrupts them to undergo immune escape. In addition, we describe the most essential concepts related to immune checkpoint inhibitors...
September 11, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890850/minimum-infusion-rate-and-adrenocortical-function-after-continuous-infusion-of-the-novel-etomidate-analog-et-26-hcl-in-rats
#14
Junli Jiang, Bin Wang, Zhaoqiong Zhu, Jun Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Because etomidate induces prolonged adrenal suppression, even following a single bolus, its use as an infused anesthetic is limited. Our previous study indicated that a single administration of the novel etomidate analog methoxyethyletomidate hydrochloride (ET-26-HCl) shows little suppression of adrenocortical function. The aims of the present study were to (1) determine the minimum infusion rate of ET-26-HCl and compare it with those for etomidate and cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (CPMM), a rapidly metabolized etomidate analog that is currently in clinical trials and (2) to evaluate adrenocortical function after a continuous infusion of ET-26-HCl as part of a broader study investigating whether this etomidate analog is suitable for long infusion in the maintenance of anesthesia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888979/resveratrol-piceatannol-and-analogs-inhibit-activation-of-both-wild-type-and-t877a-mutant-androgen-receptor
#15
Johan Lundqvist, Corrado Tringali, Agneta Oskarsson
Prostate cancer growth and progression is mainly dependent on androgens and many current prostate cancer treatment options target the synthesis or function of androgens. We have previously reported that resveratrol and synthetic analogs of resveratrol with a higher bioavailability inhibit the synthesis of androgens in human adrenocortical H295R cells. Now we have studied the antiandrogenic properties of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs in two different prostate cell lines; LNCaP and RWPE. LNCaP carry a T877A mutation in the androgen receptor while RWPE has a wild-type androgen receptor...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887710/increased-mortality-in-patients-with-adrenal-incidentalomas-and-autonomous-cortisol-secretion-a-13-year-retrospective-study-from-one-center
#16
Jekaterina Patrova, Magnus Kjellman, Hans Wahrenberg, Henrik Falhammar
PURPOSE: To compare long-term outcomes in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) with the response to a 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST). METHODS: Consecutive patients with "non-functional" AIs (n = 365) were examined. Patients with overt hormone excess, adrenocortical cancer and known malignancy had been excluded. Patients were classified to normal cortisol secretion group (n = 204, DST ≤ 50 nmol/l), possible autonomous cortisol secretion group (n = 128, DST 51-138 nmol/l) and autonomous cortisol secretion group (n = 33, DST ≥ 138 nmol/l)...
September 8, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887601/is-there-a-role-for-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-adrenocortical-tumors
#17
Daniel Bulzico, Paulo Antônio Silvestre de Faria, Camila Bravo Maia, Marcela Pessoa de Paula, Davi Coe Torres, Gerson Moura Ferreira, Bruno Ricardo Barreto Pires, Rocio Hassan, Eliana Abdelhay, Mario Vaisman, Leonardo Vieira Neto
PURPOSE: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological dynamic process by which epithelial cells lose their epithelial phenotype and acquire mesenchymal invasive and migratory characteristics. This has been postulated as an essential step during cancer progression and metastasis. Although this is well described in other tumors, the role of EMT in adrenocortical tumors (ACT) has yet to be addressed. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of EMT markers e-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin, along with EMT-transcription factors (EMT-TFs), TWIST1, SIP1, and SNAIL in 24 adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), 19 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), 27 childhood-onset adrenocortical tumors (CAT), and 12 normal adrenal glands...
September 8, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882766/pharmacologic-studies-on-et-26-hydrochloride-in-a-rat-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-sepsis
#18
Bin Wang, Junli Jiang, Jun Yang, Jun Chen, Zhaoqiong Zhu, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS)...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881628/establishment-of-a-mouse-xenograft-model-of-metastatic-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#19
Aurélie Morin, Carmen Ruggiero, Estelle Robidel, Mabrouka Doghman-Bouguerra, Atze T Das, Rémy Castellano, Emmanuelle Josselin, Judith Favier, Enzo Lalli
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Very important advances have been made in the identification of the genetic determinants of adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenesis but our understanding is still limited about the mechanisms that determine cancer spread and metastasis. One major problem hindering preclinical experimentation for new therapies for adrenocortical carcinoma is represented by the lack of suitable animal models for metastatic disease. With the aim to overcome these limitations, in this study we tested several protocols in order to establish a mouse xenograft model of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880439/complete-response-in-a-patient-with-stage-iv-adrenocortical-carcinoma-treated-with-adjuvant-trans-catheter-arterial-chemo-embolization-tace
#20
Eugene Wong, Sarah Jacques, Michael Bennett, Vineet Gorolay, Adrian Lee, Stephen Clarke
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare cancer, with estimate population incidence of 0.7-2.0 cases per 1 million each year. It also carries poor prognosis with estimated 5-year survival of less than 15% of those with metastatic disease and has a poor response to cytotoxic treatment. A randomized controlled trial published in 2012 by Fassnacht et al. demonstrated improved progression-free survival with first-line etoposide-doxirubicin-cisplatin-mitotane (EDP-M) compared to first-line streptozocin-mitotane in patients with stage III-IV disease...
September 6, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
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