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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143444/the-subversion-of-mill-and-the-ultimate-aim-of-nursing
#1
Paul C Snelling
This is lightly edited and referenced version of a presentation given at the 20th International Philosophy of Nursing conference in Quebec on 23rd August 2016. Philosophical texts are not given the same prominence in nurse education as their more valued younger sibling, primary research evidence, but they can influence practice through guidelines, codes and espoused values. John Stuart Mill's harm principle, found in On Liberty, is not a universal law, and only a thoroughgoing libertarian would defend it as such, though it, or its remnants, can be seen can be seen in policy documents...
November 15, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136209/use-of-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-polymyalgia-rheumatica-a-prospective-study-of-99-patients
#2
Liesbet Henckaerts, Olivier Gheysens, Steven Vanderschueren, Karolien Goffin, Daniel Blockmans
Objective: Previous studies have shown that the majority of patients with PMR have increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake around the shoulders, hips and processes of the cervical and lumbar spine on PET. The specificity of these findings for PMR is, however, not known. Methods: We prospectively included 99 consecutive patients with a possible clinical diagnosis of PMR. All patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET scanning before treatment with glucocorticoids was started...
October 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129955/a-comparative-analysis-of-bioethical-issues-from-view-points-of-religious-affairs-administration-in-turkey-roman-catholicism-and-orthodox-judaism
#3
Cemal Huseyin Güvercin, Kerim M Munir
The arguments set forth by religious authority are important since they play a crucial role in shaping the social values of the public and influence the decision of individuals in practice pertaining to bioethical issues. The Religious Affairs Administration (RAA) was established at the inception of the Republic of Turkey in 1924 to guide religious considerations moving out of the Ottoman caliphate to a secular bioethical framework. In this article, the bioethical views of the RAA under Islamic tradition is examined and contrasted with those influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Judaic traditions...
July 2017: Acta Bioethica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111998/combining-the-outcomes-of-endoscopy-laboratory-testing-and-professional-judgement-in-gastroenterological-decision-making
#4
Amnon Sonnenberg
The need to combine the results of multiple separate tests or make decisions based on the judgement by multiple experts permeates the clinical and professional practice of a gastroenterologist. The present analysis is aimed at delineating four different means to combine results of multiple tests and discuss their applicability and limitations. In serial testing, the overall test outcome is rated as being positive if the outcome is positive in all individual tests applied in series. Serial testing increases the overall specificity at the expense of decreasing sensitivity...
December 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091232/the-purpose-and-power-of-reporting-effect-sizes-in-nursing-education-research
#5
Darrell Spurlock
Like many other fields and subfields within the social sciences, education, and medicine, nursing education research has a long history of giving p-values associated with common statistical tests a position of primary importance in interpreting study findings. Global, transdisciplinary efforts are underway to diminish the role p-values play in making judgements about the significance of study findings by changing the threshold p-value used to pronounce statistical significance, through the use of Bayesian statistics, and through efforts to report effect sizes alongside p-values...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080001/the-relevance-of-the-hippocratic-oath-to-the-ethical-and-moral-values-of-contemporary-medicine-part-i-the-hippocratic-oath-from-antiquity-to-modern-times
#6
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Antoniοs N Vgontzas
The present paper discusses the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to contemporary medical ethical and moral values. It attempts to answer the questions about some controversial issues related to the Oath. The text is divided in two parts. Part I discusses the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath, while Part II presents a detailed analysis of each passage of the Oath with regard to perennial ethical principles and moral values. Part I starts with the contribution of Hippocrates and his School of Cos to medicine...
October 27, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058204/valuing-healthcare-improvement-implicit-norms-explicit-normativity-and-human-agency
#7
Stacy M Carter
I argue that greater attention to human agency and normativity in both researching and practicing service improvement may be one strategy for enhancing improvement science, illustrating with examples from cancer screening. Improvement science tends to deliberately avoid explicit normativity, for paradigmatically coherent reasons. But there are good reasons to consider including explicit normativity in thinking about improvement. Values and moral judgements are central to social life, so an adequate account of social life must include these elements...
October 20, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020865/peer-to-peer-shadowing-as-a-technique-for-the-development-of-nurse-middle-managers-clinical-leadership
#8
Pieterbas Lalleman, Joanne Bouma, Gerhard Smid, Jananee Rasiah, Marieke Schuurmans
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and impact of peer-to-peer shadowing as a technique to develop nurse middle managers' clinical leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to gain insight into the experiences of nurse middle managers using semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed into codes using constant comparison and similar codes were grouped under sub-themes and then into four broader themes. Findings Peer-to-peer shadowing facilitates collective reflection-in-action and enhances an "investigate stance" while acting...
October 12, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980477/critical-reflections-on-methodological-challenge-in-arts-and-dementia-evaluation-and-research
#9
Karen Gray, Simon Chester Evans, Amanda Griffiths, Justine Schneider
Methodological rigour, or its absence, is often a focus of concern for the emerging field of evaluation and research around arts and dementia. However, this paper suggests that critical attention should also be paid to the way in which individual perceptions, hidden assumptions and underlying social and political structures influence methodological work in the field. Such attention will be particularly important for addressing methodological challenges relating to contextual variability, ethics, value judgement and signification identified through a literature review on this topic...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971621/medical-students-perceptions-of-low-value-care
#10
Christopher Steele, Justin Berk, Bimal Ashar, Amit Pahwa, Danelle Cayea
BACKGROUND: Medical schools are creating high-value care (HVC) curricula in undergraduate medical education; however, there are few studies identifying what are the most pressing low-value care (LVC) practices, as observed by students. This study is a multicentre, targeted needs assessment comparing medical student perceptions of LVC at four institutions, after completion of their internal medicine clerkship, to identify areas of focus for future HVC curriculum development. METHODS: A total of 307 medical students at four institutions participated in a voluntary survey and identified instances of LVC during the internal medicine clerkship...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949069/online-examiner-calibration-across-specialties
#11
Nancy Sturman, Wai Yee Wong, Jane Turner, Chris Allan
BACKGROUND: Integrating undergraduate medical curricula horizontally across clinical medical specialties may be a more patient-centred and learner-centred approach than rotating students through specialty-specific teaching and assessment, but requires some interspecialty calibration of examiner judgements. Our aim was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of an online pilot of interdisciplinary examiner calibration. Fair clinical assessment is important to both medical students and clinical teachers METHODS: Clinical teachers were invited to rate video-recorded student objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) performances and join subsequent online discussions using the university's learning management system...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911963/evolution-of-computed-tomography-imaging-the-first-year-after-endovascular-sealing-of-infrarenal-aortic-aneurysms-using-the-nellix-device
#12
Leo H van den Ham, Thijs G Ter Mors, Johannes T Boersen, Jean Paul P M de Vries, Patrick W Vriens, Jan M Heyligers, Michel M P J Reijnen
BACKGROUND: The Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) system is an alternative endovascular treatment option for infrarenal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), with a unique appearance on computed tomography angiography (CTA). Normal evolution of post-EVAS CTA appearance follow-up is still largely unknown and important to timely detect eventual complications. The objective is to assess the normal appearance of CTA images 30 days and 1 year after EVAS in 50 consecutive patients. METHODS: Fifty patients treated with Nellix EVAS for an infrarenal AAA were included from 3 hospitals...
September 12, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895808/shared-decision-making-after-severe-stroke-how-can-we-improve-patient-and-family-involvement-in-treatment-decisions
#13
Akila Visvanathan, Martin Dennis, Gillian Mead, William N Whiteley, Julia Lawton, Fergus Neil Doubal
People who are well may regard survival with disability as being worse than death. However, this is often not the case when those surviving with disability (e.g. stroke survivors) are asked the same question. Many routine treatments provided after an acute stroke (e.g. feeding via a tube) increase survival, but with disability. Therefore, clinicians need to support patients and families in making informed decisions about the use of these treatments, in a process termed shared decision making. This is challenging after acute stroke: there is prognostic uncertainty, patients are often too unwell to participate in decision making, and proxies may not know the patients' expressed wishes (i...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891177/cognitive-challenges-to-minimising-low-value-care
#14
Ian A Scott
Clinical decisions often rely on pattern recognition, simple rules of thumb, tacit knowledge and habit. In many instances, such intuitive decisions are fast and accurate, but they can be subject to cognitive biases leading to delivery of care of low value at odds with scientific evidence of best practice. If programmes, such as EVOLVE (Evaluating Evidence, Enhancing Efficiencies) and Choosing Wisely are to have maximal impact in minimising low value care, such biases, and the factors that hide and accentuate them, need to be exposed and addressed in a collegiate and non-judgemental manner...
September 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858270/how-economic-analysis-can-contribute-to-understanding-the-links-between-housing-and-health
#15
Ralph Chapman, Nicholas Preval, Philippa Howden-Chapman
An economic analysis of housing's linkages to health can assist policy makers and researchers to make better decisions about which housing interventions and policies are the most cost-beneficial. The challenge is to include cobenefits. The adoption in 2015 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals underscores the importance of understanding how policies interact, and the merit of comprehensively evaluating cobenefits. We explain our approach to the empirical assessment of such cobenefits in the housing and health context, and consider lessons from empirical economic appraisals of the impact of housing on health outcomes...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833507/usefulness-of-shear-wave-elastography-as-a-quantitative-diagnosis-of-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
Takamichi Kuwahara, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Takuya Ishikawa, Takeshi Yamamura, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Senju Hashimoto, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is sometimes diagnosed at the progressed stage. For the early diagnosis of CP, Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) may be a useful method, but its diagnostic criteria are based on subjective judgement. Shear wave elastography (SW-EG) using transabdominal ultrasonography, which quantifies tissue elasticity as an absolute value, may be an objective and non-invasive method for the diagnosis of CP. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with known or suspected CP who underwent both EUS and SW-EG from October 2012 to July 2016 were included in this study...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820018/evidence-based-creativity-working-between-art-and-science-in-the-field-of-fine-dining
#17
Chad Borkenhagen
This article examines how scientific knowledge drives creativity in the small but influential culinary movement of 'modernist cuisine'. Originating in the mid-1990s, modernist cuisine began with a small group of avant-garde chefs using science to produce wildly innovative culinary creations. Since then, many of the movement's innovations, as well as its more general 'science-based' approach to cooking, have gained adoption among a diverse range of culinary professionals. But while science has enabled modernist chefs to produce a wide array of innovations and refinements, the group's embrace of scientific values poses a potential threat to the subjective, intuition-driven logic of culinary creativity...
August 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814931/prediction-of-histological-grade-and-completeness-of-resection-of-intracranial-meningiomas-role-of-peritumoural-brain-edema
#18
Kamalanathan Palaniandy, Mohammad Saffari Mohammad Haspani, Norzaini Rose Mohd Zain
BACKGROUND: Meningioma is the commonest primary intracranial tumour in adults. Excision is curative for low grade meningioma, whereas high-grade meningioma requires adjuvant therapy following surgery. Several studies have examined the association between peritumoural brain Edema - a common feature in meningioma - and histological grading with mixed results. The present study attempted to elucidate this association and if peritumoural brain Edema affects the intra-operative judgement of surgeons on the completeness of resection...
May 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811919/trainee-experiences-of-intellectual-disability-psychiatry-and-an-innovative-leaderless-support-group-a-qualitative-study
#19
Ross Spackman, Hannah Toogood, Jayne Kerridge, Jon Nash, Elizabeth Anderson, Dheeraj Rai
Aims and method There is very little research into the challenges of training in intellectual disability psychiatry or into interventions which may address these challenges. Using focus groups, we explored the experiences of intellectual disability psychiatry trainees, and evaluated a leaderless trainee support group developed in Bristol. Results Five distinct themes were identified via framework analysis: that trainees felt unprepared for the difference from previous posts; the need for support; the value of the group; that trainees were concerned about judgement in supervision; that the group structure was valued...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806711/the-potential-of-an-automated-system-to-identify-the-upper-limb-component-of-a-controlled-sitting-posture
#20
María B Sánchez, Ian Loram, John Darby, Paul Holmes, Penelope B Butler
Full trunk control in sitting is demonstrated only when the head-trunk are aligned and upper limbs remain free of contact from mechanical support. These components represent a Controlled Kinetic Chain and can be evaluated in people with neuromotor disability using the Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo) when a therapist provides manual trunk support at different segmental levels. However, the SATCo, as with other clinical assessments of control, is subjective. The SATCo was translated to objective rules relating the position of the hands and elbows to the head-trunk and then tested to determine the extent to which this automated objective method replicated the clinical judgement...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
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