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Keren Demishtein-Zohary, Umut Günsel, Milit Marom, Rupa Banerjee, Walter Neupert, Abdussalam Azem, Dejana Mokranjac
The majority of mitochondrial proteins use N-terminal presequences for targeting to mitochondria and are translocated by the presequence translocase. During translocation, proteins, threaded through the channel in the inner membrane, are handed over to the import motor at the matrix face. Tim17 is an essential, membrane-embedded subunit of the translocase; however, its function is only poorly understood. Here, we functionally dissected its four predicted transmembrane (TM) segments. Mutations in TM1 and TM2 impaired the interaction of Tim17 with Tim23, component of the translocation channel, whereas mutations in TM3 compromised binding of the import motor...
February 6, 2017: ELife
Rene B Svensson, Andreas Herchenhan, Tobias Starborg, Michael Larsen, Karl E Kadler, Klaus Qvortrup, S Peter Magnusson
: Tendons transmit muscle-generated force through an extracellular matrix of aligned collagen fibrils. The force applied by the muscle at one end of a microscopic fibril has to be transmitted through the macroscopic length of the tendon by mechanisms that are poorly understood. A key element in this structure-function relationship is the collagen fibril length. During embryogenesis short fibrils are produced but they grow rapidly with maturation. There is some controversy regarding fibril length in adult tendon, with mechanical data generally supporting discontinuity while structural investigations favor continuity...
January 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Elen C D J De Masi, Flávia D J De Masi, Roberta D J De Masi
Suture threads are a minimally invasive surgical technique for facial rejuvenation. Its use was initiated by Sulamanidze et al with propylene after Serdev introduced suture with polycaproamide; however, these types of suture increased inflammatory reaction. For correction of the aging face, surgeons are devising more procedures with fewer incisions and shorter postoperative recovery periods. Many of these procedures use absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures in the dermis and subcutis to lift lax skin. The polydioxanone suture is currently a great option for antiaging treatment, because besides the ease of applicability and good results, it also has a low incidence of adverse reactions...
December 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
Guillermina R Solis
BACKGROUND: Meeting the demands for career advancement in the faculty tenure track of a university becomes a challenge for new researchers when active nursing research is limited or nonexistent. Nurse faculty transitioning from clinical practice settings may face greater difficulty climbing the ladder of promotion because of the limited opportunity for nursing research. A way to create a research thread that will allow an opportunity to ease into the new role and build an effective research team is to participate in an interdisciplinary research (IDR) team...
December 12, 2016: Nursing Forum
Jihee Kim, Zhenlong Zheng, Heesu Kim, Kyung Ae Nam, Kee Yang Chung
BACKGROUND: Owing to its potentially greater mechanical force on the implanted tissue, barbed thread is frequently used in face-lifting procedures. However, the long-term durability thereof remains controversial. Moreover, reports on underlying histologic and molecular changes resulting from face-lifting procedures are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate histologic and molecular changes induced by absorbable, barbed face-lifting thread in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fragments of monofilament, monodirectionally barbed polydioxanone thread were implanted in dorsal skin from 12 guinea pigs...
January 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Jagannath Kamath, Raja Shekar Danda, Nikil Jayasheelan, Rohit Singh
INTRODUCTION: Various methods of measuring mechanical axis deviation of lower limb have been described including radiographic and CT scanogram, intraoperative fluoroscopy with the use of an electrocautery cord. These methods determine the mechanical axis in a supine, non-weight bearing position. Although long cassette standing radiographic view is used for the purpose but is not available at most centres. A dynamic method of determining the mechanical axis in a weight bearing position was devised in this study...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Lukas Böni, Peter Fischer, Lukas Böcker, Simon Kuster, Patrick A Rühs
When hagfish (Myxinidae) are attacked by predators, they form a dilute, elastic, and cohesive defensive slime made of mucins and protein threads. In this study we propose a link between flow behavior and defense mechanism of hagfish slime. Oscillatory rheological measurements reveal that hagfish slime forms viscoelastic networks at low concentrations. Mucins alone did not contribute viscoelasticity, however in shear flow, viscosity was observed. The unidirectional flow, experienced by hagfish slime during suction feeding by predators, was mimicked with extensional rheology...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alejandro López-Moreno, Belén Nieto-Ortega, Maria Moffa, Alberto de Juan, M Mar Bernal, Juan P Fernández-Blázquez, Juan J Vilatela, Dario Pisignano, Emilio M Pérez
In this work, we study the reinforcement of polymers by mechanically interlocked derivatives of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We compare the mechanical properties of fibers made of polymers and of composites with pristine SWNTs, mechanically interlocked derivatives of SWNTs (MINTs), and the corresponding supramolecular models. Improvements of both Young's modulus and tensile strength of up to 200% were observed for the polystyrene-MINT samples with an optimized loading of just 0.01 wt %, while the supramolecular models with identical chemical composition and loading showed negligible or even detrimental influence...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
Takashi Nakamura, Gento Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Nabeshima
Bowl-shaped macrocycles have the distinctive feature that their two sides are differentiated, and thus can be developed into elaborate hosts that fix a target molecule in a controlled geometry through multipoint interactions. We now report the synthesis of a bowl-shaped macrocyclic trimer of the boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY) complex and its unidirectional threading of guest molecules. Six polarized B(δ+) -F(δ-) bonds are directed towards the center of the macrocycle, which enables strong recognition of cationic guests...
August 8, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Santanu Jana, Patrick Davidson, Benjamin Abécassis
Colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets are considered to be excellent candidates for many applications in nanotechnology. One of the current challenges is to self-assemble these colloidal quantum wells into large ordered structures to control their collective optical properties. We describe a simple and robust procedure to achieve controlled face-to-face self-assembly of CdSe nanoplatelets into micron-long polymer-like threads made of up to ∼1000 particles. These structures are formed by addition of oleic acid to a stable colloidal dispersion of platelets, followed by slow drying and re-dispersion...
August 1, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Tomonari Kaji, Keiichi Kakui, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, A Richard Palmer
BACKGROUND: The study of morphology is experiencing a renaissance due to rapid improvements in technologies for 3D visualization of complex internal and external structures. But 3D visualization of the internal structure of mesoscale objects - those in the 10-1000 μm range - remains problematic. They are too small for microCT, many lack suitable specific fluorescent markers for confocal microscopy, or they require labor-intensive stacking and smoothing of individual TEM images. Here we illustrate the first comprehensive morphological description of a complete mesoscale biological system at nanoscopic resolution using ultra-modern technology for 3D visualization - serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM)...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
James Arram, Thomas Kaplan, Wayne Luk, Peiyong Jiang
One of the key challenges facing genomics today is how to efficiently analyse the massive amounts of data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms. With general-purpose computing systems struggling to address this challenge, specialised processors such as the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are receiving growing interest. The means by which to leverage this technology for accelerating genomic data analysis is however largely unexplored. In this paper we present a runtime reconfigurable architecture for accelerating short read alignment using FPGAs...
February 29, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Leili Rabiei, Ahmad Ali Eslami, HeidarAli Abedi, Reza Masoudi, Gholam Reza Sharifirad
BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure is one of the major causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Although dialysis treatment is considered as a life-saving treatment for these patients, their caregivers face various problems making the atmosphere of caring uncertain. AIMS: This study is aimed to explore and describe the experiences and perspectives of family caregivers of the patients undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: In this study, 20 haemodialysis family caregivers were selected by purposeful sampling...
September 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Marc Lefebvre-Vilardebo, Patrick Trevidic, Amir Moradi, Mariano Busso, Allison B Sutton, Vivian W Bucay
BACKGROUND: Cosmetic physicians are more and more frequently asked for hand rejuvenation. They commonly propose the same techniques as for the face. The authors undertook an anatomical study of the hand dorsum to understand the optimal location for an injected filler and to design the safest technique of placement. METHODS: The first part of the study included dissections of 19 fresh cadaveric hands and duplex ultrasounds investigation of 28 healthy hands. A technique of injection specifically designed from anatomical findings was then tested on 8 fresh cadaveric hands using magnetic resonance imaging and dissection in comparison with 3 other commonly used techniques of rejuvenating injections...
November 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Byung Jun Kim, Jun Ho Choi, Yoonho Lee
Facial rejuvenation procedures can be roughly divided into face lift surgery and nonoperative, less invasive procedures, such as fat grafts, fillers, botulinum toxin injections, thread lifts, or laserbrasion. Face lift surgery or rhytidectomy is the procedure most directly associated with rejuvenation, due to its fundamental ability to restore the anatomical changes caused by aging. Various methods of face lift surgery have been developed over the last hundred years, thanks to advances in the understanding of facial anatomy and the mechanisms of aging, as well as the dedication of innovative surgeons...
September 2015: Archives of Plastic Surgery
C Le Louarn
The asymmetry created by the facial palsy is of course a cause of demand for facelift surgery. As this lifting action is specific and different from the standard procedures, 3 zones of analysis are proposed: first the frontal and temporal areas with the direct eyebrow lift, second the neck and jawline with action on the depressor anguli oris for the non-paralyzed side and the anterior sub SMAS dissection and third the midface. A new and more simple technique of concentric malar lift is proposed. The first publication on concentric malar lift was made 11years ago...
October 2015: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Peter Fratzl, Otmar Kolednik, F Dieter Fischer, Mason N Dean
Faced with a comparatively limited palette of minerals and organic polymers as building materials, evolution has arrived repeatedly on structural solutions that rely on clever geometric arrangements to avoid mechanical trade-offs in stiffness, strength and flexibility. In this tutorial review, we highlight the concept of tessellation, a structural motif that involves periodic soft and hard elements arranged in series and that appears in a vast array of invertebrate and vertebrate animal biomaterials. We start from basic mechanics principles on the effects of material heterogeneities in hypothetical structures, to derive common concepts from a diversity of natural examples of one-, two- and three-dimensional tilings/layerings...
January 21, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Anna Konovalova, Thomas J Silhavy
Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM...
October 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Sudipta Biswas, Weisi Song, Chad Borges, Stuart Lindsay, Peiming Zhang
Foremost among the challenges facing single molecule sequencing of proteins by nanopores is the lack of a universal method for driving proteins or peptides into nanopores. In contrast to nucleic acids, the backbones of which are uniformly negatively charged nucleotides, proteins carry positive, negative and neutral side chains that are randomly distributed. Recombinant proteins carrying a negatively charged oligonucleotide or polypeptide at the C-termini can be translocated through a α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore, but the required genetic engineering limits the generality of these approaches...
October 27, 2015: ACS Nano
H F Marei, K S Al-Khalifa
AIM: To explore the factors that might affect the patterns of interaction amongst dental students that can be found in asynchronous online discussion fora. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: It is a qualitative study that involved the participation of 71 dental students (42 male and 29 female) who belong to one academic year. Students were participated in asynchronous online discussion fora as a part of a blended oral surgery course that involved both face-to-face lecture and an online learning environment using the Blackboard learning management system...
November 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
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