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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102730/alloimmunisation-in-transfused-patients-serial-cross-matching-in-a-population-of-hospitalised-cats
#1
Layla Hourani, Christiane Weingart, Barbara Kohn
Objectives Cross-matching is currently recommended as part of pre-transfusion testing for repeat transfusions in cats 4 days after having received an initial transfusion. This prospective study determined when and if cats developed positive cross-match (CM) results after having been transfused with AB-compatible blood. Methods Donors were selected according to standard transfusion safety protocols. Twenty-one hospitalised anaemic recipients (blood type A: n = 20; blood type B: n = 1) received 1-4 (median 2) whole-blood transfusions (WBTs) over 1-6 days (median 2) in 33 transfusion instances...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102039/a-dispermic-chimerism-detected-in-a-taiwanese-potential-unrelated-hematopoietic-stem-cell-donor
#2
E K L Yang, S G E Marsh, P-Y Chen, C-P Chen, S-P Chen, P Y Lin
Chimerism is defined as the presence of 2 or more than 1 genetically distinct cell populations in an organism. Dispermic chimeras are derived from the fertilization of 1 or 2 matured nuclei by 2 sperms. We here report detection of a healthy and phenotypically normal female with normal ABO red blood cell typing in whom dispermic chimerism was suspected after 3 alleles were identified at multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci using molecular HLA analysis. Molecular HLA typing showed the donor to have 3 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles in blood, saliva and nail samples...
February 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099121/early-mixed-hematopoietic-chimerism-detection-by-digital-droplet-pcr-in-patients-undergoing-gender-mismatched-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Miguel Waterhouse, Dietmar Pfeifer, Marie Follo, Justus Duyster, Henning Schäfer, Hartmut Bertz, Jürgen Finke
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision making after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is partially based on hematopoietic chimerism analysis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of polymorphic short tandem repeats (STR-PCR) is currently considered the gold standard for chimerism surveillance after transplantation. Nevertheless, this method has shown several limitations. Emerging technologies such as digital PCR (dPCR) has been applied to detect hematopoietic chimerism. Despite previous reports, the clinical usefulness of dPCR is unclear because the studies were performed in limited patient populations with short follow-ups...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091924/effects-of-acyzol-on-zinc-content-in-rat-brain-and-blood-plasma
#4
A F Yakimoskii, I I Shantyr, M A Vlasenko, M V Yakovleva
Zinc level in the blood plasma and brain of rats was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Maximum amount of zinc was observed in the cerebellum (15.0±5.5 μg/mg wet tissue). Single intraperitoneal administration of a zinc donor acyzol (24 mg/kg) did not change the content of this element in the tissues. Repeated injections of acyzol (7 injections over 14 days) significantly increased zinc level in rat plasma and brain. This elevation was most pronounced in the forebrain (cortex and subcortical structures)...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086857/evaluating-a-multicomponent-social-behaviour-change-communication-strategy-to-reduce-intimate-partner-violence-among-married-couples-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-nepal
#5
Cari Jo Clark, Rachael A Spencer, Binita Shrestha, Gemma Ferguson, J Michael Oakes, Jhumka Gupta
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC) strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081166/comparison-of-criteria-for-choosing-the-number-of-classes-in-bayesian-finite-mixture-models
#6
Kazem Nasserinejad, Joost van Rosmalen, Wim de Kort, Emmanuel Lesaffre
Identifying the number of classes in Bayesian finite mixture models is a challenging problem. Several criteria have been proposed, such as adaptations of the deviance information criterion, marginal likelihoods, Bayes factors, and reversible jump MCMC techniques. It was recently shown that in overfitted mixture models, the overfitted latent classes will asymptotically become empty under specific conditions for the prior of the class proportions. This result may be used to construct a criterion for finding the true number of latent classes, based on the removal of latent classes that have negligible proportions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#7
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076340/telomere-length-assessment-for-prediction-of-organ-transplantation-outcome-future-or-failure-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
Karolina Kłoda, Leszek Domański, Artur Mierzecki
Telomeres are located at each end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Their functional role is genomic stability maintenance. The protective role of telomeres depends on various factors, including number of nucleotides repeats, telomere-binding proteins, and telomerase activity. Organ transplantation is the preferred replacement therapy in the case of chronic kidney disease and the only possibility of sustaining recipients' life in the case of advanced liver failure. While the prevalence of acute rejection is constantly decreasing, prevention of transplanted organ long-term function loss is still challenging...
January 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073814/donor-derived-mycosis-fungoides-following-reduced-intensity-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-matched-unrelated-donor
#9
Francesca A M Kinsella, Mohammad Rasoul Amel Kashipaz, Julia Scarisbrick, Ram Malladi
A 46-year-old woman with a history of dasatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia, clonal evolution and monosomy 7 underwent reduced intensity conditioned in vivo T-cell-depleted allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor. Following the transplantation, she developed recurrent cutaneous graft versus host disease (GvHD), which required treatment with systemic immunosuppression and electrocorporeal photophoresis. Concurrently, she developed a lichenoid rash with granulomatous features suggestive of cutaneous sarcoidosis...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070706/analysis-of-12-x-str-loci-in-the-population-of-south-croatia
#10
Gordan Mršić, Petar Ozretić, Josip Crnjac, Siniša Merkaš, Ivana Račić, Sara Rožić, Viktorija Sukser, Maja Popović, Marina Korolija
The aim of the study was to assess forensic pertinence of 12 short tandem repeats (STRs) on X-chromosome in south Croatia population. Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kit was used to co-amplify 12 STR loci belonging to four linkage groups (LGs) on X-chromosome in 99 male and 98 female DNA samples of unrelated donors. PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Population genetic and forensic parameters were calculated by the Arlequin and POPTREE2 software, and an on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069517/fast-estimation-of-colles-fracture-load-of-the-distal-section-of-the-radius-by-homogenized-finite-element-analysis-based-on-hr-pqct
#11
Hadi S Hosseini, Andreas Dünki, Jonas Fabech, Martin Stauber, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Dieter Pahr, Michael Pretterklieber, Jasmin Wandel, Bert van Rietbergen, Philippe K Zysset
Fractures of the distal section of the radius (Colles' fractures) occur earlier in life than other osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, they can be interpreted as a warning signal for later, more deleterious fractures of vertebral bodies or the femoral neck. In the past decade, the advent of HR-pQCT allowed a detailed architectural analysis of the distal radius and an automated but time-consuming estimation of its strength with linear micro-finite element (μFE) analysis. Recently, a second generation of HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCT II, SCANCO Medical, Switzerland) with a resolution beyond 61 μm became available for even more refined biomechanical investigations in vivo...
January 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057560/predictors-of-failure-after-single-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-results-from-a-three-year-single-centre-cohort-study
#12
Gianluca Ianiro, Luca Valerio, Luca Masucci, Silvia Pecere, Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Quaranta, Brunella Posteraro, Diego Currò, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
OBJECTIVES: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although a single faecal infusion is usually sufficient to eradicate CDI, a considerable rate of patients needs multiple infusions to be cured. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of failure after single faecal infusion in patients with recurrent CDI. METHODS: We included patients with recurrent CDI prospectively treated with FMT by colonoscopy...
January 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056881/hepatitis-b-virus-strains-from-rwandan-blood-donors-are-genetically-similar-and-form-one-clade-within-subgenotype-a1
#13
Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gatare Swaibu, Timothy David Walker, Magnus Lindh, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Tomas Bergström, Heléne Norder
BACKGROUND: Rwanda is a central African country with about 12 million inhabitants. The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi destroyed much of the infrastructure, including the health system. Although this has improved significantly, many challenges remain to be addressed. In this study, the prevalence of serological markers of past and ongoing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV vaccine related immunity was investigated in samples from blood donors from all regions of Rwanda. METHODS: The results from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) analyses of all (45,061) blood donations collected countrywide in 2014 from 13,637 first time and 31,424 repeat blood donors were compiled...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056792/elucidation-of-the-molecular-responses-of-a-cucumber-segment-substitution-line-carrying-pm5-1-and-its-recurrent-parent-triggered-by-powdery-mildew-by-comparative-transcriptome-profiling
#14
Qiang Xu, Xuewen Xu, Yang Shi, Xiaohua Qi, Xuehao Chen
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases of cucurbits, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance in cucumber remain elusive. In this study, we developed a PM resistant segment substitution line SSL508-28 that carried a segment on chromosome five representing the Pm5.1 locus from PM resistant donor Jin5-508 using marker-assisted backcrossing of an elite PM susceptible cucumber inbred line D8. RESULTS: Whole-genome resequencing of SSL508-28, Jin5-508 and D8 was performed to identify the exact boundaries of the breakpoints for this introgression because of the low density of available single sequence repeat markers...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051314/mapping-the-reactivity-and-selectivity-of-2-azidofucosyl-donors-for-the-assembly-of-n-acetylfucosamine-containing-bacterial-oligosaccharides
#15
Bas Hagen, Sara Ali, Herman S Overkleeft, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Jeroen D C Codée
The synthesis of complex oligosaccharides is often hindered by a lack of knowledge on the reactivity and selectivity of their constituent building blocks. We investigated the reactivity and selectivity of 2-azidofucosyl (FucN3) donors, valuable synthons in the synthesis of 2-acetamido-2-deoxyfucose (FucNAc) containing oligosaccharides. Six FucN3 donors, bearing benzyl, benzoyl, or tert-butyldimethylsilyl protecting groups at the C3-O and C4-O positions, were synthesized, and their reactivity was assessed in a series of glycosylations using acceptors of varying nucleophilicity and size...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050376/a-retrospective-analysis-of-apheresis-donor-deferral-and-adverse-reactions-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india
#16
Disha Arora, Ketan Garg, Ankit Kaushik, Richa Sharma, D S Rawat, A K Mandal
INTRODUCTION: With increasing demand of platelet component each day, blood bank plays a pivotal role in ensuring supply of safe blood as and when required. Plateletpheresis procedure is a relatively simple, safe and important adjunct to blood bank inventory. However, recruitment of healthy blood donors is a challenge that the health industry is facing today. AIM: To determine the reasons and rates of apheresis donor deferral along with investigation of adverse reactions encountered during the procedure...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039304/allergen-valency-dose-and-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-occupancy-set-thresholds-for-secretory-responses-to-pen-a-1-and-motivate-design-of-hypoallergens
#17
Avanika Mahajan, Lama A Youssef, Cédric Cleyrat, Rachel Grattan, Shayna R Lucero, Christopher P Mattison, M Frank Erasmus, Bruna Jacobson, Lydia Tapia, William S Hlavacek, Mark Schuyler, Bridget S Wilson
Ag-mediated crosslinking of IgE-FcεRI complexes activates mast cells and basophils, initiating the allergic response. Of 34 donors recruited having self-reported shrimp allergy, only 35% had significant levels of shrimp-specific IgE in serum and measurable basophil secretory responses to rPen a 1 (shrimp tropomyosin). We report that degranulation is linked to the number of FcεRI occupied with allergen-specific IgE, as well as the dose and valency of Pen a 1. Using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-based gene editing, human RBL(rαKO) cells were created that exclusively express the human FcεRIα subunit...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036114/does-statins-promote-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Zhimin Chen, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Paolo Parini, Eva Hurt-Camejo, Jonaz Ripsweden, Torkel B Brismar, Peter Barany, Armand Jaminon, Leon J Schurgers, Olof Heimburger, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
BACKGROUND: In end-stage renal disease (ESRD), coronary artery calcification (CAC) and inflammation contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins do not improve survival in ESRD patients and their effect on vascular calcification is unclear. We explored associations between CAC, inflammatory biomarkers, statins and mortality in ESRD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 240 ESRD patients (63% males; median age 56 years) from cohorts including 86 recipients of living donor kidney transplant (LD-Rtx), 96 incident dialysis patients and 58 prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients, associations of CAC score (Agatston Units, AUs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), use of statins and all-cause mortality were analysed...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034960/elevated-dna-oxidation-and-dna-repair-enzyme-expression-in-brain-white-matter-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Attila Szebeni, Katalin Szebeni, Timothy P DiPeri, Luke A Johnson, Craig A Stockmeier, Jessica D Crawford, Michelle J Chandley, Liza J Hernandez, Katherine C Burgess, Russell W Brown, Gregory A Ordway
BACKGROUND: Pathology of white matter in brains of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is well-documented, but the cellular and molecular basis of this pathology are poorly understood. METHODS: Levels of DNA oxidation and gene expression of DNA damage repair enzymes were measured in Brodmann area 10 (BA10) and/or amygdala (uncinate fasciculus) white matter tissue from brains of MDD (n=10) and psychiatrically normal control donors (n=13). DNA oxidation was also measured in BA10 white matter of schizophrenia donors (n=10) and in prefrontal cortical white matter from control rats (n=8) and rats with repeated stress-induced anhedonia (n=8)...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031325/diethylstilbestrol-activates-catsper-and-disturbs-progesterone-actions-in-human-spermatozoa
#20
Qian-Xing Zou, Zhen Peng, Qing Zhao, Hou-Yang Chen, Yi-Min Cheng, Qing Liu, Yuan-Qiao He, Shi-Qi Weng, Hua-Feng Wang, Tao Wang, Li-Ping Zheng, Tao Luo
STUDY QUESTION: Is diethylstilbestrol (DES), a prototypical endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), able to induce physiological changes in human spermatozoa and affect progesterone actions? SUMMARY ANSWER: DES promoted Ca(2+) flux into human spermatozoa by activating the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) and suppressed progesterone-induced Ca(2+) signaling, tyrosine phosphorylation and sperm functions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: DES significantly impairs the male reproductive system both in fetal and postnatal exposure...
December 28, 2016: Human Reproduction
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