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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791288/a-practical-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hair-loss-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Liwen Xu, Kevin X Liu, Maryanne M Senna
Hair loss or alopecia is a common and distressing clinical complaint in the primary care setting and can arise from heterogeneous etiologies. In the pediatric population, hair loss often presents with patterns that are different from that of their adult counterparts. Given the psychosocial complications that may arise from pediatric alopecia, prompt diagnosis and management is particularly important. Common causes of alopecia in children and adolescents include alopecia areata, tinea capitis, androgenetic alopecia, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, hair cycle disturbances, and congenital alopecia conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782844/long-term-management-with-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-conventional-treatment-in-a-dog-with-hepatocutaneous-syndrome
#2
A Nam, S-M Han, D-M Go, D-Y Kim, K-W Seo, H-Y Youn
Hepatocutaneous syndrome (HS) is an uncommon skin disorder that occurs in conjunction with liver disease and is diagnosed based on decreased plasma concentrations of amino acids and the histopathology of skin lesions. The survival period generally is <6 months. A 10-year-old castrated male Maltese dog was presented for evaluation of lethargy, polyuria, polydipsia, and skin lesions including alopecia, erythema, and crusts. Based on increased liver enzyme activity, low plasma amino acid concentrations, and findings from liver cytology and skin biopsy, the dog was diagnosed with HS...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777965/metals-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Giovanni Mostile, Rosario Vasta, Venerando Rapisarda, Salvatore Santo Signorelli, Margherita Ferrante, Mario Zappia, Alessandra Nicoletti
Neurodegenerative processes encompass a large variety of diseases with different pathological patterns and clinical presentation such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer Disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic mutations have a known causative role, but the majority of cases are likely to be probably caused by a complex gene-environment interaction. Exposure to metals has been hypothesized to increase oxidative stress in brain cells leading to cell death and neurodegeneration. Neurotoxicity of metals has been demonstrated by several in vitro and in vivo experimental studies and it is likely that each metal could be toxic through specific pathways...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777732/body-image-and-eating-disorders-are-common-among-professional-and-amateur-athletes-using-performance-and-image-enhancing-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Daria Piacentino, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Livia Longo, Antonio Pavan, Luciano Stivali, Guido Stivali, Stefano Ferracuti, Roberto Brugnoli, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi, Paolo Girardi, Gabriele Sani
The use of performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) is not uncommon in athletes and appears to be associated with several psychopathological disorders of unclear prevalence. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of body image disorders (BIDs) and eating disorders (EDs) in PIED-using athletes vs. PIED nonusers. We enrolled 84 consecutive professional and amateur athletes training in sport centers in Italy, who underwent semi-structured interviews (SCID-I, SCID-II) and completed the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI) and the Sick, Control, One, Fat, Food Eating Disorder Screening Test (SCOFF)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777458/increased-expression-of-pd-l1-and-pd-l2-in-dermal-fibroblasts-from-alopecia-areata-mice
#5
Yunyuan Li, Ruhi T Kilani, Mohammadreza Pakyari, Gigi Leung, Layla Nabai, Aziz Ghahary
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, which manifests as a sudden, non-scarring hair loss. The expression of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (INF-γ), has been well established to be involved in the development of AA. As IFN-γ and other cytokines are also known to up-regulate programmed cell death ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2), which both negatively control immune responses, we asked whether or not a high number of infiltrated T cells, seen in AA lesions, can modulate the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in skin cells...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777326/upregulation-of-melanogenesis-and-tyrosinase-activity-potential-agents-for-vitiligo
#6
REVIEW
Chao Niu, Haji A Aisa
Melanin, the compound primarily responsible in humans for hair, eye and skin pigmentation, is produced by melanocytes through a complicated process called melanogenesis that is catalyzed by tyrosinase and other tyrosinase-related proteins. The abnormal loss of melanin causes dermatological problems such as vitiligo. Hence the regulation of melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity is very important for treating hypopigmentary disorders. Many melanogenesis stimulators have been discovered during the past decade...
August 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769753/intraoperative-electrocochleographic-characteristics-of-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-in-cochlear-implant-subjects
#7
William J Riggs, Joseph P Roche, Christopher K Giardina, Michael S Harris, Zachary J Bastian, Tatyana E Fontenot, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Oliver F Adunka, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is characterized by an apparent discrepancy between measures of cochlear and neural function based on auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. Clinical indicators of ANSD are a present cochlear microphonic (CM) with small or absent wave V. Many identified ANSD patients have speech impairment severe enough that cochlear implantation (CI) is indicated. To better understand the cochleae identified with ANSD that lead to a CI, we performed intraoperative round window electrocochleography (ECochG) to tone bursts in children (n = 167) and adults (n = 163)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766844/timing-of-cochlear-implantation-in-auditory-neuropathy-patients-with-otof-mutations-our-experience-with-10-patients
#8
C C Wu, C J Hsu, F L Huang, Y H Lin, Y H Lin, T C Liu, C M Wu
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) can be caused by a variety of pathologies ranging from inner hair cells, synapses, spiral ganglion neurons, the auditory nerve, to brainstem auditory nuclei.(1) For ANSD patients who derive limited benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implantation constitutes the treatment of last resort. However, corresponding to the heterogeneity in pathology, the outcomes with cochlear implants (CIs) vary significantly among ANSD patients.(1) This article is protected by copyright...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761349/excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-treatment-options
#9
REVIEW
Christine Lochner, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
Although pathological skin-picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, it has only recently been included as a distinct entity in psychiatric classification systems. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition and the proposed International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Revision, excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (ED), also known as neurotic excoriation, psychogenic excoriation, or dermatillomania), is described as recurrent picking of skin, leading to skin lesions and significant distress or functional impairment...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761265/light-microscopy-and-polarized-microscopy-a-dermatological-tool-to-diagnose-gray-hair-syndromes
#10
P L Chandravathi, Hetal Deepak Karani, Sirisha Rani Siddaiahgari, Lokesh Lingappa
Gray hair syndromes are rare syndromes which have an autosomal recessive inheritance and are characterized by pigmentary dilution of skin and hair, defects in immunological function, and nervous system defects. They comprise three disorders namely Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome (GPS), and Elejalde syndrome. Clinically, it is difficult to distinguish these disorders as their clinical features may overlap. Hence, to make a correct diagnosis and differentiate between CHS and GPS light microscopic examination of skin and hair shafts as well as peripheral blood smear evaluations should be done...
January 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761260/prospective-analytical-controlled-study-evaluating-serum-biotin-vitamin-b12-and-folic-acid-in-patients-with-premature-canities
#11
Deepashree Daulatabad, Archana Singal, Chander Grover, Neelam Chhillar
BACKGROUND: Premature canities is a common yet unfathomed disorder. The evidence for the role of micronutrient deficiency in premature canities is not well established. AIM: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the micronutrient levels in Indian patients with premature canities as compared to controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 52 self-reporting patients with premature canities (<20 years age). Micronutrient levels including serum Vitamin B12, biotin, and folic acid were assessed and compared among the patients and controls...
January 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761258/modified-ferriman-gallwey-score-in-hirsutism-and-its-association-with-metabolic-syndrome
#12
R Aswini, Sabeena Jayapalan
BACKGROUND: Hirsutism is the presence of terminal hair in females in males pattern. It occurs in 5%-15% of women. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score of ≥ 8 is considered hirsutism, but there are populations with a low mFG score. In clinical practice, hirsutism is subjective. Although hirsutism is considered as a purely esthetic problem, it is associated with many underlying disorders, especially androgen excess disorders. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) disease is the most common cause of androgen excess in females, and there are reports of its association with metabolic syndrome...
January 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757272/epidemiology-of-dermatomycoses-in-kerman-province-southeast-of-iran-a-10-years-retrospective-study-2004-2014
#13
Samira Salari, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi, Sanaz Hadizadeh, Alireza Izadi
OBJECTIVES: Superficial and cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are an important public health problem and are common in tropical and subtropical countries. Pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, erythrasma, onychomycosis, and otomycosis are the major diseases associated with SCFIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative agents of dermatomycoses over a period of 10 years in Kerman province, southeast of Iran. METHODS: A number of 1782 subjects, including 1096 females and 686 males, with cutaneous disorders in their skin, nail, and hair suspected to have SCFIs participated in this study...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755063/brazilian-experience-of-the-treatment-of-alopecia-universalis-with-the-novel-antirheumatic-therapy-tofacitinib-a-case-series
#14
Morton Scheinberg, Regina Adalva de Lucena Couto Océa, Boris Afonso Cruz, Sineida Berbert Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Alopecia universalis is an autoimmune disorder for which there is no known effective therapy. Tofacitinib-a novel antirheumatic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis-has been shown in some reports to induce sustained hair growth in patients with alopecia universalis. CASE SERIES: Here, we review the experiences of four different rheumatologists across the country regarding four Brazilian patients with alopecia universalis who were treated with tofacitinib ...
July 28, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745081/ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-studies-of-myrtus-communis-linn-a-popular-herb-in-unani-system-of-medicine
#15
Mekonnen Sisay, Tigist Gashaw
Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae) is one of the popular drugs being used in the Unani system of phytomedicine since ancient Greece period. From time immemorial, different parts of this plant and essential oil have been used for a variety of purposes such as cosmetics (hair fall control), flavoring of food and drinks as well as extensive therapeutic purposes. Ethnobotanical information revealed that M communis L has been a folkloric repute for the treatment of several diseases like gastric ulcer, diarrhea, dysentery, cancer, rheumatism, hemorrhage, deep sinuses, leucorrhoea, hemorrhoid, inflammation, dyspepsia, anxiety, insomnia, diabetes, hypertension, pulmonary disorders, and skin diseases...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743950/auditory-neuropathy-after-damage-to-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-mice-resulting-from-conditional-expression-of-diphtheria-toxin-receptors
#16
Haolai Pan, Qiang Song, Yanyan Huang, Jiping Wang, Renjie Chai, Shankai Yin, Jian Wang
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder characterized by normal cochlear amplification to sound but poor temporal processing and auditory perception in noisy backgrounds. These deficits likely result from impairments in auditory neural synchrony; such dyssynchrony of the neural responses has been linked to demyelination of auditory nerve fibers. However, no appropriate animal models are currently available that mimic this pathology. In this study, Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR (+/+) ) mice were cross-mated with mice containing Cre (Bhlhb5-Cre (+/-) ) specific to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs)...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741388/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-effect-of-the-four-herb-chinese-medicine-anbp-on-promoting-mouse-skin-wound-healing
#17
Li Chen, Qian Hou, Zhong-Zhi Zhou, Mei-Rong Li, Ling-Zhi Zhong, Xiang-Dong Deng, Zi-Ying Zhu, Zhong-Yi Cheng, Jun Zhu, Cong-Lian Xiang, Wen-Jun He, Xiao-Bing Fu
Traditional Chinese medicine has great potential to improve wound healing. ANBP, the mixture of 4 Chinese herbs- Agrimoniapilosa, Nelumbonucifera, Boswelliacarteri, and Pollen typhae-is effective in trauma treatment while its mechanism is still elusive. In this study, quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analyses were performed to decipher the possible roles of ANBP in accelerated wound healing of mouse skin. Among all 3171 identified proteins, 90, 71, 80, and 140 proteins were found to be differently expressed in 6 hours, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days ANBP-treated tissues compared with corresponding control tissues, respectively...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736236/patients-with-hidradenitis-suppurativa-have-a-high-psychiatric-disease-burden-a-finnish-nationwide-registry-study
#18
Laura Huilaja, Hannu Tiri, Jari Jokelainen, Markku Timonen, Kaisa Tasanen
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of hair follicles which is associated with various comorbidities. In order further to clarify the associations between HS and psychiatric disorders, we conducted a nationwide retrospective study that included 4381 patients with HS and 39554 psoriasis and 43248 melanocytic nevi patients as controls. Patient data were obtained from the statutory Finnish Care Register for Health Care. The incidence of HS was 2.7/100,000 persons/year. At least one psychiatric diagnosis was found in 24...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727603/nodular-lesion-in-cheek-with-a-hair-tuft
#19
David Ayala, Inés Escandell, Jose M Martin
Trichostasis spinulosa is a rarely diagnosed disorder of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by retention of telogen hairs within the dilated follicles. A hair tuft can be seen protruding from the follicles. We present a case of trichostasis spinulosa associated with intradermal melanocytic nevi, where dermoscopy helps to identify this entity.
August 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722457/-diseases-affecting-the-scalp
#20
Dana Suchánková
The skin of the scalp differs from the skin on the other areas of the body because of a higher density of hair follicles and higher sebum production. These, together with the presence of hair, provide a suitable environment for superficial infections, infestations and inflammatory diseases. The good condition of the scalp has a significant impact on the patient's mental well-being and social interaction. The visibility of this part of the skin and the presence of hair itself restrict the range of possible therapeutic agents that can be used due to the complicated application and poor cosmetic outcome...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
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