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Circadian cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550253/is-sleep-disruption-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Arthur Cassa Macedo, Sara Balouch, Naji Tabet
Sleep disturbances are routinely encountered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and affect about 25-40% of patients in the mild-to-moderate stages of the disease. In many, sleep pathology may represent a symptom of the underlying neurodegeneration. However, a history of sleep disruption occurring years prior to onset of cognitive symptoms could represent a potential risk factor for AD. The aim of the present narrative review was to evaluate current evidence linking sleep disturbances with AD development and to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to this...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545364/bright-light-delights-effects-of-daily-light-exposure-on-emotions-rest-activity-cycles-sleep-and-melatonin-secretion-in-severely-demented-patients
#2
Mirjam Münch, Michael Schmieder, Katharina Bieler, Rolf Goldbach, Timo Fuhrmann, Naomi Zumstein, Petra Vonmoos, Jean-Louis Scartezzini, Anna Wirz-Justice, Christian Cajochen
We tested whether the effects of a dynamic lighting system are superior to conventional lighting on emotions, agitation behaviour, quality of life, melatonin secretion and circadian rest-activity cycles in severely demented patients. As a comparison, an age matched control patient group was exposed to conventional lighting. For none of the output measures, significant differences between the two lighting conditions were found during the 8 study weeks in fall/winter. Thus, we divided the patient cohort (n = 89) into two groups, solely based on the median of their daily individual light exposure...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527163/pharmacotherapy-of-insomnia-and-current-updates
#3
REVIEW
Arup Kumar Misra, Pramod Kumar Sharma
Insomnia is highly prevalent and is associated with a range of psychological, psychiatric, and medical conditions. Insomnia affects health by influencing cognitive, emotional and social functioning. Circadian and sleep homeostatic processes play an important role in insomnia development and its maintenance. Several efficacious treatments, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic, exist for the management of insomnia. Among non-pharmacologic treatments including stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction, relaxation, sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy have been shown to be efficacious...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515793/does-the-diurnal-cycle-of-cortisol-explain-the-relationship-between-physical-performance-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#4
B Dijckmans, J Tortosa-Martínez, N Caus, G González-Caballero, B Martínez-Pelegrin, C Manchado-Lopez, J M Cortell-Tormo, I Chulvi-Medrano, A Clow
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is a promising strategy to treat and prevent cognitive decline. The mechanisms that mediate these benefits are not fully clear but physical activity is thought to attenuate the harmful effects of chronic psychological stress and hypercortisolism on cognition. However, the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion is complex and it is not known which aspects are most closely associated with increased cognitive function and better physical performance...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502554/the-9-to-5-rodent-time-for-change-scientific-and-welfare-implications-of-circadian-and-light-effects-on-laboratory-mice-and-rats
#5
Penny Hawkins, Huw D R Golledge
Rodents, particularly rats and mice, are the most commonly used laboratory animals and are extensively used in neuroscience research, including as translational models for human disorders. It is common practice to carry out scientific procedures on rats and mice during the daytime, which is the inactive period for these nocturnal species. However, there is increasing evidence for circadian and light-induced effects on rodent physiology and behaviour which may affect the validity of results obtained from mice and rats in neuroscience studies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502410/performance-awareness-predicting-cognitive-performance-during-simulated-shiftwork-using-chronobiological-measures
#6
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Joseph B Mulvihill, Melissa A Vander Wood
Physiological tracers of circadian rhythms and a performance awareness index were examined as predictors of cognitive performance during two sleep deprivation conditions common to occupational shiftwork. Study 1: Thirty-three sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated nightshift. Study 2: Thirty-two partially sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated dayshift. A standardized logic test was used to measure cognitive performance. Body temperature and heart rate were measured as chronobiological indices of endogenous circadian rhythms...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500869/to-sleep-or-not-to-sleep-neuronal-and-ecological-insights
#7
REVIEW
Ada Eban-Rothschild, William J Giardino, Luis de Lecea
Daily, animals need to decide when to stop engaging in cognitive processes and behavioral responses to the environment, and go to sleep. The main processes regulating the daily organization of sleep and wakefulness are circadian rhythms and homeostatic sleep pressure. In addition, motivational processes such as food seeking and predator evasion can modulate sleep/wake behaviors. Here, we discuss the principal processes regulating the propensity to stay awake or go to sleep-focusing on neuronal and behavioral aspects...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495465/the-effect-of-blue-enriched-white-light-on-cognitive-performances-and-sleepiness-of-night-shift-workers-a-field-study
#8
Majid Motamedzadeh, Rostam Golmohammadi, Reza Kazemi, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
INTRODUCTION: Night-shift works are basically accompanied by reduced cognitive performance, sleepiness, and higher possibility for human error and related incidents. It is therefore crucial to improve individuals' performance and alertness in sensitive places like industries' control room with the ultimate goal of increasing efficiency and reducing the number of possible incidents. Previous research has indicated that blue light is a critical cue for entraining circadian rhythm. As a result, the present study was an attempt to investigate whether blue-enriched white light illumination was a practical strategy to decrease sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during night shifts...
May 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494914/the-effect-of-melatonin-on-early-postoperative-cognitive-decline-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-hip-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yunxia Fan, Liang Yuan, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Dapeng Gao
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether exogenous melatonin supplementation could ameliorate early postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) in aged patients undergoing hip arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty-nine patients with ASA I-III, older than 65yr of age (mean age: 74...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487671/improved-mental-acuity-forecasting-with-an-individualized-quantitative-sleep-model
#10
Brent D Winslow, Nam Nguyen, Kimberly E Venta
Sleep impairment significantly alters human brain structure and cognitive function, but available evidence suggests that adults in developed nations are sleeping less. A growing body of research has sought to use sleep to forecast cognitive performance by modeling the relationship between the two, but has generally focused on vigilance rather than other cognitive constructs affected by sleep, such as reaction time, executive function, and working memory. Previous modeling efforts have also utilized subjective, self-reported sleep durations and were restricted to laboratory environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470121/shift-work-and-cognitive-flexibility-decomposing-task-performance
#11
Philip Cheng, Gabriel Tallent, Thomas John Bender, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Christopher L Drake
Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469566/identifying-the-best-times-for-cognitive-functioning-using-new-methods-matching-university-times-to-undergraduate-chronotypes
#12
M D R Evans, Paul Kelley, Jonathan Kelley
University days generally start at fixed times in the morning, often early morning, without regard to optimal functioning times for students with different chronotypes. Research has shown that later starting times are crucial to high school students' sleep, health, and performance. Shifting the focus to university, this study used two new approaches to determine ranges of start times that optimize cognitive functioning for undergraduates. The first is a survey-based, empirical model (SM), and the second a neuroscience-based, theoretical model (NM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468274/clock-genes-and-altered-sleep-wake-rhythms-their-role-in-the-development-of-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Annaëlle Charrier, Bertrand Olliac, Pierre Roubertoux, Sylvie Tordjman
In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators) controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460563/a-review-of-sleep-disorders-and-melatonin
#14
Zizhen Xie, Fei Chen, William A Li, Xiaokun Geng, Changhong Li, Xiaomei Meng, Yan Feng, Wei Liu, Fengchun Yu
Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis and cause significant impairments in social and occupational functions. Although currently approved medications are efficacious, they are far from satisfactory. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antihistamines and anxiolytics have the potential for dependence and addiction. Moreover, some of these medications can gradually impair cognition. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland and released exclusively at night...
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455107/sleep-quality-and-duration-in-relation-to-memory-in-the-elderly-initial-results-from-the-hellenic-longitudinal-investigation-of-aging-and-diet
#15
A Tsapanou, Y Gu, D M O'Shea, M Yannakoulia, M Kosmidis, E Dardiotis, G Hadjigeorgiou, P Sakka, Y Stern, N Scarmeas
BACKGROUND: Sleep is crucial for cognition, particularly for memory, given its complex association with neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sleep quality as well as sleep duration and memory performance in a Greek elderly population. SETTING: Cross-sectional design in the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD), a population representative study of Greek elderly (65years or older)...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449894/young-children-with-down-syndrome-show-normal-development-of-circadian-rhythms-but-poor-sleep-efficiency-a-cross-sectional-study-across-the-first-60-months-of-life
#16
Fabian Fernandez, Casandra C Nyhuis, Payal Anand, Bianca I Demara, Norman F Ruby, Goffredina Spanò, Caron Clark, Jamie O Edgin
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sleep consolidation and circadian activity rhythms in infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) under light and socially entrained conditions within a familiar setting. Given previous human and animal data suggesting intact circadian regulation of melatonin across the day and night, it was hypothesized that behavioral indices of circadian rhythmicity would likewise be intact in the sample with DS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 66 infants and young children with DS, aged 5-67 months, and 43 typically developing age-matched controls...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449556/role-of-sleep-disturbance-in-the-trajectory-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Dong Woo Kang, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
Sleep disturbances such as insomnia, hypersomnia, and circadian rhythm disturbance are common in normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To date, special attention has been paid to sleep disturbance in the clinical course of AD insofar as the interaction of sleep disturbance with the pathogenesis of AD may impact the clinical course and cognitive function of AD patients. This review covers the bidirectional relationship between sleep disturbance and AD pathogenesis; the associations between sleep disturbance and AD-specific neurotransmitters, brain structure, and aspects of sleep disturbance in each phase of AD; and the effects of sleep disturbance on the cognitive functions of patients in each phase of AD...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444394/tissue-specific-dissociation-of-diurnal-transcriptome-rhythms-during-sleep-restriction-in-mice
#18
Jana Husse, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Johanna L Barclay, Nadine Naujokat, Judit Meyer-Kovac, Hendrik Lehnert, Henrik Oster
Study objectives: Shortened or mistimed sleep affects metabolic homeostasis, which may in part be mediated by dysregulation of endogenous circadian clocks. In this study, we assessed the contribution of sleep disruption to metabolic dysregulation by analysing diurnal transcriptome regulation in metabolic tissues of mice subjected to a sleep restriction paradigm. Methods: Male mice were subjected to 2x5 days of sleep restriction (SR) with enforced waking during the first six hours of the light phase...
April 24, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433459/depressive-disorders-processes-leading-to-neurogeneration-and-potential-novel-treatments
#19
REVIEW
Gregory M Brown, Roger S McIntyre, Joshua Rosenblat, Rüdiger Hardeland
Mood disorders are wide spread with estimates that one in seven of the population are affected at some time in their life (Kessler et al., 2012). Many of those affected with severe depressive disorders have cognitive deficits which may progress to frank neurodegeneration. There are several peripheral markers shown by patients who have cognitive deficits that could represent causative factors and could potentially serve as guides to the prevention or even treatment of neurodegeneration. Circadian rhythm misalignment, immune dysfunction and oxidative stress and circadian rhythm misalignment are key pathologic processes implicated in neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction in depressive disorders...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430522/impact-of-naturalistic-lighting-on-hospitalized-stroke-patients-in-a-rehabilitation-unit-design-and-measurement
#20
Anders West, Poul Jennum, Sofie Amalie Simonsen, Birgit Sander, Milena Pavlova, Helle K Iversen
INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE: Stroke is a major cause of acquired cerebral disability among adults, frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, disrupted sleep and fatigue. New ways of intervention to prevent these complications are therefore needed. The major circadian regulator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is mainly controlled by natural daylight, and the blue spectrum is considered the most powerful. During stroke rehabilitation, patients typically are mostly indoors and therefore not exposed to the natural daytime variation in light intensity...
April 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
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