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Circadian cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776774/association-of-disrupted-circadian-rhythmicity-with-mood-disorders-subjective-wellbeing-and-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study-of-91-105-participants-from-the-uk-biobank
#1
Laura M Lyall, Cathy A Wyse, Nicholas Graham, Amy Ferguson, Donald M Lyall, Breda Cullen, Carlos A Celis Morales, Stephany M Biello, Daniel Mackay, Joey Ward, Rona J Strawbridge, Jason M R Gill, Mark E S Bailey, Jill P Pell, Daniel J Smith
BACKGROUND: Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythmicity is a core feature of mood disorders and might be associated with increased susceptibility to such disorders. Previous studies in this area have used subjective reports of activity and sleep patterns, but the availability of accelerometer-based data from UK Biobank participants permits the derivation and analysis of new, objectively ascertained circadian rhythmicity parameters. We examined associations between objectively assessed circadian rhythmicity and mental health and wellbeing phenotypes, including lifetime history of mood disorder...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767995/structure-activity-relationships-and-therapeutic-potentials-of-5-ht7-receptor-ligands-an-update
#2
Maria N Modica, Enza Lacivita, Sebastiano Intagliata, Loredana Salerno, Giuseppe Romeo, Valeria Pittala, Marcello Leopoldo
Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) has been the subject of intense research efforts because of its presence in brain areas such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cortex. Preclinical data link the 5-HT7R to a variety of central nervous system processes such as regulation of circadian rhythms, mood, cognitions, pain processing, and mechanisms of addiction. 5-HT7R blockade has antidepressant effects and may ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. 5-HT7R has been recently shown to modulate neuronal morphology, excitability, and plasticity, thus contributing to shape brain networks during development and to remodel neuronal wiring in the mature brain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758571/effects-of-a-20-min-nap-post-normal-and-jet-lag-conditions-on-p300-components-in-athletes
#3
Elisabeth Petit, Hubert Bourdin, Grégory Tio, Omer Yenil, Emmanuel Haffen, Fabienne Mougin
Post-lunch sleepiness belongs to biological rhythms. Athletes take a nap to counteract afternoon circadian nadir, in prevision of disturbed sleep. This study examined the effects of brief post-lunch nap on vigilance in young and healthy athletes. The P300 components, physiological and cognitive performances were assessed either after nap or rest, following a night of normal sleep (NSC) or simulated jet lag condition (5-h advance-JLC). P300 wave is the positive deflection at about 300 ms in response to a rare stimulus, representing higher information processing...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710712/melatonin-in-synaptic-impairments-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Yan Shi, Ying-Yan Fang, Yu-Ping Wei, Qian Jiang, Peng Zeng, Na Tang, Youming Lu, Qing Tian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) underlies dementia for millions of people worldwide with no effective treatment. The dementia of AD is thought stem from the impairments of the synapses because of their critical roles in cognition. Melatonin is a neurohormone mainly released by the pineal gland in a circadian manner and it regulates brain functions in various manners. It is reported that both the melatonin deficit and synaptic impairments are present in the very early stage of AD and strongly contribute to the progress of AD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687240/simultaneous-assessment-of-cognitive-function-circadian-rhythm-and-spontaneous-activity-in-aging-mice
#5
Sreemathi Logan, Daniel Owen, Sixia Chen, Wei-Jen Chen, Zoltan Ungvari, Julie Farley, Anna Csiszar, Amanda Sharpe, Maarten Loos, Bastijn Koopmans, Arlan Richardson, William E Sonntag
Cognitive function declines substantially with age in both humans and animal models. In humans, this decline is associated with decreases in independence and quality of life. Although the methodology for analysis of cognitive function in human models is relatively well established, similar analyses in animal models have many technical issues (e.g., unintended experimenter bias, motivational issues, stress, and testing during the light phase of the light dark cycle) that limit interpretation of the results. These caveats, and others, potentially bias the interpretation of studies in rodents and prevent the application of current tests of learning and memory as part of an overall healthspan assessment in rodent models of aging...
April 24, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684473/improved-cognitive-morning-performance-in-healthy-older-adults-following-blue-enriched-light-exposure-on-the-previous-evening
#6
Karine Scheuermaier, Mirjam Münch, Joseph M Ronda, Jeanne F Duffy
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. METHODS: Ten healthy older adults (average age = 63.3 yrs; 6 F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681926/photoperiod-induced-neuroplasticity-in-the-circadian-system
#7
REVIEW
Alessandra Porcu, Malini Riddle, Davide Dulcis, David K Welsh
Seasonal changes in light exposure have profound effects on behavioral and physiological functions in many species, including effects on mood and cognitive function in humans. The mammalian brain's master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), transmits information about external light conditions to other brain regions, including some implicated in mood and cognition. Although the detailed mechanisms are not yet known, the SCN undergoes highly plastic changes at the cellular and network levels under different light conditions...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671707/prediction-of-cognitive-performance-and-subjective-sleepiness-using-a-model-of-arousal-dynamics
#8
Svetlana Postnova, Steven W Lockley, Peter A Robinson
A model of arousal dynamics is applied to predict objective performance and subjective sleepiness measures, including lapses and reaction time on a visual Performance Vigilance Test (vPVT), performance on a mathematical addition task (ADD), and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The arousal dynamics model is comprised of a physiologically based flip-flop switch between the wake- and sleep-active neuronal populations and a dynamic circadian oscillator, thus allowing prediction of sleep propensity. Published group-level experimental constant routine (CR) and forced desynchrony (FD) data are used to calibrate the model to predict performance and sleepiness...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661834/mir-132-couples-the-circadian-clock-to-daily-rhythms-of-neuronal-plasticity-and-cognition
#9
Sydney Aten, Katelin F Hansen, Kaitlin Snider, Kelin Wheaton, Anisha Kalidindi, Ashley Garcia, Diego Alzate-Correa, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
The microRNA miR-132 serves as a key regulator of a wide range of plasticity-associated processes in the central nervous system. Interestingly, miR-132 expression has also been shown to be under the control of the circadian timing system. This finding, coupled with work showing that miR-132 is expressed in the hippocampus, where it influences neuronal morphology and memory, led us to test the idea that daily rhythms in miR-132 within the forebrain modulate cognition as a function of circadian time. Here, we show that hippocampal miR-132 expression is gated by the time-of-day, with peak levels occurring during the circadian night...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660304/circadian-rhythm-resynchronization-improved-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aged-mice
#10
Jia Song, Shuaishuai Chu, Yin Cui, Yue Qian, Xiuxiu Li, Fangxia Xu, Xueming Shao, Zhengliang Ma, Tianjiao Xia, Xiaoping Gu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common clinical phenomenon characterized by cognitive deficits in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Advanced age is a significant independent risk factor for POCD. We previously reported that in young mice, sleep-wake rhythm is involved in the isoflurane-induced memory impairment. In present study, we sought to determine whether advanced age increased the risk of POCD through aggravated and prolonged post-anesthetic circadian disruption in the elderly. We constructed POCD model by submitting the mice to 5-h 1...
April 13, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659120/patterns-of-depressive-symptom-remission-during-the-treatment-of-seasonal-affective-disorder-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-or-light-therapy
#11
Jonah Meyerhoff, Michael A Young, Kelly J Rohan
BACKGROUND: To elucidate mechanisms related to remission in winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), we explored the course of individual depressive symptom offset across two distinct treatment modalities that show comparable outcomes at treatment endpoint: cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD (CBT-SAD) and light therapy (LT). METHOD: One hundred seventy-seven adults with SAD in a depressive episode were randomized to 6-weeks of CBT-SAD (n = 88) or LT (n = 89)...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656092/sleep-deprivation-impairs-cognitive-performance-in-zebrafish-a-matter-of-fact
#12
Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Steven Tran, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a valuable model organism for behavioral studies examining learning and memory. Its diurnal circadian rhythm and characterized sleep-like state make it comparable to mammals, features that have contributed to establishing this small vertebrate as a translational model for sleep research. Despite sleep being an evolutionarily conserved behavior, its mechanisms and functions are still debated. Sleep deprivation is commonly associated with decreased attention, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, altered locomotor activity and impaired performance on cognitive tasks...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615140/adapted-cbt-to-stabilize-sleep-on-psychiatric-wards-a-transdiagnostic-treatment-approach
#13
Bryony Sheaves, Louise Isham, Jonathan Bradley, Colin Espie, Alvaro Barrera, Felicity Waite, Allison G Harvey, Caroline Attard, Daniel Freeman
BACKGROUND: Almost all patients admitted at acute crisis to a psychiatric ward experience clinically significant symptoms of insomnia. Ward environments pose challenges to both sleep and the delivery of therapy. Despite this, there is no description of how to adapt cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia to overcome these challenges. AIMS: (i) To describe the key insomnia presentations observed in the Oxford Ward Sleep Solution (OWLS) trial and (ii) outline key adaptations aimed to increase accessibility and hence effectiveness of CBT for insomnia for a ward setting...
April 4, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614850/factor-analysis-of-delirium-in-elderly-using-the-korean-version-of-delirium-rating-scale-revised-98
#14
Gahye Noh, Insun Kwon, Miji Lee, So Hyun Ahn, Jeong Lan Kim
Objective: This study aimed to identify the core symptoms of delirium, particularly in elderly people associated with major risk factors, using the Korean version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. Methods: The study sample consisted of 200 patients (mean age: 72.7±3.9 years, male: 68.5%) who had been diagnosed with delirium. Exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the results...
April 5, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593785/circadian-regulation-of-hippocampal-dependent-memory-circuits-synapses-and-molecular-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Kaitlin H Snider, Kyle A Sullivan, Karl Obrietan
Circadian modulation of learning and memory efficiency is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, occurring in organisms ranging from invertebrates to higher mammalian species, including humans. While the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master mammalian pacemaker, recent evidence suggests that forebrain regions, including the hippocampus, exhibit oscillatory capacity. This finding, as well as work on the cellular signaling events that underlie learning and memory, has opened promising new avenues of investigation into the precise cellular, molecular, and circuit-based mechanisms by which clock timing impacts plasticity and cognition...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563894/the-cost-of-activity-during-the-rest-phase-animal-models-and-theoretical-perspectives
#16
Antonio A Nunez, Lily Yan, Laura Smale
For humans, activity during the night is correlated with multiple pathologies that may reflect a lack of harmony among components of the circadian system; however, it remains difficult to identify causal links between nocturnal activity and different pathologies based on the data available from epidemiological studies. Animal models that use forced activity or timed sleep deprivation provide evidence of circadian disruptions that may be at the core of the health risks faced by human night and shift workers...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557749/novel-treatment-strategies-for-the-nervous-system-circadian-clock-genes-non-coding-rnas-and-forkhead-transcription-factors
#17
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549968/cognitive-flexibility-a-distinct-element-of-performance-impairment-due-to-sleep-deprivation
#18
K A Honn, J M Hinson, P Whitney, H P A Van Dongen
In around-the-clock operations, reduced alertness due to circadian misalignment and sleep loss causes performance impairment, which can lead to catastrophic errors and accidents. There is mounting evidence that performance on different tasks is differentially affected, but the general principles underlying this differentiation are not well understood. One factor that may be particularly relevant is the degree to which tasks require executive control, that is, control over the initiation, monitoring, and termination of actions in order to achieve goals...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548630/sleep-apnea-morbidity-a-consequence-of-microbial-immune-cross-talk
#19
REVIEW
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
OSA has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid- and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive, and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and it has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunologic phenotypes...
March 14, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535854/clock-3111t-c-variant-correlates-with-motor-fluctuation-and-sleep-disorders-in-chinese-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Fan Lou, Ming Li, Xiaoguang Luo, Yan Ren
Background: The clock genes controlling biological rhythm play an important role in the pathophysiology of aging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between a variant of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene and circadian dysfunction of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six hundred and forty-six cases of Parkinson's disease from consecutive outpatients and inpatients ward from our hospital were included in this study...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
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