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Circadian cognition

Fan Lou, Ming Li, Xiaoguang Luo, Yan Ren
Background: The clock genes controlling biological rhythm play an important role in the pathophysiology of aging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between a variant of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene and circadian dysfunction of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six hundred and forty-six cases of Parkinson's disease from consecutive outpatients and inpatients ward from our hospital were included in this study...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
Maximilian Gahr, Bernhard J Connemann, René Zeiss, Albrecht Fröhlich
OBJECTIVE:  Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs...
March 2, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Raquel Baeta-Corral, Björn Johansson, Lydia Giménez-Llort
Coffee or caffeine has recently been suggested as prophylaxis for dementia. Although memory problems are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, this dementia is also characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms called Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). The impact of preventive/therapeutic strategies on both cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms can be addressed in the 3xTg-AD mice, since they exhibit cognitive but also BPSD-like profiles. Here, we studied the long-term effects of a low dose of caffeine in male 3xTg-AD mice and as compared to age-matched non-transgenic (NTg) counterparts with normal aging...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Susanna Mantovani, Simon S Smith, Richard Gordon, John D O'Sullivan
Sleep and circadian alterations are amongst the very first symptoms experienced in Parkinson's disease, and sleep alterations are present in the majority of patients with overt clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease. However, the magnitude of sleep and circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, and its influence on the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease remains often unclear and a matter of debate. In particular, the confounding influences of dopaminergic therapy on sleep and circadian dysfunction are a major challenge, and need to be more carefully addressed in clinical studies...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Min Soo Byun, Young Min Choe, Jun Ho Lee, Dahyun Yi, Jae-Won Choi, Su Hwan Hwang, Yu Jin Lee, Dong Young Lee
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relationships between sleep-wake cycle and cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in cognitively normal (CN) older adults, focusing primarily on the moderating effects of the APOE ε4 allele. METHODS: The present study included 133 CN older adults who participated in the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis & Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease cohort. All participants underwent [11 C] Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging to quantify Aβ deposition in the brain and blood sampling for APOE genotyping...
February 28, 2018: Neurology
Jennifer Gile, Benjamin Scott, Tobias Eckle
OBJECTIVES: Delirium occurs in approximately 30% of critically ill patients, and the risk of dying during admission doubles in those patients. Molecular mechanisms causing delirium are largely unknown. However, critical illness and the ICU environment consistently disrupt circadian rhythms, and circadian disruptions are strongly associated with delirium. Exposure to benzodiazepines and constant light are suspected risk factors for the development of delirium. Thus, we tested the functional role of the circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (PER2) in different mouse models resembling delirium...
February 27, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Donají Chi-Castañeda, Arturo Ortega
Circadian rhythms are biological oscillations with a period of ~24 h. These rhythms are orchestrated by a circadian timekeeper in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, the circadian " master clock ," which exactly adjusts clock outputs to solar time via photic synchronization. At the molecular level, circadian rhythms are generated by the interaction of positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional and translational processes of the so-called " clock genes ." A large number of clock genes encode numerous proteins that regulate their own transcription and that of other genes, collectively known as " clock-controlled genes ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Angus S Fisk, Shu K E Tam, Laurence A Brown, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Light exerts a wide range of effects on mammalian physiology and behavior. As well as synchronizing circadian rhythms to the external environment, light has been shown to modulate autonomic and neuroendocrine responses as well as regulating sleep and influencing cognitive processes such as attention, arousal, and performance. The last two decades have seen major advances in our understanding of the retinal photoreceptors that mediate these non-image forming responses to light, as well as the neural pathways and molecular mechanisms by which circadian rhythms are generated and entrained to the external light/dark (LD) cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Daniel J Taylor, Allison K Wilkerson, Kristi E Pruiksma, Jacob M Williams, Camilo J Ruggero, Willie Hale, Jim Mintz, Katherine Marczyk Organek, Karin L Nicholson, Brett T Litz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Katherine A Dondanville, Elisa V Borah, Antoinette Brundige, Alan L Peterson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To develop and demonstrate interrater reliability for a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Sleep Disorders (SCISD). METHODS: The SCISD was designed to be a brief, reliable, and valid interview assessment of adult sleep disorders as defined by the DSM-5. A sample of 106 postdeployment active-duty military members seeking cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in a randomized clinical trial were assessed with the SCISD prior to treatment to determine eligibility...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Jasmyn E A Cunningham, Colin M Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric illnesses, and it has a profound negative impact on an individual's ability to function. Up to 90% of individuals suffering from depression also report sleep and circadian disruptions. If these disruptions are not effectively resolved over the course of treatment, the likelihood of relapse into depression is greatly increased. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) has shown promise in treating these sleep and circadian disturbances associated with depression, and may be effective as a stand-alone treatment for depression...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Wanqi Sun, Shirley Xin Li, Guanghai Wang, Shumei Dong, Yanrui Jiang, Karen Spruyt, Jiefan Ling, Qi Zhu, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Fan Jiang
Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both play an important role in human's cognitive functioning, yet the way in which early development of sleep and circadian rhythm affects cognitive processes and social learning in infants remains less understood. We examined the association of sleep and circadian activity rhythm (CAR) with face and emotional information processing in 12-month old infants. Face processing was measured by eye tracking, whereby infants' scanning patterns and pupil dilations were calculated when they were presented with neutral, pleasant and unpleasant faces...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah L Chellappa, Christopher J Morris, Frank A J L Scheer
Shift work increases the risk for human errors, such that drowsiness due to shift work has contributed to major industrial disasters, including Space Shuttle Challenger, Chernobyl and Alaska Oil Spill disasters, with extraordinary socio-economical costs. Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology inhibits cognitive performance at night. Yet how the circadian system modulates cognition over multiple days under realistic shift work conditions remains to be established. Importantly, because task-specific cognitive brain regions show different 24-h circadian dynamics, we hypothesize that circadian misalignment impacts cognition task-dependently...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaotao Li, Xiang Li
Observations from clinical trials have frequently demonstrated that light therapy can be an effective therapy for seasonal and non-seasonal major depression. Despite the fact that light therapy is known to have several advantages over antidepressant drugs like a low cost, minimal side-effects, and fast onset of therapeutic effect, the mechanism underlying light therapy remains unclear. So far, it is known that light therapy modulates mood states and cognitive functions, involving circadian and non-circadian pathways from retinas into brain...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Amanda Lamp, Jane M C Chen, David McCullough, Gregory Belenky
In December 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) completed a major revision of the rules and regulations governing flight and duty time in commercial aviation (Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 117). Scientists were included in the revision process and provided insights into sleep, sleep loss, the circadian rhythm, and their effects on performance that were incorporated into the new rule. If a planned flight was non-compliant with the regulation, for example if it exceeded flight and duty time limits, it could only be flown under an FAA-approved Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) as meeting an Alternative Method of Compliance (AMOC)...
February 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Maja Pajcin, Jason M White, Siobhan Banks, Jill Dorrian, Gemma M Paech, Crystal L Grant, Kayla Johnson, Katie Tooley, Eugene Aidman, Justin Fidock, Gary H Kamimori, Chris B Della Vedova
Self-assessment is the most common method for monitoring performance and safety in the workplace. However, discrepancies between subjective and objective measures have increased interest in physiological assessment of performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 23 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 11; 5 F, 6 M) or caffeine condition (n = 12; 4 F, 8 M) while undergoing 50 h (i.e. two days) of total sleep deprivation. In previous work, higher salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were associated with improved psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance in the placebo condition...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Christina M Rudin-Brown, Sarah Harris, Ari Rosberg
Canada's freight rail system moves 70% of the country's surface goods and almost half of all exports (RAC, 2016). These include dangerous goods. Anonymous survey of freight rail operating employees conducted by the Teamsters Canada Rail Conference (TCRC, 2014) revealed that many do not report getting enough sleep because of their work schedules, and that fatigue may be affecting their performance at work. Besides general impairments in attention and cognitive functioning, fatigue in railway operating employees slows reaction time to safety alarms and impairs conformance to train operating requirements...
February 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Molly Fox, Curt A Sandman, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn
BACKGROUND: An issue of critical importance for psychiatry and women's health is whether postpartum depression (PPD) represents a unique condition. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders asserts that major depressive disorder (MDD) may present with peripartum onset, without suggesting any other differences between MDD and PPD. The absence of any distinct features calls into question the nosologic validity of PPD as a diagnostic category. The present study investigates whether symptom profiles differ between PPD and depression occurring outside the postpartum phase...
February 2, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Cristiana Carbone, Annalisa Adinolfi, Stefano Cinque, Enza Lacivita, Enrico Alleva, Marcello Leopoldo, Walter Adriani
AIMS: The serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7R) subtype, coded by Htr7 gene, is broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) with clear involvement in behavioral functions such as learning/memory, regulation of mood, and circadian rhythms. In this study, we assessed effects of 5-HT7R stimulation by administration of its selective agonist, LP-211 (0.25 mg/kg i.p.), in adult Wistar-Han rats. METHODS: We used two different explorative-curiosity tests. Drug was administered either before one side-chamber familiarization (CF/V group) or immediately after it, to act on consolidation of familiarization (V/CF group)...
February 1, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Indrek Heinla, Johanna Åhlgren, Eero Vasar, Vootele Voikar
Developing reliable mouse models for social behaviour is challenging. Different tests have been proposed, but most of them consist of rather artificial confrontations of unfamiliar mice in novel arenas or are relying on social stress induced by aggressive conspecifics. Natural social interaction in home cage in laboratory has not been investigated well. IntelliCage is a fully automated home-cage system, where activity of the group-housed mice can be monitored along with various cognitive tasks. Here we report the behavioural profile of C57BL/6N (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) female mice in IntelliCage when separated by strain, followed by monitoring of activity and formation of 'home-base' after mixing two strains...
January 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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