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knowledg based planning

Bent Egberg Mikkelsen, Rachel Novotny, Joel Gittelsohn
There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs (ML-MC) from across the world in order to give recommendations for research, policy and practice in this field. Through the comparison of three cases: Health and Local Community (SoL-program), Children's Healthy Living (CHL) and B'More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK), this paper examines the potential of ML-MC community-based public health nutrition interventions to create sustainable change...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yu Zhu, Zhihong Zhang, Yun Ling, Hongwei Wan
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control are significant determinants of breastfeeding, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB). However, evidence concerning the effectiveness of the TPB-based intervention in breastfeeding promotion is sparse. Meanwhile, the changes of these determinants with time have not been examined in previous studies. AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of the TPB-based intervention program in improving exclusive breastfeeding, and the interaction of time and intervention on these determinants of breastfeeding...
October 20, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Yasutaka Mizuno, Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: International travel is considered a risk for colonisation with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). To our knowledge, no studies to date have focused on ESBL-PE colonisation among long-termbusiness travellers. Therefore this study aimed to clarify the characteristics associated with ESBL-PE colonisation in Japanese long-term business travellers. METHODS: Japanese business travellers planning to stay abroad for ≥ 6 months were enrolled...
October 18, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Emma Nicholson, Tara Murphy, Philip Larkin, Charles Normand, Suzanne Guerin
BACKGROUND: Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Britta Langen, Nils Rudqvist, Khalil Helou, Eva B Forssell-Aronsson
INTRODUCTION: Targeted α-therapy is a promising treatment option for various types of malignant tumors. Radiolabeled cancer-seeking agents, however, undergo degradation resulting in a certain percentage of free radionuclide in the body. The radiohalogen (211)At accumulates in various tissues with specifically high uptake in the thyroid. When normal thyroid function is disturbed due to ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, deleterious effects can occur in tissues that depend on thyroid hormone (TH) regulation for normal physiological function...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Magnolia Cardona-Morrell, Gustavo Benfatti-Olivato, Jesse Jansen, Robin M Turner, Diana Fajardo-Pulido, Ken Hillman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the range of decision aids (DAs) available to enable informed choice for older patients at the end of life and assess their effectiveness or acceptability. METHODS: Search strategy covered PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, CINAHL and PsycInfo between 1995 and 2015. The quality criteria framework endorsed by the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) was used to assess usefulness. RESULTS: Seventeen DA interventions for patients, their surrogates or health professionals were included...
October 11, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Esther de Vries, Constanza Pardo, Nelson Arias, Luis Eduardo Bravo, Edgar Navarro, Claudia Uribe, María Clara Yepez, Daniel Jurado, Luz Stella Garci, Marion Piñeros, Patrick Edwards, Maggie Cole Beebe, Florence Tangka, Sujha Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Maintaining population-based registries requires adequate and sustained resources; however, to date there has been no systematic evaluation to identify the resource needs for cancer registration in most countries, including Colombia. A systematic assessment of the costs can quantify the funding required and identify processes to improve efficiency of cancer registries. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool) was tailored specifically for the Colombian registries and was used to collect resource use data from five regional population-based cancer registries: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cali, Manizales, and Pasto...
October 16, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Mareike Kroll, Revati Phalkey, Sayani Dutta, Sharvari Shukla, Carsten Butsch, Erach Bharucha, Frauke Kraas
BACKGROUND: Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India...
2016: Global Health Action
Zhangjing Yang, Piaopiao Feng, Tian Wen, Minghua Wan, Xunning Hong
Differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and lymphomas using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important task that is valuable for treatment planning. However, this task is a challenge because GBMs and lymphomas may have a similar appearance in MRI images. This similarity may lead to misclassification and could affect the treatment results. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method based on multi-sequence MRI to differentiate these two types of brain tumors. Our method consists of three steps: 1) the key slice is selected from 3D MRIs and region of interests (ROIs) are drawn around the tumor region; 2) different features are extracted based on prior clinical knowledge and validated using a t-test; and 3) features that are helpful for classification are used to build an original feature vector and a support vector machine is applied to perform classification...
October 18, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Guilherme V T Ribeiro, Alberto L Teixido, Newton P U Barbosa, Fernando A O Silveira
Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jenifer M Chilton, Danita Alfred
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 2 educational intervention modalities (face-to-face or online) aimed at improving nursing students' personal emergency preparedness. Personal emergency preparedness means an individual has a Grab-and-Go kit, has developed a plan for self and family, and remains informed about potential disasters. Outcomes indicated that face-to-face instruction for BSN nursing students and online instruction for RNs were effective at increasing knowledge and increasing personal emergency preparedness...
October 17, 2016: Nurse Educator
Abib Agbetoba, Amber Luong, Jin Keat Siow, Brent Senior, Claudio Callejas, Kornel Szczygielski, Martin J Citardi
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery represents a cornerstone in the professional development of otorhinolaryngology trainees. Mastery of these surgical skills requires an understanding of paranasal sinus and skull-base anatomy. The frontal sinus is associated with a wide range of variation and complex anatomical configuration, and thus represents an important challenge for all trainees performing endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS: Forty-five otorhinolaryngology trainees and 20 medical school students from 5 academic institutions were enrolled and randomized into 1 of 2 groups...
October 18, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Rachel Lynn Wood, Stephen J Teach, Alexandra Rucker, Ambika Lall, James M Chamberlain, Leticia Manning Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for residential fire death (young age, minority race/ethnicity, and low socioeconomic status) are common among urban pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Community-based resources are available in our region to provide free smoke detector installation. The objective of our study was to describe awareness of these resources and home fire safety practices in this vulnerable population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a brief survey was administered to a convenience sample of caregivers accompanying patients 19 years of age or younger in an urban pediatric ED in Washington, DC...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Diogo F Almeida, Rui B Ruben, João Folgado, Paulo R Fernandes, Emmanuel Audenaert, Benedict Verhegghe, Matthieu De Beule
Femur segmentation can be an important tool in orthopedic surgical planning. However, in order to overcome the need of an experienced user with extensive knowledge on the techniques, segmentation should be fully automatic. In this paper a new fully automatic femur segmentation method for CT images is presented. This method is also able to define automatically the medullary canal and performs well even in low resolution CT scans. Fully automatic femoral segmentation was performed adapting a template mesh of the femoral volume to medical images...
October 14, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Catherine McParlin, Ruth Bell, Stephen C Robson, Colin R Muirhead, Vera Araújo-Soares
OBJECTIVE: to investigate barriers and facilitators to physical activity (PA) guideline implementation for midwives when advising obese pregnant women. DESIGN: a cross-sectional, self-completion, anonymous questionnaire was designed using the Theoretical Domains Framework. this framework was developed to evaluate the implementation of guidelines by health care professionals. A total of 40 questions were included. These were informed by previous research on pregnant women's and midwives views, knowledge and attitudes to PA, and supported by national evidence based guidelines...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Arash Shaban-Nejad, Maxime Lavigne, Anya Okhmatovskaia, David L Buckeridge
Population health decision makers must consider complex relationships between multiple concepts measured with differential accuracy from heterogeneous data sources. Population health information systems are currently limited in their ability to integrate data and present a coherent portrait of population health. Consequentially, these systems can provide only basic support for decision makers. The Population Health Record (PopHR) is a semantic web application that automates the integration and extraction of massive amounts of heterogeneous data from multiple distributed sources (e...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
José E Belizário, Beatriz A Sangiuliano, Marcela Perez-Sosa, Jennifer M Neyra, Dayson F Moreira
With multiple omics strategies being applied to several cancer genomics projects, researchers have the opportunity to develop a rational planning of targeted cancer therapy. The investigation of such numerous and diverse pharmacogenomic datasets is a complex task. It requires biological knowledge and skills on a set of tools to accurately predict signaling network and clinical outcomes. Herein, we describe Web-based in silico approaches user friendly for exploring integrative studies on cancer biology and pharmacogenomics...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shan Jiang, Stephen Verderber
OBJECTIVE: This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. BACKGROUND: Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature...
October 14, 2016: HERD
Courtney J Burnett, Dennis P West, Alfred W Rademaker, Roopal V Kundu
BACKGROUND: To assess baseline knowledge and awareness of cardiometabolic comorbidities in subjects with psoriasis. To determine the impact of a verbal scripted educational intervention. METHODS: Fifty-six adults with a clinical diagnosis of moderate to severe psoriasis completed a 12-item questionnaire about psoriasis comorbidity awareness and knowledge at 2 time points: pre-intervention (PR-I) and post-intervention (PO-I). The PR-I questionnaire collected information on history of psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Juha Karvanen, Mikko J Sillanpää
Science can be seen as a sequential process where each new study augments evidence to the existing knowledge. To have the best prospects to make an impact in this process, a new study should be designed optimally taking into account the previous studies and other prior information. We propose a formal approach for the covariate prioritization, that is the decision about the covariates to be measured in a new study. The decision criteria can be based on conditional power, change of the p-value, change in lower confidence limit, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Bayes factors, Bayesian false discovery rate or difference between prior and posterior expectation...
October 14, 2016: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
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