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Circadian cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319388/woohwangcheongsimwon-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-memory-deficits-and-induces-sirt1-in-mice
#1
Hyunwoo Park, Mia Kim, Im-Joon Shin, Jonghee Park, Soo Yong Bang, Chunsik Yi, Myoung-Ae Kim, Jae-Hwan Lew, Joo Won Suh, Sungho Maeng
Woohwangcheongsimwon (WHC) is a mixture of herbal medicines that is widely prescribed in Korean traditional medicine. SIRT1 is known for its regulatory roles in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and circadian rhythms. This study was designed to determine whether WHC can increase and mimic the biological reactions of SIRT1 activation. Ten-month-old male mice were divided into four groups: nontreated normal diet (ND), nontreated high-fat diet (HFD), WHC-treated ND, and WHC-treated HFD. Body weight and cognitive functions were evaluated after treatment...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302618/time-restricted-feeding-improves-circadian-dysfunction-as-well-as-motor-symptoms-in-the-q175-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#2
Huei-Bin Wang, Dawn H Loh, Daniel S Whittaker, Tamara Cutler, David Howland, Christopher S Colwell
Huntington's disease (HD) patients suffer from a progressive neurodegeneration that results in cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and motor dysfunction. Disturbances in sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, frequent bedtime awakenings, and fatigue during the day. The heterozygous Q175 mouse model of HD has been shown to phenocopy many HD core symptoms including circadian dysfunctions. Because circadian dysfunction manifests early in the disease in both patients and mouse models, we sought to determine if early intervention that improve circadian rhythmicity can benefit HD and delay disease progression...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278283/delirium-pathophysiology-an-updated-hypothesis-of-the-etiology-of-acute-brain-failure
#3
José R Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome encountered by clinicians dealing with older adults and the medically ill and is best characterized by 5 core domains: cognitive deficits, attentional deficits, circadian rhythm dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and alteration in psychomotor functioning. DESIGN: An extensive literature review and consolidation of published data into a novel interpretation of known pathophysiological causes of delirium...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259298/the-after-hours-circadian-mutant-has-reduced-phenotypic-plasticity-in-behaviors-at-multiple-timescales-and-in-sleep-homeostasis
#4
Silvia Maggi, Edoardo Balzani, Glenda Lassi, Celina Garcia-Garcia, Andrea Plano, Stefano Espinoza, Liudmila Mus, Federico Tinarelli, Patrick M Nolan, Raul R Gainetdinov, Fuat Balci, Thierry Nieus, Valter Tucci
Circadian clock is known to adapt to environmental changes and can significantly influence cognitive and physiological functions. In this work, we report specific behavioral, cognitive, and sleep homeostatic defects in the after hours (Afh) circadian mouse mutant, which is characterized by lengthened circadian period. We found that the circadian timing irregularities in Afh mice resulted in higher interval timing uncertainty and suboptimal decisions due to incapability of processing probabilities. Our phenotypic observations further suggested that Afh mutants failed to exhibit the necessary phenotypic plasticity for adapting to temporal changes at multiple time scales (seconds-to-minutes to circadian)...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248294/phenotyping-of-per3-variants-reveals-widespread-effects-on-circadian-preference-sleep-regulation-and-health
#5
REVIEW
Simon N Archer, Christina Schmidt, Gilles Vandewalle, Derk-Jan Dijk
Period3 (Per3) is one of the most robustly rhythmic genes in humans and animals. It plays a significant role in temporal organisation in peripheral tissues. The effects of PER3 variants on many phenotypes have been investigated in targeted and genome-wide studies. PER3 variants, especially the human variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), associate with diurnal preference, mental disorders, non-visual responses to light, brain and cognitive responses to sleep loss/circadian misalignment. Introducing the VNTR into mice alters responses to sleep loss and expression of sleep homeostasis-related genes...
November 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231749/individual-differences-in-chronotypes-associated-with-academic-performance-among-chilean-university-students
#6
Macarena Valladares, Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle, Miss Alexandra Muñoz, Ana María Obregón
A chronotype is an individual trait that determines circadian rhythm (dark/light cycle) characteristics, associated with bedtime, waking, and other daily activities. A chronotype is classified as morning, intermediate, and evening. The objective is to associate chronotypes with academic performance in university students. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chronotype of university students (n = 703) by Horne-Ostberg questionnaire and associated with academic performance. The group with higher GPAs had higher chronotype scores (p = 0...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209239/genetic-biomarkers-on-age-related-cognitive-decline
#7
REVIEW
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Eugene Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
With ever-increasing elder populations, age-related cognitive decline, which is characterized as a gradual decline in cognitive capacity in the aging process, has turned out to be a mammoth public health concern. Since genetic information has become increasingly important to explore the biological mechanisms of cognitive decline, the search for genetic biomarkers of cognitive aging has received much attention. There is growing evidence that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the ADAMTS9, BDNF, CASS4, COMT, CR1, DNMT3A, DTNBP1, REST, SRR, TOMM40, circadian clock, and Alzheimer's diseases-associated genes may contribute to susceptibility to cognitive aging...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202376/circadian-rhythm-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#8
Andreas Eleftheriou, Martin Ulander, Fredrik Lundin
OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) takes place in structures close to the cerebral ventricular system. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), situated close to the third ventricle, is involved in circadian rhythm. Diurnal disturbances are well-known in demented patients. The cognitive decline in iNPH is potentially reversible after a shunt operation. Diurnal rhythm has never been studied in iNPH. We hypothesize that there is a disturbance of circadian rhythm in iNPH-patients and the aim was to study any changes of the diurnal rhythm (mesor and circadian period) as well as any changes of the diurnal amplitude and acrophase of the activity in iNPH-patients before and after a shunt operation...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185170/influence-of-time-of-day-on-joint-navon-effect
#9
Marco Fabbri, Matteo Frisoni, Monica Martoni, Lorenzo Tonetti, Vincenzo Natale
The shared attention theory suggests that people devote greater cognitive resources to those features co-attended simultaneously with others, determining better performance in several types of tasks. When co-actors performed a go/no-go Navon task attending different features of target letters, the performance was impaired, reflecting a joint Navon effect (the representation of a co-actor's attentional focus made it more difficult to select and apply one's own focus of attention), probably due to asynchronous co-attention with a decrease in cognitive resources involved...
November 28, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181439/rest-activity-circadian-rhythms-and-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-men
#10
Tara S Rogers, Stephanie Harrison, Christine Swanson, Jane A Cauley, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Eric Orwoll, Katie L Stone, Nancy E Lane
Background: Disrupted rest-activity circadian rhythm (RAR) patterns have been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e. diminished cognitive function, increased risk of dementia and falls). Circadian time cues in bone influence the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and bone turnover markers exhibit circadian variation; relationships between bone outcomes and RAR are emerging areas of research. We evaluated associations between RAR and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck in older men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172115/rls-patients-show-better-nocturnal-performance-in-the-simon-task-due-to-diminished-visuo-motor-priming
#11
Rui Zhang, Wiebke Schrempf, Moritz D Brandt, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste, Ann-Kathrin Stock
OBJECTIVE: The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by sensory-motor symptoms which usually occur predominantly at rest in the evening and at night. It is assumed that this circadian rhythm is caused by low dopamine levels in the evening. Yet, it has never been investigated whether RLS patients show diurnal variations in cognitive functions modulated by dopamine and what neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical processes underlie such modulations. METHODS: We used a Simon task combined with EEG and source localization to investigate whether top-down response selection and/or automatic visuo-motor priming are subject to diurnal changes in RLS patients, as compared to matched healthy controls...
January 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#12
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163089/the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease-shows-specific-deficits-in-a-test-battery-of-motor-function
#13
Giuseppe Manfré, Erik K H Clemensson, Elisavet I Kyriakou, Laura E Clemensson, Johanneke E van der Harst, Judith R Homberg, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Rationale: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective: The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158147/joint-analysis-of-cognitive-and-circadian-variation-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-i-disorder
#14
Pramod Thomas, Fanyin He, Sati Mazumdar, Joel Wood, Triptish Bhatia, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Daniel Buysse, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Impairment in cognitive variables and alterations in circadian function have been documented among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BP1), but it is not known whether joint analysis of these variables can define clinically relevant sub-groups in either disorder. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pattern and relationship of cognitive and circadian function in SZ and BP1 patients with respect to diagnosis and indices of clinical severity...
November 7, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144168/the-effects-of-extended-nap-periods-on-cognitive-physiological-and-subjective-responses-under-simulated-night-shift-conditions
#15
Jonathan Davy, Matthias Göbel
Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138588/rai1-gene-mutations-mechanisms-of-smith-magenis-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Mariateresa Falco, Sonia Amabile, Fabio Acquaviva
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM #182290) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by distinctive physical features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and a typical behavioral phenotype. SMS is caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions, encompassing multiple genes and including the retinoic acid-induced 1 gene (RAI1), or by mutations in RAI1 itself. About 10% of all the SMS patients, in fact, carry an RAI1 mutation responsible for the phenotype. RAI1 (OMIM *607642) is a dosage-sensitive gene expressed in many tissues and highly conserved among species...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132973/mutual-influence-of-sleep-and-circadian-clocks-on-physiology-and-cognition
#17
REVIEW
Isabel Heyde, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Henrik Oster
The 24-hour sleep-wake cycle is one of the most prominent outputs of the circadian clock system. At the same time, changes in sleep-wake behavior feedback on behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms, thus altering the coordination of the body's clock network. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption have similar physiological endpoints including metabolic, cognitive, and immunologic impairments. This raises the question to which extent these phenomena are causally linked. In this review, we summarize different physiologic outcomes of sleep deprivation and mistimed sleep and discuss the experimental evidence for a mediating role of the circadian clock machinery in this context...
November 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129126/chronic-circadian-misalignment-without-circadian-arrhythmicity-or-sleep-deprivation-does-not-impair-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#18
Phan Q Duy, Samer Hattar
Artificial light in modern society has led to the ubiquity of light exposure at night as individuals work night shifts and use light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime. These aberrant light conditions have detrimental consequences on cognitive and mental health, compelling the need to understand the mechanisms by which light affects brain functions. Although it was believed that aberrant light impairs health by first disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep, we showed that chronic exposure to a light cycle termed T7 (3...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128778/circadian-blood-pressure-patterns-and-blood-pressure-control-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Nicola Di Daniele, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Valentina Rovella, Veronica Castagnola, Marco Gabriele, Angelo Scuteri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD progression is associated with suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control. Here we evaluate the impact of CKD on the attainment of BP control and the circadian BP profile in older subjects. METHODS: In this observational study, we studied 547 patients referred to the hypertension clinic, of whom 224 (40.9%) had CKD. Blood pressure (BP) control and circadian BP patterns were evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring...
December 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126762/association-between-abnormal-nocturnal-blood-pressure-profile-and-dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Ryota Tanaka, Yasushi Shimo, Kazuo Yamashiro, Takashi Ogawa, Kenya Nishioka, Genko Oyama, Atsushi Umemura, Nobutaka Hattori
BACKGROUND: Circadian blood pressure alterations are frequently observed in Parkinson's disease, but the association between these changes and dementia in the condition remains unclear. Here, we assess the relationship between abnormal nocturnal blood pressure profiles and dementia in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We enrolled 137 patients with Parkinson's disease, who underwent 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, following cognitive and clinical assessment...
October 20, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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