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Primary effusion lymphoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893813/azidothymidine-sensitizes-primary-effusion-lymphoma-cells-to-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-specific-cd4-t-cell-control-and-inhibits-virf3-function
#1
Samantha J Williamson, Samantha M Nicol, Michael Stürzl, Shereen Sabbah, Andrew D Hislop
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked with the development of Kaposi sarcoma and the B lymphocyte disorders primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multi-centric Castleman disease. T cell immunity limits KSHV infection and disease, however the virus employs multiple mechanisms to inhibit efficient control by these effectors. Thus KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells poorly recognize most PEL cells and even where they can, they are unable to kill them. To make KSHV-infected cells more sensitive to T cell control we treated PEL cells with the thymidine analogue azidothymidine (AZT), which sensitizes PEL lines to Fas-ligand and TRAIL challenge; effector mechanisms which T cells use...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888664/ebv-associated-but-hhv8-unrelated-double-hit-effusion-based-lymphoma
#2
Bo-Jung Chen, David Yen-Ting Chen, Chun-Chi Kuo, Shih-Sung Chuang
Effusion-based lymphoma is a rare and unique type of large B-cell lymphoma presenting in effusion without a mass lesion. It shares many clinicopathological features with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), but is distinct from PEL by the absence of HHV8 association. Double hit lymphoma (DHL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma, defined by concurrent rearrangement of MYC and BCL2 or BCL6. DHL often presents as lymphadenopathy or an extranodal mass, but rarely occurs in effusion. Here we report a 61-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis presenting as massive ascites and left pleural effusion...
November 26, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862361/primary-effusion-lymphoma-involving-cerebrospinal-fluid-deep-cervical-lymph-nodes-and-adenoids-report-of-a-case-supporting-the-lymphatic-connection-between-brain-and-lymph-nodes
#3
Carlos Santonja, Camino Medina-Puente, Cristina Serrano Del Castillo, Alfonso Cabello Úbeda, Socorro María Rodríguez-Pinilla
We describe an unusual presentation of primary effusion lymphoma in CSF of a 45-year-old HIV-positive man, with no evidence of involvement of pleural, peritoneal or pericardial cavities. Cytologic examination and flow cytometric analysis suggested the diagnosis, eventually made in an excised deep cervical lymph node, in which the neoplastic cells involved selectively the sinuses. This case represents the fifth reported example of CSF involvement by this type of lymphoma, and supports the alleged connection between CSF and cervical lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels...
November 10, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859456/clinical-characteristics-and-survival-outcome-of-primary-effusion-lymphoma-a-review-of-105-patients
#4
Mohamed Abd El-Fattah
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a distinctive clinicobiological features. As a result of the rarity of this malignancy, the overwhelming majority of data come from a case reports or series. Our study aimed to evaluate the clinical features and the survival outcomes of 105 patients with PEL who diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database 18 of the US National Cancer Institute. The Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed and the multivariate Cox model was built to identify survival prognostic factors...
November 18, 2016: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854239/kshv-entry-and-trafficking-in-target-cells-hijacking-of-cell-signal-pathways-actin-and-membrane-dynamics
#5
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with human endothelial cell hyperplastic Kaposi's sarcoma and B-cell primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV infection of adherent endothelial and fibroblast cells are used as in vitro models for infection and KSHV enters these cells by host membrane bleb and actin mediated macropinocytosis or clathrin endocytosis pathways, respectively. Infection in endothelial and fibroblast cells is initiated by the interactions between multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated heparan sulfate (HS), integrins (α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5), and EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R)...
November 14, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829024/the-kshv-k1-protein-modulates-ampk-function-to-enhance-cell-survival
#6
Penny M Anders, Zhigang Zhang, Prasana M Bhende, Louise Giffin, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as well as two lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes viral proteins, such as K1, that alter signaling pathways involved in cell survival. Expression of K1 has been reported to transform rodent fibroblasts, and K1 transgenic mice develop multiple tumors, suggesting that K1 has an important role in KSHV pathogenesis. We found that cells infected with a KSHV virus containing a WT K1 gene had a survival advantage under conditions of nutrient deprivation compared to cells infected with KSHV K1 mutant viruses...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797848/invasive-thymoma-presenting-as-classic-superior-vena-cava-syndrome-a-case-of-venous-spread-metastasis
#7
Prasan Kumar Panda, Naveet Wig, Sanjeev Kumar, Sudheer Arava
The approach to an intrinsic cause of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is usually difficult but rewarding. We report a case of a middle-aged man who presented with progressive oedema of the upper half of the body, dyspnoea, cough and weight loss for a 1-year duration. He was a non-smoker without prior hospitalisation. Chest radiography showed right-sided pleural effusion with an apparent normal superior mediastinum. Contrast-enhanced CT of the chest revealed a right atrial mass extending and completely obliterating to superior vena cava...
October 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796928/latent-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-infection-in-bladder-cancer-cells-promotes-drug-resistance-by-reducing-reactive-oxygen-species
#8
Suhyuk Lee, Jaehyuk Jang, Hyungtaek Jeon, Jisu Lee, Seung-Min Yoo, Jinsung Park, Myung-Shin Lee
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the major etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Recent studies have indicated that KSHV can be detected at high frequency in patient-derived bladder cancer tissue and might be associated with the pathogenesis of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract, and it has a high rate of recurrence. Because drug resistance is closely related to chemotherapy failure and cancer recurrence, we investigated whether KSHV infection is associated with drug resistance of bladder cancer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795414/identification-of-novel-kshv-orf50-transcripts-discovery-of-new-rta-isoforms-with-variable-transactivation-potential
#9
Brian S Wakeman, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Samuel H Speck
: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus that has been associated with primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, as well as its namesake Kaposi's sarcoma. As a gammaherpesvirus, KSHV is able to acutely replicate, enter latency, and reactivate from this latent state. A key protein involved in both acute replication and reactivation from latency is the replication and transcriptional activator (RTA) encoded by the gene Orf50. RTA is a known transactivator of multiple viral genes allowing for it to control the switch between latency and virus replication...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790390/a-75-year-old-female-with-dyspnea-an-unusual-presentation-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#10
Syed Daniyal Asad, Osama Mukarram, Khalid Abusaada
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It usually presents as a rapidly enlarging mass. Numerous presentations involving the gastrointestinal tract, bone, and the central nervous system have been reported in the past including both primary and secondary involvement of organs. A 75-year-old lady was found to have a pericardial effusion while being evaluated for shortness of breath. A therapeutic pericardial tap was positive for pan-B cell markers. The patient's detailed radiological studies failed to show a primary tumor...
September 22, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780949/alterations-in-acetylation-of-histone-h4-lysine-8-and-trimethylation-of-lysine-20-associated-with-lytic-gene-promoters-during-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-reactivation
#11
Sora Lim, Seho Cha, Jun Hyeong Jang, Dahye Yang, Joonho Choe, Taegun Seo
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with formation of Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Replication and transcription activator (RTA) genes are expressed upon reactivation of KSHV, which displays a biphasic life cycle consisting of latent and lytic replication phases. RTA protein expression results in KSHV genome amplification and successive viral lytic gene expression. Transcriptional activity of viral lytic genes is regulated through epigenetic modifications...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766810/pleural-lymphoma-presenting-as-chylothorax
#12
P Baburaj, B V Shankara, Edwin J George, V P Gopinathan, Dinesha Prabhu
Pleural disease in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma is well documented and commonly presents with pleural effusion in 20% of patients. However, solid pleural involvement is less common and is usually a secondary event. Primary pleural lymphomas are extremely rare. Hereby we report a rare case of primary pleural lymphoma presenting as chylothorax.
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693583/virf3-encoded-by-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-inhibits-t-cell-factor-dependent-transcription-via-a-creb-binding-protein-interaction-motif
#13
Seho Cha, Joonho Choe, Taegun Seo
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV has two distinct life cycles: latent and lytic. Among KSHV latent genes, viral interferon regulatory factor 3 (vIRF3), which shares homology with cellular IRFs, is a multifunctional protein. To identify unknown functions of vIRF3, we performed luciferase-reporter assays in the presence of vIRF3. These analyses revealed that overexpression of vIRF3 inhibited T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent transcriptional activity...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681120/altering-the-anti-inflammatory-lipoxin-microenvironment-a-new-insight-into-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-pathogenesis
#14
Jayashree A Chandrasekharan, Xiao M Huang, Alexander C Hwang, Neelam Sharma-Walia
: Lipoxins are host anti-inflammatory molecules that play a vital role in restoring tissue homeostasis. The efficacy of lipoxins and their analog epilipoxins in treating inflammation and its associated diseases has been well documented. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are two well-known inflammation related diseases caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Controlling inflammation is one of the strategies adopted to treat KS and PEL, a primary motivation for exploring and evaluating the therapeutic potential of using lipoxins...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662501/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-associated-cancers-and-related-diseases
#15
Priscila H Goncalves, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pathogenesis and recent advances in the management of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, causes several tumors and related diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. These most often develop in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described syndrome with high mortality that has inflammatory symptoms-like MCD but not the pathologic lymph node findings...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629966/primary-marginal-zone-lymphoma-in-the-posterior-mediastinum-with-pleural-involvement
#16
Shigeki Shimizu, Yasushi Inoue, Tomoki Utsumi, Tomohisa Okuma, Tomoya Kawaguchi, Takahiko Kasai, Satoru Munakata, Masaru Shibano, Shinji Atagi
We herein report a case of primary marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) of the posterior mediastinum in an 84-year-old woman. Computed tomography of the chest showed a posterior mediastinal mass in the right thoracic paravertebral region with right pleural effusion. Pathological findings of a surgical biopsy from the posterior mediastinum, along with immunohistochemical and flow cytometric results, indicated MZL. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the mediastinal lesion and achieved complete remission...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628603/primary-effusion-lymphoma-like-lymphoma-in-a-patient-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#17
Masayuki Oki, Tomihisa Nanao, Takuma Shinoda, Ayumi Tsuda, Atsushi Yasuda, Toshiro Seki, Hideki Ozawa, Naoya Nakamura, Atsushi Takagi
To date, there are only 15 case reports of lymphoma in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome. Here, we present the first report of a primary effusion lymphoma (PEL)-like lymphoma (PEL-L), which is a human herpes virus 8/Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus-unrelated PEL, in a 73-year-old woman with NF1. The woman presented with pleural effusion following surgery for a small intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584730/kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-immunobiology-oncogenesis-and-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Dirk P Dittmer, Blossom Damania
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8, is the etiologic agent underlying Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. This human gammaherpesvirus was discovered in 1994 by Drs. Yuan Chang and Patrick Moore. Today, there are over five thousand publications on KSHV and its associated malignancies. In this article, we review recent and ongoing developments in the KSHV field, including molecular mechanisms of KSHV pathogenesis, clinical aspects of KSHV-associated diseases, and current treatments for cancers associated with this virus...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570517/kaposi-s-sarcoma-herpesvirus-genome-persistence
#19
REVIEW
Franceline Juillard, Min Tan, Shijun Li, Kenneth M Kaye
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has an etiologic role in Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. These diseases are most common in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with AIDS. Similar to all herpesviruses, KSHV infection is lifelong. KSHV infection in tumor cells is primarily latent, with only a small subset of cells undergoing lytic infection. During latency, the KSHV genome persists as a multiple copy, extrachromosomal episome in the nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538487/a-role-for-malt1-activity-in-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-latency-and-growth-of-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#20
L Bonsignore, K Passelli, C Pelzer, M Perroud, A Konrad, M Thurau, M Stürzl, L Dai, J Trillo-Tinoco, L Del Valle, Z Qin, M Thome
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an incurable malignancy that develops in immunodeficient patients as a consequence of latent infection of B-cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Malignant growth of KSHV-infected B cells requires the activity of the transcription factor NF-κB, which controls maintenance of viral latency and suppression of the viral lytic program. Here we show that the KSHV proteins K13 and K15 promote NF-κB activation via the protease mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein-1 (MALT1), a key driver of NF-κB activation in lymphocytes...
August 19, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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