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radiation knowledge based planning

Paul Leonard, Gareth Thomas
Nuclear emergency planning arrangements in the UK are continually kept under review. This work proposes to outline how experience from nuclear exercises and undertaking emergency response duties can be based on radiological knowledge of specific sites and utilised in the future. In 2014, the UK regulator, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) revised their principles for the determination of off-site emergency planning areas around nuclear sites where predetermined countermeasures and other protection measures are applied to protect those people who may be affected by a radiation emergency...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Rakesh Shiradkar, Tarun K Podder, Ahmad Algohary, Satish Viswanath, Rodney J Ellis, Anant Madabhushi
BACKGROUND: Radiomics or computer - extracted texture features have been shown to achieve superior performance than multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) signal intensities alone in targeting prostate cancer (PCa) lesions. Radiomics along with deformable co-registration tools can be used to develop a framework to generate targeted focal radiotherapy treatment plans. METHODS: The Rad-TRaP framework comprises three distinct modules. Firstly, a module for radiomics based detection of PCa lesions on mpMRI via a feature enabled machine learning classifier...
November 10, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Jennifer Connelly, Adília Hormigo, Nimish Mohilie, Jethro Hu, Aafia Chaudhry, Nicholas Blondin
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults and invariably carry a poor prognosis. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and compelling survival benefit when tumor treating fields (TTFields) are added to temozolomide for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. TTFields are low-intensity, intermediate frequency (200 kHz) alternating electric fields, delivered directly to a patient's brain through the local application of non-invasive transducer arrays...
November 4, 2016: BMC Cancer
Masaki Nakamura, Hideki Nishimura, Masao Nakayama, Hiroshi Mayahara, Haruka Uezono, Aya Harada, Naoki Hashimoto, Yasuo Ejima, Takeaki Ishihara, Ryohei Sasaki
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after CyberKnife lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and to evaluate predictive factors of symptomatic RP. METHODS: 56 patients with peripheral non-small-cell lung cancer were treated using the CyberKnife(®) VSI(™) System (Accuracy Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) between May 2013 and September 2015. Total radiation doses ranged from 48 to 56 Gy, as delivered in four equal fractions...
December 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Chang Heon Choi, So-Yeon Park, Jung-In Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Kyubo Kim, Joel Carlson, Jong Min Park
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for spine stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). METHODS: A total of 20 patients with spine metastasis were retrospectively selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were generated. The spinal cords were defined based on magnetic resonance images for the tri-Co-60 IMRT, while isotropic 1 mm margins were added to the spinal cords for the VMAT plans...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Britta Langen, Nils Rudqvist, Khalil Helou, Eva B Forssell-Aronsson
INTRODUCTION: Targeted α-therapy is a promising treatment option for various types of malignant tumors. Radiolabeled cancer-seeking agents, however, undergo degradation resulting in a certain percentage of free radionuclide in the body. The radiohalogen (211)At accumulates in various tissues with specifically high uptake in the thyroid. When normal thyroid function is disturbed due to ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, deleterious effects can occur in tissues that depend on thyroid hormone (TH) regulation for normal physiological function...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
C Sainz Fernández, L S Quindós Poncela, A Fernández Villar, I Fuente Merino, J L Gutierrez-Villanueva, S Celaya González, L Quindós López, J Quindós López, E Fernández, J Remondo Tejerina, J L Martín Matarranz, M García Talavera
One of the requirements of the recently approved EU-BSS (European Basic Safety Standards Directive, EURATOM, 2013) is the design and implementation of national radon action plans in the member states (Annex XVIII). Such plans require radon surveys. The analysis of indoor radon data is supported by the existing knowledge about geogenic radiation. With this aim, we used the terrestrial gamma dose rate data from the MARNA project. In addition, we considered other criterion regarding the surface of Spain, population, permeability of rocks, uranium and radium contain in soils because currently no data are available related to soil radon gas concentration and permeability in Spain...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
H C Gits, J Dow, M Feng, M M Matuszak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J H Lefevre, S Benoist
GOAL: To report the current clinical practice of French physicians for rectal cancer in various complex settings. METHODS: Nineteen clinical situations and four surveillance modalities were proposed to a panel of experts via 11 learned societies. The answers of 48 experts and the impact of colorectal specialists on therapeutic options were compared to those of other participants. RESULTS: A total of 722 physicians [surgeons=319 (44%), gastro-intestinal oncologists=305 (42%), radiotherapists=98 (14%)] participated in this study...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Koujiro Ikushima, Hidetaka Arimura, Ze Jin, Hidetake Yabu-Uchi, Jumpei Kuwazuru, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Tomonari Sasaki, Hiroshi Honda, Masayuki Sasaki
We have proposed a computer-assisted framework for machine-learning-based delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) following an optimum contour selection (OCS) method. The key idea of the proposed framework was to feed image features around GTV contours (determined based on the knowledge of radiation oncologists) into a machine-learning classifier during the training step, after which the classifier produces the 'degree of GTV' for each voxel in the testing step. Initial GTV regions were extracted using a support vector machine (SVM) that learned the image features inside and outside each tumor region (determined by radiation oncologists)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Turki Almatani, Richard P Hugtenburg, Ryan D Lewis, Susan E Barley, Mark A Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Cone beam CT (CBCT) images contain more scatter than a conventional CT image and therefore provide inaccurate Hounsfield units (HUs). Consequently, CBCT images cannot be used directly for radiotherapy dose calculation. The aim of this study is to enable dose calculations to be performed with the use of CBCT images taken during radiotherapy and evaluate the necessity of replanning. METHODS: A patient with prostate cancer with bilateral metallic prosthetic hip replacements was imaged using both CT and CBCT...
October 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Sean L Berry, Amanda Boczkowski, Rongtao Ma, James Mechalakos, Margie Hunt
PURPOSE: We investigated the sources of variability in radiation therapy treatment plan output between planners within a single institution. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty treatment planners across 5 campuses of an institution created a plan on the same thoracic esophagus patient computed tomography scan and structure set. Plans were scored and ranked based on the planner's adherence to an ordered list of target dose coverage and normal tissue evaluation criteria...
November 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Wolfgang-Ulrich Müller, Augusto Giussani, Werner Rühm, Jean-Francois Lecomte, John Harrison, Michaela Kreuzer, Christina Sobotzki, Joachim Breckow
ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m(-3))...
August 2016: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Amy T Y Chang, Albert W M Hung, Fion W K Cheung, Michael C H Lee, Oscar S H Chan, Helen Philips, Yung-Tang Cheng, Wai-Tong Ng
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is widely used to achieve a highly conformal dose and improve treatment outcome. However, plan quality and planning time are institute and planner dependent, and no standardized tool exists to recognize an optimal plan. RapidPlan, a knowledge-based algorithm, can generate constraints to assist optimization and produce high-quality IMRT plans. This report evaluated the quality and efficiency of using RapidPlan in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) IMRT planning...
July 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Zhang Zhang, Michelle Wodzak, Olivier Belzile, Heling Zhou, Brock Sishc, Hao Yan, Strahinja Stojadinovic, Ralph P Mason, Rolf A Brekken, Rajiv Chopra, Michael D Story, Robert Timmerman, Debabrata Saha
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has found an important role in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, demonstrating improvements in dose distribution and even tumor cure rates, particularly for early-stage disease. Despite its emerging clinical efficacy, SBRT has primarily evolved due to advances in medical imaging and more accurate dose delivery, leaving a void in knowledge of the fundamental biological mechanisms underlying its activity. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of orthotropic animal models to further probe the biology associated with high-dose-per-fraction treatment typical of SBRT...
June 2016: Radiation Research
Patrick Lorimer, Zvonimir Milas
Most cutaneous malignancies of the head and neck (HN) are non-melanoma skin cancers, predominantly basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Less common entities include Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), sebaceous carcinoma (SC), and angiosarcoma. Treatment is based on histology subtype, stage, and extent of involvement. Surgery is the primary means of treatment and includes wide local excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and cervical lymphadenectomy. Multidisciplinary management including radiation and targeted chemotherapy are critical adjuncts to surgery...
June 2016: Seminars in Oncology
Kati Matilainen, Sanna-Mari Ahonen, Päivi Kankkunen, Mari Kangasniemi
BACKGROUND: Considering the ethics of each profession is important as inter-professional collaboration increases. Professional ethics creates a basis for radiographers' work, as it includes values and principles, together with rights and duties that guide and support professionals. However, little is known about radiographers' rights when it comes to professional ethics. THE AIM: The aim of this study was to describe radiographers' perceptions and experiences of their professional rights...
May 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Tawfik Giaddui, Wenzhou Chen, Jialu Yu, Liyong Lin, Charles B Simone, Lulin Yuan, Yutao U T Gong, Q Jackie Wu, Radhe Mohan, Xiaodong Zhang, Jaques B Bluett, Michael Gillin, Kevin Moore, Elizabeth O'Meara, Jennifer Presley, Jeffrey D Bradley, Zhongxing Liao, James Galvin, Ying Xiao
BACKGROUND: To establish the feasibility of the dosimetric compliance criteria of the RTOG 1308 trial through testing against Intensity Modulation Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Passive Scattering Proton Therapy (PSPT) plans. METHODS: Twenty-six lung IMRT and 26 proton PSPT plans were included in the study. Dose Volume Histograms (DVHs) for targets and normal structures were analyzed. The quality of IMRT plans was assessed using a knowledge-based engineering tool...
May 4, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Lionel Perrier, Magali Morelle, Pascal Pommier, Pierre Boisselier, Bernard Coche-Dequeant, Olivier Gallocher, Marc Alfonsi, Etienne Bardet, Michel Rives, Valentin Calugaru, Enrique Chajon, Georges Noel, Hinda Mecellem, David Pérol, Sophie Dussart, Philippe Giraud
PURPOSE: This cost analysis aimed to prospectively assess differences in costs between TomoTherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Economic data were gathered from a multicenter study. However, randomization was not possible due to the availability of equipment. Costs were calculated using the microcosting technique from the hospital's perspective (in 2013 euros), and the time horizon was radiation therapy...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
D Pham, N Hardcastle, F Foroudi, T Kron, M Bressel, B Hilder, B Chesson, R Oates, R Montgomery, D Ball, S Siva
AIMS: In technically advanced multicentre clinical trials, participating centres can benefit from a credentialing programme before participating in the trial. Education of staff in participating centres is an important aspect of a successful clinical trial. In the multicentre study of fractionated versus single fraction stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy in lung oligometastases (TROG 13.01), knowledge transfer of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy techniques to the local multidisciplinary team is intended as part of the credentialing process...
September 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
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