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Circadian cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324596/blood-pressure-and-metabolic-changes-after-3-month-cpap-therapy-in-a-very-elderly-obese-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Chiara Di Pentima, Francesca Elena Lombardi, Elisabetta Borioni, Riccardo Sarzani
Age is one of the main risk factor for the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This syndrome is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) represents the gold standard therapy, but its benefit is still to be determined in very elderly. We report the blood pressure and metabolic changes in a very elderly obese with severe OSA after 3-month CPAP therapy. We have evaluated a very elderly obese male affected by severe symptomatic OSA, poor controlled nocturnal hypertension and insulin resistance...
March 21, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319182/the-viability-of-an-ecologically-valid-chronic-sleep-restriction-and-circadian-timing-protocol-an-examination-of-sample-attrition-compliance-and-effectiveness-at-impacting-sleepiness-and-mood
#2
David L Dickinson, Sean P A Drummond, Todd McElroy
Chronic sleep restriction (SR) increases sleepiness, negatively impacts mood, and impairs a variety of cognitive performance measures. The vast majority of work establishing these effects are tightly controlled in-lab experimental studies. Examining commonly-experienced levels of SR in naturalistic settings is more difficult and generally involves observational methods, rather than active manipulations of sleep. The same is true for analyzing behavioral and cognitive outcomes at circadian unfavorable times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317486/abnormal-clock-gene-expression-and-locomotor-activity-rhythms-in-two-month-old-female-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#3
Olaide Oyegbami, Hilary M Collins, Marie C Pardon, Fran Jp Ebling, David M Heery, Paula M Moran
In addition to cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is also characterized by agitation and disruptions in activity and sleep. These symptoms typically occur in the evening or at night and have been referred to as 'sundowning'. These symptoms are especially difficult for carers and there are no specific drug treatments. There is increasing evidence that these symptoms reflect an underlying pathology of circadian rhythm generation and transmission. We investigated whether a transgenic mouse model relevant to AD (APPswe/PS1dE9) exhibits circadian alterations in locomotor activity and expression of clock genes involved in the regulation of the circadian cycle...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276853/worsening-of-rest-activity-circadian-rhythm-and-quality-of-life-in-female-breast-cancer-patients-along-progression-of-chemotherapy-cycles
#4
Armiya Sultan, Vivek Choudhary, Arti Parganiha
Chemotherapy and its associated side effects can induce the disruption of circadian rest-activity rhythm and may have negative consequences on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of cancer patients. In the current study, repeated-measures cross-sectional design was implemented to determine the status of circadian rest-activity rhythm and to assess the HRQoL of newly diagnosed female breast cancer patients those were planned to receive six cycles of chemotherapy. Rest activity and HRQoL were assessed in twenty-five patients during chemotherapy cycles 1st (C1), 3rd (C3), and 6th (C6) immediately after they reported to the outdoor ward of the Regional Cancer Center, Pt...
February 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265120/a-genome-wide-gene-by-trauma-interaction-study-of-alcohol-misuse-in-two-independent-cohorts-identifies-prkg1-as-a-risk-locus
#5
R Polimanti, J Kaufman, H Zhao, H R Kranzler, R J Ursano, R C Kessler, J Gelernter, M B Stein
Traumatic life experiences are associated with alcohol use problems, an association that is likely to be moderated by genetic predisposition. To understand these interactions, we conducted a gene-by-environment genome-wide interaction study (GEWIS) of alcohol use problems in two independent samples, the Army STARRS (STARRS, N=16 361) and the Yale-Penn (N=8084) cohorts. Because the two cohorts were assessed using different instruments, we derived separate dimensional alcohol misuse scales and applied a proxy-phenotype study design...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254568/extra-hypothalamic-brain-clocks-in-songbirds-photoperiodic-state-dependent-clock-gene-oscillations-in-night-migratory-blackheaded-buntings-emberiza-melanocephala
#6
Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
The avian circadian pacemaker system is comprised of independent clocks in the retina, pineal and hypothalamus, as shown by daily and circadian oscillations of core clock genes (Per2, Cry1, Bmal1 and Clock) in several birds including migratory blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala). This study investigated the extra-hypothalamic brain circadian clocks in blackheaded buntings, and measured Per2, Cry1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Clock mRNA expressions at 4h intervals over 24h beginning 1h after light-on in the left and right telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum, the brain regions involved in several physiological and cognitive functions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249715/sleep-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Brianne A Kent, Ralph E Mistlberger
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and currently there are no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Hallmark symptoms of AD include impaired hippocampus-dependent episodic memory and disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. The pathways connecting these symptoms are of particular interest because it is well established that sleep and circadian disruption can impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In rodents, these procedures also markedly suppress adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of brain plasticity that is believed to play an important role in pattern separation, and thus episodic memory...
February 27, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235729/impaired-quality-and-efficiency-of-sleep-impairs-cognitive-functioning-in-addison-s-disease
#8
Michelle Henry, Ian Louis Ross, Pedro Sofio Abril Wolf, Kevin Garth Flusk Thomas
BACKGROUND: Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. Periods of sub- and supra- physiological cortisol levels experienced by patients with AD likely induce disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation, the novelty of the current study was to characterise, using objective measures, the relationship between sleep and memory in patients with AD, and to examine the hypothesis that poor sleep is a biological mechanism underlying memory impairment in those patients...
February 11, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219319/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-recent-update
#9
Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186121/astrocyte-deletion-of-bmal1-alters-daily-locomotor-activity-and-cognitive-functions-via-gaba-signalling
#10
Olga Barca-Mayo, Meritxell Pons-Espinal, Philipp Follert, Andrea Armirotti, Luca Berdondini, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
Circadian rhythms are controlled by a network of clock neurons in the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Core clock genes, such as Bmal1, are expressed in SCN neurons and in other brain cells, such as astrocytes. However, the role of astrocytic clock genes in controlling rhythmic behaviour is unknown. Here we show that ablation of Bmal1 in GLAST-positive astrocytes alters circadian locomotor behaviour and cognition in mice. Specifically, deletion of astrocytic Bmal1 has an impact on the neuronal clock through GABA signalling...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178375/melatonin-restores-hippocampal-neural-precursor-proliferation-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-jet-lag-simulation-in-adult-mice
#11
Deetje Iggena, York Winter, Barbara Steiner
Frequent flyers and shift workers undergo circadian dysrhythmia with adverse impact on body and mind. The circadian rhythm disorder "jet lag" disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial cognition, which represent morphological and functional adult brain plasticity. This raises the question if pro-neurogenic stimuli might prevent those consequences. However, suitable measures to mitigate jet lag induced adverse effects on brain plasticity have been neglected so far. Here, we used adult C57Bl6 mice to investigate the pro-neurogenic stimuli melatonin (8mg/kg i...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163090/daily-rhythms-of-cognition-related-factors-are-modified-in-an-experimental-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Lorena Navigatore-Fonzo, Andrea Castro, Verónica Pignataro, Marisa Garraza, Marilina Casais, Ana Cecilia Anzulovich
The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain of Alzheimer disease patients is associated to cognitive deficit, increased oxidative stress, and alterations in the circadian rhythms. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurogranin (RC3), play an important role in the synaptic plasticity underlying memory and learning. Previously, we observed BDNF and RC3 expression follow a daily rhythmic pattern in the hippocampus of young rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an intracerebroventricular (i...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139148/circadian-preferences-in-young-adults-psychometric-properties-and-factor-structure-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-preferences-scale-ps-6
#13
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Lee Di Milia, Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo
Morningness is a trait-like variable which has been extensively studied within chronobiology. Despite the number of existing measures to assess morningness, there is a need for brief instruments that are psychometrically sound to be used in applied settings. Accordingly, the modified version of the Preferences Scale (PS-6) comprises six items and was reported to have adequate reliability and satisfactory validity indicators. In this article, the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PS-6 are reported...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127845/bright-light-therapy-for-sleep-disturbance-in-dementia-is-most-effective-for-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-a-case-series
#14
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Shuji Iritani, Kiyoshi Fujita
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems in people with dementia are common and place a high burden on caregivers. Although hypnotic agents are often used to treat sleep disturbances, their use is associated with a considerable number of high-risk side-effects such as daytime sleepiness, amnesia, and an increased frequency of falling. The administration of bright light therapy (BLT) in the morning was a non-pharmacological remedy that was expected to treat sleep disorders in patients with dementia by entraining the circadian rhythm to ameliorate disturbances to the normal sleep-wake cycle...
January 27, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#15
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116342/subsyndromal-delirium-compared-with-delirium-dementia-and-subjects-without-delirium-or-dementia-in-elderly-general-hospital-admissions-and-nursing-home-residents
#16
Esteban Sepulveda, Maeve Leonard, Jose G Franco, Dimitrios Adamis, Geraldine McCarthy, Colum Dunne, Paula T Trzepacz, Ana M Gaviria, Joan de Pablo, Elisabet Vilella, David J Meagher
INTRODUCTION: Subsyndromal delirium (SSD) complicates diagnosis of delirium and dementia, although there is little research comparing their symptom profiles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 400 elderly patients' admission to a general hospital or nursing home diagnosed with delirium, SSD, dementia, or no-delirium/no-dementia (NDND). Symptom profiles were assessed using the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98). RESULTS: Twenty percent patients had delirium, 19...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108206/circadian-variation-in-post-void-residual-in-nursing-home-residents-with-moderate-impairment-in-activities-of-daily-living
#17
Veerle Decalf, Anja Huion, Marie-Astrid Denys, Candy Kumps, Mirko Petrovic, Karel Everaert
BACKGROUND: Despite the conflicting evidence about postvoid residual (PVR) and its variation in time and corresponding voided volume (VV), studies with urinary diaries and systematic measurements of PVR after each void have never been conducted in nursing home (NH) residents. OBJECTIVE: To describe the circadian rhythm of PVR and residual fraction (RF, the net quantity of PVR) and to identify the time window with the highest PVR and RF. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A multicentre prospective study conducted between 2014 and 2015 in 5 Belgian NHs...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060532/critical-slowing-down-as-an-early-warning-of-transitions-in-episodes-of-bipolar-disorder-a-simulation-study-based-on-a-computational-model-of-circadian-activity-rhythms
#18
Atiyeh Bayani, Fatemeh Hadaeghi, Sajad Jafari, Greg Murray
Bipolar disorder is characterized by repeated episodes of mania and depression, and can be understood as pathological complex system behaviour involving cognitive, affective and psychomotor disturbance. Accurate prediction of episode transitions in the long-term pattern of mood changes in bipolar disorder could improve the management of the disorder by providing an objective early warning of relapse. In particular, circadian activity changes measured via actigraphy may contain clinically relevant signals of imminent systemic dysregulation...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057529/genetic-inhibition-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rescues-cognitive-impairments-in-neurofibromatosis-1-mutant-mice
#19
Joseph B Weiss, Sydney J Weber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tessa Marzulla, Jacob Raber
Heterozygous Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) loss of function mutations occur in approximately 90% of patients with neurofibromatosis. A major, disabling phenotypic consequence of reduced NF1 function is cognitive impairment; a possibly related behavioral phenotype is impaired sleep. Recent results in Drosophila have demonstrated a genetic interaction between Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (Alk) and NF1 for both associative learning and sleep. Inhibition of Alk improves associative learning and sleep in heterozygous NF1 mutant flies...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043031/liver-5-ht7-receptors-a-novel-regulator-target-of-fibrosis-and-inflammation-induced-chronic-liver-injury-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Beyzagul Polat, Zekai Halici, Elif Cadirci, Emre Karakus, Yasin Bayir, Abdulmecit Albayrak, Deniz Unal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and liver fibrosis is strongly associated with HCC. Treatment options are limited, and preventive strategies should be developed. An important step in the beginning of liver fibrosis is a strong inflammatory response. 5-HT7 is the last recognized member of the serotonin receptor family and is expressed in both central nerve system and peripheral system and have a lot of functions like learning, memory, smooth muscular relaxation, in the control of circadian rhythms and thermoregulation, pain and migraine, schizophrenia, anxiety, cognitive disturbances, and even inflammation...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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