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Circadian cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782143/dynamics-of-cerebral-responses-to-sustained-attention-performance-during-one-night-of-sleep-deprivation
#1
Yuanqiang Zhu, Yibin Xi, Ningbo Fei, Yuchen Liu, Xinxin Zhang, Lin Liu, Ziliang Xu, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Hong Yin, Jie Tian, Wei Qin
Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is increasingly common in modern society bringing various neurobehavioural effects. Dynamic changes of behaviour performances during TSD have been reported extensively, while the cerebral activation underlying such changes have not been elucidated clearly. This study aimed to investigate dynamic changes in cerebral responses to the fastest and slowest psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) trials during TSD. Thirty-six healthy subjects with intermediate chronotype performed the PVT while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging every 2 h from 22:00 hours on the first day to 06:00 hours on the second day (i...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777177/chronic-insomnia-disorder
#2
Alon Y Avidan, David N Neubauer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologists, along with all health care providers, commonly encounter patients with insomnia, which is a condition that impacts patients' underlying neurologic conditions in a bidirectional manner. While chronic insomnia is one of the most common sleep disturbances, only a small proportion of individuals with this condition discuss their sleep problems with their providers. When insomnia is described, it is more often in relationship to another medical problem, as opposed to an independent condition...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754901/scheduled-feeding-restores-memory-and-modulates-c-fos-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-septohippocampal-complex
#3
Norman F Ruby, Nathan Fisher, Danica F Patton, Matthew J Paul, Fabian Fernandez, H Craig Heller
Disruptions in circadian timing impair spatial memory in humans and rodents. Circadian-arrhythmic Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit substantial deficits in spatial working memory as assessed by a spontaneous alternation (SA) task. The present study found that daily scheduled feeding rescued spatial memory deficits in these arrhythmic animals. Improvements in memory persisted for at least 3 weeks after the arrhythmic hamsters were switched back to ad libitum feeding. During ad libitum feeding, locomotor activity resumed its arrhythmic state, but performance on the SA task varied across the day with a peak in daily performance that corresponded to the previous daily window of food anticipation...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717201/cognitive-brain-responses-during-circadian-wake-promotion-evidence-for-sleep-pressure-dependent-hypothalamic-activations
#4
Carolin F Reichert, Micheline Maire, Virginie Gabel, Antoine U Viola, Thomas Götz, Klaus Scheffler, Markus Klarhöfer, Christian Berthomier, Werner Strobel, Christophe Phillips, Eric Salmon, Christian Cajochen, Christina Schmidt
The two-process model of sleep-wake regulation posits that sleep-wake-dependent homeostatic processes interact with the circadian timing system to affect human behavior. The circadian timing system is fundamental to maintaining stable cognitive performance, as it counteracts growing homeostatic sleep pressure during daytime. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we explored brain responses underlying working memory performance during the time of maximal circadian wake-promotion under varying sleep pressure conditions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671956/a-multiscale-cerebral-neurochemical-connectome-of-the-rat-brain
#5
Hamid R Noori, Judith Schöttler, Maria Ercsey-Ravasz, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Melinda Varga, Zoltan Toroczkai, Rainer Spanagel
Understanding the rat neurochemical connectome is fundamental for exploring neuronal information processing. By using advanced data mining, supervised machine learning, and network analysis, this study integrates over 5 decades of neuroanatomical investigations into a multiscale, multilayer neurochemical connectome of the rat brain. This neurochemical connectivity database (ChemNetDB) is supported by comprehensive systematically-determined receptor distribution maps. The rat connectome has an onion-type structural organization and shares a number of structural features with mesoscale connectomes of mouse and macaque...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671110/alterations-of-clock-gene-rna-expression-in-brain-regions-of-a-triple-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Francesco Bellanti, Giuseppina Iannelli, Maria Blonda, Rosanna Tamborra, Rosanna Villani, Adele Romano, Silvio Calcagnini, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Manlio Vinciguerra, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Tommaso Cassano, Gaetano Serviddio
A disruption to circadian rhythmicity and the sleep/wake cycle constitutes a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The maintenance of circadian rhythmicity is regulated by endogenous clock genes and a number of external Zeitgebers, including light. This study investigated the light induced changes in the expression of clock genes in a triple transgenic model of AD (3×Tg-AD) and their wild type littermates (Non-Tg). Changes in gene expression were evaluated in four brain areas¾suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), hippocampus, frontal cortex and brainstem¾of 6- and 18-month-old Non-Tg and 3×Tg-AD mice after 12 h exposure to light or darkness...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668621/circadian-disruption-affects-initial-learning-but-not-cognitive-flexibility-in-an-automated-set-shifting-task-in-adult-long-evans-rats
#7
Audrey L Robertson, Rekha C Balachandran, Megan M Mahoney, Paul A Eubig
A sizeable percent of adults are subject to circadian disturbances such as shift work, which involves misalignment of time of light exposure, activity periods, sleep, and eating. Chronic adherence to disruptive circadian schedules can negatively impact cognitive functioning. Developing preclinical models of circadian disruption allow investigation of the relationship and underlying mechanisms between circadian disruption and cognitive functioning. We placed adult Long-Evans rats of both sexes on a 12:12h light:dark schedule in which rats performed an automated operant-behavior task for 3months, with daily testing occurring either 4h after lights-on or lights-off...
June 29, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664035/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-circadian-cognitive-control-in-rls-patients-an-eeg-source-localization-study
#8
Rui Zhang, Moritz D Brandt, Wiebke Schrempf, Christian Beste, Ann-Kathrin Stock
The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649997/characterizing-sleep-spindles-in-11-630-individuals-from-the-national-sleep-research-resource
#9
S M Purcell, D S Manoach, C Demanuele, B E Cade, S Mariani, R Cox, G Panagiotaropoulou, R Saxena, J Q Pan, J W Smoller, S Redline, R Stickgold
Sleep spindles are characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) signatures of stage 2 non-rapid eye movement sleep. Implicated in sleep regulation and cognitive functioning, spindles may represent heritable biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease. Here we characterize spindles in 11,630 individuals aged 4 to 97 years, as a prelude to future genetic studies. Spindle properties are highly reliable but exhibit distinct developmental trajectories. Across the night, we observe complex patterns of age- and frequency-dependent dynamics, including signatures of circadian modulation...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649624/spaceflight-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans-as-measured-by-mri-what-do-we-know-so-far
#10
Angelique Van Ombergen, Steven Laureys, Stefan Sunaert, Elena Tomilovskaya, Paul M Parizel, Floris L Wuyts
Space travel poses an enormous challenge on the human body; microgravity, ionizing radiation, absence of circadian rhythm, confinement and isolation are just some of the features associated with it. Obviously, all of the latter can have an impact on human physiology and even induce detrimental changes. Some organ systems have been studied thoroughly under space conditions, however, not much is known on the functional and morphological effects of spaceflight on the human central nervous system. Previous studies have already shown that central nervous system changes occur during and after spaceflight in the form of neurovestibular problems, alterations in cognitive function and sensory perception, cephalic fluid shifts and psychological disturbances...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645892/meis1-effects-on-motor-phenotypes-and-the-sensorimotor-system-in-mice
#11
Aaro V Salminen, Lillian Garrett, Barbara Schormair, Jan Rozman, Florian Giesert, Kristina M Niedermeier, Lore Becker, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Eckhard Wolf, Andreas Zimmer, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Miguel Torres, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Sabine M Hölter, Juliane Winkelmann
MEIS1 encodes a developmental transcription factor and has been linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and has a substantial impact on the quality of life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the system with the most potential for modeling RLS in animals...
August 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637029/blue-enriched-morning-light-as-a-countermeasure-to-light-at-the-wrong-time-effects-on-cognition-sleepiness-sleep-and-circadian-phase
#12
Mirjam Münch, Claudia Nowozin, Johannes Regente, Frederik Bes, Jan De Zeeuw, Sven Hädel, Amely Wahnschaffe, Dieter Kunz
Light during the day and darkness at night are crucial factors for proper entrainment of the human circadian system to the solar 24-h day. However, modern life and work styles have led to much more time spent indoors, often with lower daytime and higher evening/nighttime light intensity from electrical lighting than outdoors. Whether this has long-term consequences for human health is being currently investigated. We tested if bright blue-enriched morning light over several days could counteract the detrimental effects of inadequate daytime and evening lighting...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636610/chronotypes-in-the-us-influence-of-age-and-sex
#13
Dorothee Fischer, David A Lombardi, Helen Marucci-Wellman, Till Roenneberg
An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625430/sensorimotor-and-executive-function-slowing-in-anesthesiology-residents-after-overnight-shifts
#15
George W Williams, Bairavi Shankar, Eliana M Klier, Alice Z Chuang, Salma El Marjiya-Villarreal, Omonele O Nwokolo, Aanchal Sharma, Anne B Sereno
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Medical residents working overnight call shifts experience sleep deprivation and circadian clock disruption. This leads to deficits in sensorimotor function and increases in workplace accidents. Using quick tablet-based tasks, we investigate whether measureable executive function differences exist following a single overnight call versus routine shift, and whether factors like stress, rest and caffeine affect these measures. DESIGN: A prospective, observational, longitudinal, comparison study was conducted...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611667/dammarane-sapogenins-ameliorates-neurocognitive-functional-impairment-induced-by-simulated-long-duration-spaceflight
#16
Xiaorui Wu, Dong Li, Junlian Liu, Lihong Diao, Shukuan Ling, Yuheng Li, Jianyi Gao, Quanchun Fan, Weijia Sun, Qi Li, Dingsheng Zhao, Guohui Zhong, Dengchao Cao, Min Liu, Jiaping Wang, Shuang Zhao, Yu Liu, Guie Bai, Hongzhi Shi, Zi Xu, Jing Wang, Chunmei Xue, Xiaoyan Jin, Xinxin Yuan, Hongxing Li, Caizhi Liu, Huiyuan Sun, Jianwei Li, Yongzhi Li, Yingxian Li
Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE), which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#17
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592477/sleep-in-the-intensive-care-unit-in-a-model-of-family-centered-care
#18
Robert L Owens, Truong-Giang Huynh, Giora Netzer
The desire for families to be physically present to support their loved ones in the intensive care unit, and guidelines in favor of this open visitation approach, require that clinicians consider both patient and family sleep. This article reviews the causes of poor sleep for patients and their family members in the intensive care unit as well as the expected changes in cognition and emotion that can result from sleep deprivation. Measures are proposed to improve the intensive care unit environment to promote family sleep...
2017: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585737/a-new-measure-of-hallucinatory-states-and-a-discussion-of-rem-sleep-dreaming-as-a-virtual-laboratory-for-the-rehearsal-of-embodied-cognition
#19
Clemens Speth, Jana Speth
Hallucinatory states are experienced not only in connection with drugs and psychopathologies but occur naturally and spontaneously across the human circadian cycle: Our nightly dreams bring multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The current study proposes a new, tighter measure of these hallucinatory states: Sleep onset, REM sleep, and non-REM sleep are shown to differ with regard to (a) motor imagery indicating interactions with a rich imaginative world, and (b) cognitive agency that could enable sleepers to recognize their hallucinatory state...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581353/four-night-shifts-have-a-degree-of-performance-adaptation
#20
Yu-San Chang, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Hsiang-Lan Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
OBJECTIVE: In this case control study, we investigated the process of adaptation to night shift (NS) work and recovery back to a day schedule among nurses working a fast-rotation three-shift schedule. BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of how specific patterns of a fast-rotation shift affect nurses' performance. METHOD: The cognitive performance of off-duty nurses (OD; n = 21), those working the first night of an NS (1NS; n = 21) and the last night of two ( n = 21), three ( n = 20), and four (4NS; n = 21) successive NSs were compared...
September 2017: Human Factors
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