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anp physiology

Ines Pagel-Langenickel
Natriuretic peptides (NP) are widely recognized as key regulators of blood pressure, water and salt homeostasis. In addition, they play a critical role in physiological cardiac growth and mediate a variety of biological effects including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in other organs and tissues. The cardiac release of NPs ANP and BNP represents an important compensatory mechanism during acute and chronic cardiac overload and during the pathogenesis of heart failure where their actions counteract the sustained activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and other neurohormonal systems...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Caitlin A Murphy, Kathleen V Fitch, Meghan Feldpausch, Patrick Maehler, Kimberly Wong, Martin Torriani, Gail K Adler, Steven K Grinspoon, Suman Srinivasa
Purpose: Natriuretic peptides (NPs) negatively feedback on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and play a critical role in preserving cardiac structure and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Well-treated HIV-infected individuals are at risk for fat redistribution and demonstrate evidence of RAAS dysregulation, which relates to metabolic dysfunction. We investigated circulating NPs in relation to RAAS physiology and metrics of body composition for the first time in HIV. Methods: We assessed atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and amino terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during acute activation of the RAAS using a low sodium controlled diet among 20 HIV-infected and 10 non-HIV-infected individuals well-phenotyped for body composition...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fangchao Mei, Teng Zuo, Liang Zhao, Qiao Shi, Mingwei Xiang, Yupu Hong, Man Li, Weixing Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of acute renal injury (ARI) in acute necrotizing pancreatitis in late pregnancy (ANPIP). METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in the third trimester were used for this study, and an ANPIP model was induced by injecting 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliary pancreatic duct. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the normal, sham-operated (SO) and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) groups...
January 18, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Ayano Chiba, Haruko Watanabe-Takano, Takahiro Miyazaki, Naoki Mochizuki
The heart is regarded as an endocrine organ as well as a pump for circulation, since atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were discovered in cardiomyocytes to be secreted as hormones. Both ANP and BNP bind to their receptors expressed on remote organs, such as kidneys and blood vessels; therefore, the heart controls the circulation by pumping blood and by secreting endocrine peptides. Cardiomyocytes secrete other peptides besides natriuretic peptides. Although most of such cardiomyocyte-derived peptides act on the heart in autocrine/paracrine fashions, several peptides target remote organs...
December 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Dirk L Christensen, Diana Espino, Rocío Infante-Ramírez, Mónica S Cervantes-Borunda, Rosa P Hernández-Torres, Antonio E Rivera-Cisneros, Daniel Castillo, Kate Westgate, Dijana Terzic, Soren Brage, Christian Hassager, Jens P Goetze, Jesper Kjaergaard
Background: The Mexican Tarahumara are accustomed to running ultra-distance races. No data exist on the acute physiological changes following ultra-distance running and physiological-biomarker associations in this population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the acute impact (≤ 24 h) on functional and biochemical changes of the cardiac muscle and biochemical changes associated with kidney function following a 63-km ultra-distance race with an altitude difference of 1800 m in Mexican Tarahumara athletes...
2017: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Anping Lin, Juan Yin, Chao Cheng, Zhu Yang, Huan Yang
Endometriosis is characterized by eutopic endometrial cell 'metastasis' to ectopic foci. FOXA2 is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, which may participate in transcriptional regulation in endometrial cells and contribute to the aetiology of endometriosis. This study investigated the roles played by FOXA2 in eutopic endometrium using endometriosis samples. Western blotting showed that the relative expression of FOXA2 was significantly reduced in eutopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis (n = 14) compared with endometriosis-free controls (n = 16) (0...
February 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Christian A Nebiker, Sebastian Staubli, Juliane Schäfer, Roland Bingisser, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Salome Dell-Kuster, Christian Mueller, Karla Scamardi, Carsten T Viehl, Dieter Kolleth, Urs von Holzen, Daniel Oertli, Rachel Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess whether copeptin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, proadrenomedullin, and cortisol are associated with disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and to compare their ability in predicting organ failure or death. METHODS: From April 2011 to January 2015, 142 patients with AP were included in this prospective single-center study and observed for 4 days. Disease severity was rated by the Atlanta 1992 and 2012 criteria and organ failure by the modified Marshall score...
January 2018: Pancreas
Alan S Maisel, Jason M Duran, Nicholas Wettersten
The natriuretic peptides play a vital role in normal physiology and as counter-regulatory hormones in heart failure (HF). Clinical assessment of their levels (for B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP], N-terminal proBNP, and the midregion of N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide) have become valuable tools in diagnosing patients with HF as well as risk stratifying and guiding therapy. Their roles have further expanded beyond HF to other cardiovascular conditions and for risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals...
January 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
M Pokorný, I Mrázová, J Malý, J Pirk, I Netuka, Z Vaňourková, Š DoleŽelová, L Červenková, H Maxová, V Melenovský, J Šochman, J Sadowski, L Červenka
The present experiments were performed to evaluate if increased heart tissue concentration of fatty acids, specifically myristic, palmitic and palmitoleic acids that are believed to promote physiological heart growth, can attenuate the progression of unloading-induced cardiac atrophy in rats with healthy and failing hearts. Heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation (HT(x)) was used as a model for heart unloading. Cardiac atrophy was assessed from the ratio of the native- to-transplanted heart weight (HW)...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
Zili Zhang, Zhen Yao, Yifan Chen, Lei Qian, Shuoyi Jiang, Jingyi Zhou, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. The recent finding that LDs can be selectively degraded by the lysosomal pathway of autophagy through a process termed lipophagy has opened up a new understanding of how lipid metabolism regulates cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Many new functions for autophagic lipid metabolism have now been defined in various diseases including liver disease...
October 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Mónica P A Ferreira, Sanjeev Ranjan, Sini Kinnunen, Alexandra Correia, Virpi Talman, Ermei Mäkilä, Brianda Barrios-Lopez, Marianna Kemell, Vimalkumar Balasubramanian, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Anu J Airaksinen, Hélder A Santos
Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. Severe myocardial ischemia results in a massive loss of myocytes and acute myocardial infarction, the endocardium being the most vulnerable region. At present, current therapeutic lines only ameliorate modestly the quality of life of these patients. Here, an engineered nanocarrier is reported for targeted drug delivery into the endocardial layer of the left ventricle for cardiac repair. Biodegradable porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles are functionalized with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is known to be expressed predominantly in the endocardium of the failing heart...
July 17, 2017: Small
Qian Liu, Shengnan Yu, Anping Li, Hanxiao Xu, Xinwei Han, Kongming Wu
Immunotolerance is one of the hallmarks of malignant tumors. Tumor cells escape from host immune surveillance through various mechanisms resulting in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. Interlukin-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in many physiological and pathological processes by integrating with multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Aberrant expression of interlukin-6 is associated with the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapeutic resistance in a wide range of cancers. Interlukin-6 exerts immunosuppressive capacity mostly by stimulating the infiltrations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated neutrophils, and cancer stem-like cells via Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in tumor microenvironment...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Janica C Wong, Van Vo, Priyatham Gorjala, Ronald R Fiscus
Early studies showed nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory-cytokine-induced toxin involved in pancreatic β-cell destruction during pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes. However, nitric oxide has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells, depending on concentration and micro-environmental surroundings. Our studies have shown that low/physiological-level nitric oxide selectively activates protein kinase G type Iα isoform, promoting cytoprotective/pro-cell-survival effects in many cell types. In bone marrow-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells, protein kinase G type Iα mediates autocrine effects of nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide, promoting DNA-synthesis/proliferation and cell survival...
September 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Prasanna K Santhekadur, Divya P Kumar, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
Due to globalization and sophisticated western and sedentary lifestyle, metabolic syndrome has emerged as a serious public health challenge. Obesity is significantly increasing worldwide because of increased high calorie food intake and decreased physical activity leading to hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Thus, metabolic syndrome constitutes cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and recently some cancers are also considered to be associated with this syndrome...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Naoki Nishizawa, Goshi Nakamura, Yoko Noguchi, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Ayako Shimizu, Masaharu Nakayama, Shiro Takekawa, Taiji Asami
The natriuretic peptide (NP) system is a critical endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine system and has been investigated for potential use against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The clearance of NPs is regulated by the proteolysis of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and by endocytosis via natriuretic peptide receptor-3 (NPR3). A linear NPR3-selective peptide, [Cha8 ]-ANP(7-16)-NH2 (1), showed potent binding affinity for NPR3 but poor predicted chemical stability due to its free thiol group. A 12-mer peptide (9) without a thiol group was designed by the hybridization of two NPR3-binding peptides: a linear ANP fragment peptide analog and musclin, a murine member of the bHLH family of transcription factors, possessed high binding affinity and strict selectivity for NPR3...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Bin Dong, Ruicong Xue, Yu Sun, Yugang Dong, Chen Liu
Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response triggered by many physiological and pathological conditions and will lead to heart failure eventually. Sestrin 2, which is a stress-responsive protein, was reported to protect heart from ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the role of Sestrin 2 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. In our present study, we aimed to explore the effects of Sestrin 2 on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We found that knockdown of Sestrin 2 protein aggravated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by phenylephrine (PE), featured by increased hypertrophic marker ANP and cell surface area...
September 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Yoshiki Mori, Tomotaka Murakami, Nao Inoue, Sachie Kaneko, Yasumi Nakashima, Masaaki Koide
BACKGROUND: End-diastolic forward flow (EDFF) is recognized as restrictive right ventricular physiology (r-RVP), but conflicting results have been reported about effects on the clinical outcome in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (r-TOF). OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the EDFF by Doppler was not specific for diagnosing r-RVP. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients aged 15.7±11.6years who underwent cardiac catheterization were studied. Patients were divided according to the presence of EDFF (group 1: EDFF+, group 2: EDFF-) and RV size (group A: small RV, group B: large RV [>150ml/m(2)])...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Ying Tang, Erik Fung, Anping Xu, Hui-Yao Lan
Increasing evidence shows that C-reactive protein (CRP) is not only an inflammatory biomarker but also an important risk factor associated with ageing-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and kidney disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that CRP is pathogenic in a number of diseases including hypertensive cardiovascular and kidney complications, diabetic nephropathy, and acute and chronic kidney diseases. It is well known that CRP binds its receptor, CD32/CD64, to induce the process of inflammation by activating the NF-κB signalling pathway...
April 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Speranza Rubattu, Filippos Triposkiadis
The natriuretic peptide (NP) system, which includes atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and C-type natriuretic peptide, has an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis, promoting a number of physiological effects including diuresis, vasodilation, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Heart failure (HF) is associated with defects in NP processing and synthesis, and there is a strong relationship between NP levels and disease state. NPs are useful biomarkers in HF, and their use in diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis is well established, particularly in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
May 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
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