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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341163/extent-of-surgery-for-phaeochromocytomas-in-the-genomic-era
#1
REVIEW
H M Rossitti, P Söderkvist, O Gimm
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations are present in 20-30 per cent of patients with phaeochromocytoma. For patients who develop bilateral disease, complete removal of both adrenal glands (total adrenalectomy) will result in lifelong adrenal insufficiency with an increased risk of death from adrenal crisis. Unilateral/bilateral adrenal-sparing surgery (subtotal adrenalectomy) offers preservation of cortical function and independence from steroids, but leaves the adrenal medulla in situ and thus at risk of developing new and possibly malignant disease...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340997/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-of-mesenchymal-neoplasms-in-endocrine-organs-diagnostic-pitfalls-and-recent-discoveries
#2
Yin P Hung, Jason L Hornick
Mesenchymal neoplasms rarely present in or adjacent to endocrine organs. In this context, the recognition of these rare tumor types can be challenging, with significant potential for misdiagnosis as sarcomatoid carcinomas (i.e., anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and sarcomatoid adrenal cortical carcinoma) or neuroendocrine carcinomas, depending upon the dominant histologic patterns. In this review, we address potential pitfalls in diagnosing selected mesenchymal neoplasms arising within or near endocrine organs, including dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, angiosarcoma, PEComa, proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and neuroblastoma...
January 16, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319480/the-impact-of-patient-disease-and-treatment-related-factors-on-survival-in-patients-with-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#3
Nahid Punjani, Roderick Clark, Jonathan Izawa, Joseph Chin, Stephen E Pautler, Nicholas Power
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive endocrine tumour. Most present with advanced disease and have poor prognosis. Optimal treatment includes complete surgical resection. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation at different stages in this disease. There remain many inconsistencies with respect to diagnosis and workup. There is a lack of uniform guideline recommendations and consensus data. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients at London Health Sciences Centre between 1990 and 2015 using ICD coding...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285423/renal-intercalated-cells-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Susan M Wall
Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO3- secretion modulates acid-base balance...
December 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283337/oncocytic-adreno-cortical-tumors-pathological-features-of-16-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Yesim Ertan, Asuman Argon, Murat Özdemir, Banu Pınar Sarer Yürekli, Zafer Dökümcü, Özer Makay
Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal gland are extremely rare tumors. These tumors differ from their nononcocytic counterparts in some respects. The aim of this study was to review and discuss the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of as well as the prognosis for these rare tumors. In total, 16 cases diagnosed as adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms between January 2011 and December 2016 were included in the study. The demographic data, gross characteristics, histological data, and immunohistochemical data (Chromogranin-A, Synaptophysin, α-Inhibin, Melan-A, Ki67, PHH3) were reevaluated...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238437/persistent-primary-aldosteronism-despite-iatrogenic-adrenal-hemorrhage-after-adrenal-vein-sampling
#6
Keisuke Okamura, Tetsu Okuda, Kazuyuki Shirai, Ichiro Abe, Kunihisa Kobayashi, Tatsu Ishii, Seiji Haraoka, Hidenori Urata
Before surgery for primary aldosteronism (PA), localization is evaluated with adrenal vein sampling (AVS). A 56-year-old Japanese woman had a right adrenal mass, hypokalemia, and a high aldosterone/renin ratio. Stress tests confirmed the diagnosis of PA. Subsequently, preoperative AVS was performed and right adrenal hemorrhage (AH) occurred unexpectedly. Because hypertension persisted, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. Postoperatively, the blood pressure was normalized. Pathological examination revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma largely unaffected by necrosis and hemorrhage...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#7
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211850/sonic-hedgehog-and-wnt-signaling-promote-adrenal-gland-regeneration-in-male-mice
#8
Isabella Finco, Antonio M Lerario, Gary D Hammer
The atrophy and hypofunction of the adrenal cortex following long-term pharmacologic glucocorticoid therapy are a major health problem necessitating chronic glucocorticoid replacement that often prolongs the ultimate return of endogenous adrenocortical function. Underlying this functional recovery is anatomic regeneration, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Investigating the lineage contribution of cortical Shh+ progenitor cells and the SHH-responsive capsular Gli1+ cells to the regenerating adrenal cortex, we observed a spatially and temporally bimodal contribution of both cell types to adrenocortical regeneration following cessation of glucocorticoid treatment...
December 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199635/melatonin-elicits-stimulatory-action-on-the-adrenal-gland-of-soay-ram-morphometrical-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study
#9
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 4, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199079/nociceptive-cortical-activity-is-dissociated-from-nociceptive-behavior-in-newborn-human-infants-under-stress
#10
Laura Jones, Lorenzo Fabrizi, Maria Laudiano-Dray, Kimberley Whitehead, Judith Meek, Madeleine Verriotis, Maria Fitzgerald
Newborn infants display strong nociceptive behavior in response to tissue damaging stimuli, and this is accompanied by nociceptive activity generated in subcortical and cortical areas of the brain [1, 2]. In the absence of verbal report, these nociceptive responses are used as measures of pain sensation in newborn humans, as they are in animals [3, 4]. However, many infants are raised in a physiologically stressful environment, and little is known about the effect of background levels of stress upon their pain responses...
November 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194699/ultrasonographic-findings-of-1385-adrenal-masses-a-retrospective-study-of-1319-benign-and-66-malignant-masses
#11
Xia Gong, Yifei Yu, Weiwei Zhan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the features of adrenal masses on ultrasonography and correlate the findings with the pathologic diagnoses to help distinguish benign from malignant adrenal lesions. METHODS: Ultrasonography was performed in 1363 patients with adrenal lesions. The following ultrasonographic parameters were recorded: size, shape, margin, echogenicity, echo texture, cystic necrosis, calcifications, and blood supply. The sensitivity and specificity of aggressive features for predicting malignancy were calculated...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157485/la-chirurgie-d%C3%A2-%C3%A3-pargne-surr%C3%A3-nalienne-du-cortex-%C3%A3-la-m%C3%A3-dulla-cortical-sparing-surgery-from-cortex-to-medulla
#12
A Ferriere, V Kerlan, A Tabarin
The 2017 Endocrine Society annual meeting included several communications and debates on the conservative adrenal surgery in bilateral hereditary pheochromocytomas (BHP), bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (BAMH) and primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA). The general principle is to preserve a part of the adrenal cortex to prevent the occurrence of a definitive adrenal insufficiency. In BHP, cortical sparing surgery allows more than 50% of patients to maintain normal corticotropic function at 10 years with a low recurrence rate (~ 10%)...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151070/circadian-rhythms-of-melatonin-and-cortisol-in-manifest-huntington-s-disease-and-in-acute-cortical-ischemic-stroke
#13
A Adamczak-Ratajczak, J Kupsz, M Owecki, D Zielonka, A Sowinska, Z Checinska-Maciejewska, H Krauss, S Michalak, M Gibas-Dorna
Recent studies indicate disruptions to the circadian system in brain injury and neurodegeneration. The results, however, are often not consistent and limited by measurement of only one circadian marker and by infrequent sampling rates. In this study, we examined diurnal rhythmicity in different stages of Huntington (HD) disease and in patients with acute moderate ischemic stroke (AIS) outside the retinohypothalamic pathway by evaluating serum concentrations of melatonin and cortisol at twelve timepoints. All study participants were subjected to the same study protocol of 12-hour light/dark cycle and controlled room conditions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146062/three-cases-of-adrenocortical-tumors-mistaken-for-hepatocellular-carcinomas-diagnostic-pitfalls-and-differential-diagnosis
#14
Won Young Park, Hyung Il Seo, Kyung Un Choi, Ahrong Kim, Young Keum Kim, So Jeong Lee, Chang Hun Lee, Gi Yeong Huh, Do Youn Park
Adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in other parenchyma are extremely rare, with few cases reported and because of the rarity of these tumors, they occasionally cause problems during diagnosis. Adrenal cortical neoplasms in liver parenchyma can be present in 3 forms, including direct invasion or adhesion to liver parenchyma, tumors arising in adrenohepatic fusion tissue or in ectopic adrenal gland tissue. We report 3 cases of adrenal cortical tumors that were misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma in the preoperative state...
December 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126554/preoperative-genetic-testing-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas-influences-the-surgical-approach-and-the-extent-of-adrenal-surgery
#15
Pavel Nockel, Mustapha El Lakis, Apostolos Gaitanidis, Lily Yang, Roxanne Merkel, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol, Tamara Prodanov, Karel Pacak, Electron Kebebew
BACKGROUND: Our knowledge of the susceptibility genes for pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas has increased; however, data on its impact on surgical decision-making has not been described. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of routine preoperative genetic testing on the operative intervention in patients with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas. METHODS: One-hundred-eight patients diagnosed with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas who underwent 118 operations had preoperative genetic testing for 9 known pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes...
January 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104061/post-weaning-social-isolation-of-rats-leads-to-long-term-disruption-of-the-gut-microbiota-immune-brain-axis
#16
Fionn Dunphy Doherty, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Veronica L Peterson, Orla O'Sullivan, Fiona Crispie, Paul D Cotter, Peter Wigmore, Madeleine V King, John F Cryan, Kevin C F Fone
Early-life stress is an established risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rats produces lasting developmental changes in behavior and brain function that may have translational pathophysiological relevance to alterations seen in schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence supports the premise that gut microbiota influence brain development and function by affecting inflammatory mediators, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotransmission, but there is little knowledge of whether the microbiota-gut-brain axis might contribute to the development of schizophrenia-related behaviors...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076966/revisiting-tumor-patterns-and-penetrance-in-germline-tp53-mutation-carriers-temporal-phases-of-li-fraumeni-syndrome
#17
Amina Amadou, Maria I Waddington Achatz, Pierre Hainaut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Germline pathogenic TP53 mutation may predispose to multiple cancers but penetrance and cancer patterns remain incompletely documented. We have analyzed international agency for research on cancer TP53 database to reevaluate age and variant-dependent tumor patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide studies suggest that germline variants are more frequent than estimated prevalence of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), suggesting that many carriers of potentially pathogenic mutations may not develop the syndrome...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046752/an-exceedingly-rare-adrenal-collision-tumor-adrenal-adenoma-metastatic-breast-cancer-myelolipoma
#18
Dongyan Liu, Sahayini A Kumar
Adrenal collision tumors (ACTs), in which distinct tumors coexist without histological intermingling in the same adrenal gland, are rare and their actual prevalence is unknown. ACTs commonly consist of adrenal cortical adenoma, myelolipoma, or metastatic malignant tumor. We report a 58-year-old woman with a past history of breast cancer, who presented with a 1 month history of fevers, chills, and abdominal fullness. The physical examination and the laboratory data including endocrine studies were unremarkable...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989884/diagnosis-of-adrenocortical-tumors-by-reticulin-algorithm
#19
Daphne Fonseca, Sudha S Murthy, K Ravindranath Tagore, B Vishal Rao, Subramanyeshwar Rao Thamminedi, K V V N Raju, Rakesh Sharma, Sundaram Challa
AIMS: To apply reticulin algorithm (RA) to the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors on adrenalectomy specimens and compare its efficacy to the modified Weiss criteria or Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia (LWB) criteria for oncocytic variant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) diagnosed on resected specimens including the variants during January 2010-June 2016 were retrieved from the pathology records. The demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975925/fkbp5-moderates-the-association-between-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-neonatal-brain-morphology
#20
Changqing Wang, Mojun Shen, Bryan Guillaume, Yap-Seng Chong, Helen Chen, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Anqi Qiu
Antenatal maternal depressive symptoms influence fetal brain development and increase the risk for depression in offspring. Such vulnerability is often moderated by the offspring's genetic variants. This study aimed to examine whether FKBP5, a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and in utero brain development, using an Asian cohort with 161 mother-offspring dyads. Antenatal maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during the second trimester of pregnancy...
October 3, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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