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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301289/local-choices-rationality-and-the-contextuality-of-decision-making
#1
Ivo Vlaev
Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i...
January 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282263/feasibility-of-2-d-ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography-of-fetal-lungs-in-case-of-threatened-preterm-labour-a-study-protocol
#2
Nicolas Mottet, Sébastien Aubry, Chrystelle Vidal, Guillaume Boiteux, Jean-Patrick Metz, Didier Riethmuller, Lionel Pazart, Rajeev Ramanah
INTRODUCTION: 2-D ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) could be considered as a new noninvasive tool for monitoring fetal lung development based on evaluation of mechanical properties during pregnancy. Interesting results are available concerning the use of SWE on developing organs, especially on premature infants and animal models. The main objective in this study is to evaluate the feasibility of 2-D SWE in human fetal lungs between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation (WG). The secondary objective is to modellise fetal lung-to-liver elastography ratio (LLE ratio) and to assess variations between normal lung and lung surfactant-enriched after a corticosteroids course indicated for a threatened preterm labour (TPL)...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277166/-fair-innings-in-the-face-of-ageing-and-demographic-change
#3
Nisha C Hazra, Martin C Gulliford, Caroline Rudisill
There are now 125 million people aged 80 years and over worldwide, projected by the United Nations to grow threefold by 2050. While increases in life expectancy and rapid increases in the older-age population are considered positive developments, the consequential future health care burden represents a leading concern for health services. We revisit Williams' 'fair innings' argument from 1997, in light of technological and demographic changes, and challenge the notion that greater longevity may impose an unfair burden on younger generations...
December 26, 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273843/estimating-the-reference-incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratio-for-the-australian-health-system
#4
Laura Catherine Edney, Hossein Haji Ali Afzali, Terence Chai Cheng, Jonathan Karnon
BACKGROUND: Spending on new healthcare technologies increases net population health when the benefits of a new technology are greater than their opportunity costs-the benefits of the best alternative use of the additional resources required to fund a new technology. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the expected incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of increased government health expenditure as an empirical estimate of the average opportunity costs of decisions to fund new health technologies...
December 22, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248840/introducing-a-design-exigency-to-promote-student-learning-through-assessment-a-case-study
#5
Laurie A Grealish, Julie M Shaw
BACKGROUND: Assessment technologies are often used to classify student and newly qualified nurse performance as 'pass' or 'fail', with little attention to how these decisions are achieved. Examining the design exigencies of classification technologies, such as performance assessment technologies, provides opportunities to explore flexibility and change in the process of using those technologies. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate an established assessment technology for nursing performance as a classification system...
December 5, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243019/evaluation-of-bone-metastatic-burden-by-bone-spect-ct-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-patients-defining-threshold-value-for-total-bone-uptake-and-assessment-in-radium-223-treated-patients
#6
Takuro Umeda, Mitsuru Koizumi, Shohei Fukai, Noriaki Miyaji, Kazuki Motegi, Shuto Nakazawa, Tomohiro Takiguchi
OBJECTIVES: To establish a new three-dimensional quantitative evaluation method for bone metastasis, we applied bone single photon emission tomography with computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The total bone uptake (TBU), which measures active bone metastatic burden, was calculated as the sum of [mean uptake obtained as standardized uptake value (SUV) above a cut-off level] × (the volume of the lesion) in the trunk using bone SPECT/CT. We studied the threshold value and utility of TBU in prostate cancer patients treated with radium-223 (Ra-223) therapy...
December 14, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241289/-radiology-in-the-light-of-evolutionary-cognitive-theory
#7
Paul Gelinsky
An X-ray photograph is not adapted to the human a priori intuition: it is not colored, it is two-dimensional, has no depth and no perspective. A radiograph is composed by about 100 gradations of grey, of which the human eye cannot resolve more than 30. Projection radiography has a cardinal problem: the superposition of normal and pathological structures. Apart from visual physiology, visual psychology plays an essential role in diagnosis: expectation and stereotyped thinking influence the interpretation of visual perception...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218803/community-pharmacist-led-clinical-services-physician-s-understanding-perceptions-and-readiness-to-collaborate-in-a-midwestern-state-in-the-united-states
#8
Cameron Gordon, Elizabeth Unni, Jaime Montuoro, Diane B Ogborn
OBJECTIVES: Many pharmacists are actively enhancing their role in the delivery of health care by offering a variety of pharmacist-led clinical services. The delivery of these services within community pharmacies can contribute to overcoming the cost and accessibility challenges currently facing U.S. health care, especially when pharmacist-physician collaborative efforts are utilized. The study purpose was to identify general and family practice physicians' awareness of pharmacists' delivery of clinical services, uncover their perceived barriers to collaboration with community pharmacists, and collect their input on how to overcome such barriers in order to better understand how pharmacist-led clinical services can be integrated, improved and more widely utilized as a healthcare delivery mechanism...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203258/the-importance-impact-and-influence-of-group-clinical-supervision-for-graduate-entry-nursing-students
#9
Fiona Sheppard, Gemma Stacey, Aimee Aubeeluck
This paper will report on an evaluation of group clinical supervision (CS) facilitated for graduate entry nursing (GEN) students whilst on clinical placement. The literature suggests educational forums which enable GEN students to engage in critical dialogue, promote reflective practice and ongoing support are an essential element of GEN curricula. The model of supervision employed was informed by Proctor's three function interactive CS model and Inskipp and Proctor's Supervision Alliance. Both emphasise the normative, formative and restorative functions of CS as task areas within an overarching humanistic supervisory approach...
November 28, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202543/-experts-consensus-on-the-management-of-the-right-heart-function-in-critically-ill-patients
#10
X T Wang, D W Liu, H M Zhang, Y Long, X D Guan, H B Qiu, K J Yu, J Yan, H Zhao, Y Q Tang, X Ding, X C Ma, W Du, Y Kang, B Tang, Y H Ai, H W He, D C Chen, H Chen, W Z Chai, X Zhou, N Cui, H Wang, X Rui, Z J Hu, J G Li, Y Xu, Y Yang, B Ouyan, H Y Lin, Y M Li, X Y Wan, R L Yang, Y Z Qin, Y G Chao, Z Y Xie, R H Sun, Z Y He, D F Wang, Q Q Huang, D P Jiang, X Y Cao, R G Yu, X Wang, X K Chen, J F Wu, L N Zhang, M G Yin, L X Liu, S W Li, Z J Chen, Z Luo
To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185246/is-there-a-role-for-procalcitonin-in-differentiating-uncomplicated-and-complicated-diverticulitis-in-order-to-reduce-antibiotic-therapy-a-prospective-diagnostic-cohort-study
#11
Victor Jeger, Roxana Pop, Farschad Forudastan, Jean Pierre Barras, Markus Zuber, Rein Jan Piso
AIMS OF THE STUDY: While studies show that antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated diverticulitis seems to have no benefit, most experts advocate antimicrobial therapy for complicated diverticulitis. However, even for uncomplicated diverticulitis, most clinicians are very reluctant to withhold antibiotics. Biomarkers could help to guide antibiotic therapy as this approach has been shown to be effective for acute respiratory infections. In this diagnostic cohort study we evaluated whether procalcitonin could be a biomarker to distinguish complicated from uncomplicated cases of diverticulitis...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173462/what-should-a-forensic-practitioner-s-likelihood-ratio-be-ii
#12
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
In the debate as to whether forensic practitioners should assess and report the precision of the strength of evidence statements that they report to the courts, I remain unconvinced by proponents of the position that only a subjectivist concept of probability is legitimate. I consider this position counterproductive for the goal of having forensic practitioners implement, and courts not only accept but demand, logically correct and scientifically valid evaluation of forensic evidence. In considering what would be the best approach for evaluating strength of evidence, I suggest that the desiderata be (1) to maximise empirically demonstrable performance; (2) to maximise objectivity in the sense of maximising transparency and replicability, and minimising the potential for cognitive bias; and (3) to constrain and make overt the forensic practitioner's subjective-judgement based decisions so that the appropriateness of those decisions can be debated before the judge in an admissibility hearing and/or before the trier of fact at trial...
November 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170302/5%C3%A2-a-study-analysing-the-diagnostic-performance-of-ecg-interpretation-for-30-day-major-cardiac-events-in-the-emergency-department
#13
Niall Morris, Rick Body
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of an Emergency Medicine (EM) clinician at identifying ischaemia on an ECG using 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as the primary outcome. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective, multi-centre, observational cohort at 14 centres: the Bedside Evaluation of Sensitive Troponin study. All fourteen Emergency Departments were based in the United Kingdom. Emergency physicians' assessments of the ECG were collected using a standardised form...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156896/proutine-a-feasibility-study-assessing-surveillance-of-electronic-patient-reported-outcomes-and-adherence-via-smartphone-app-in-advanced-cancer
#14
Gesine Benze, Friedemann Nauck, Bernd Alt-Epping, Giuseppe Gianni, Thomas Bauknecht, Johannes Ettl, Anna Munte, Luisa Kretzschmar, Jan Gaertner
BACKGROUND: In advanced cancer, quality of life (QoL) is a major treatment goal. In order to achieve this, the identification of suffering by screening for patient-reported-outcomes (PROs, i.e., symptoms) is of utmost importance. The use of paper-pencil questionnaires is associated with significant shortcomings due to missing data, recall bias and transcription errors. Other than that, the electronic recording of PROs by mobile Health (mHealth) offers a number of advantages. The aim of this study was to test whether the routine assessment of PROs via a newly developed smartphone application (MeQoL®) is feasible...
October 26, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143444/the-subversion-of-mill-and-the-ultimate-aim-of-nursing
#15
Paul C Snelling
This is lightly edited and referenced version of a presentation given at the 20th International Philosophy of Nursing conference in Quebec on 23rd August 2016. Philosophical texts are not given the same prominence in nurse education as their more valued younger sibling, primary research evidence, but they can influence practice through guidelines, codes and espoused values. John Stuart Mill's harm principle, found in On Liberty, is not a universal law, and only a thoroughgoing libertarian would defend it as such, though it, or its remnants, can be seen can be seen in policy documents...
November 15, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136209/use-of-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-polymyalgia-rheumatica-a-prospective-study-of-99-patients
#16
Liesbet Henckaerts, Olivier Gheysens, Steven Vanderschueren, Karolien Goffin, Daniel Blockmans
Objective: Previous studies have shown that the majority of patients with PMR have increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake around the shoulders, hips and processes of the cervical and lumbar spine on PET. The specificity of these findings for PMR is, however, not known. Methods: We prospectively included 99 consecutive patients with a possible clinical diagnosis of PMR. All patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET scanning before treatment with glucocorticoids was started...
October 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129955/a-comparative-analysis-of-bioethical-issues-from-view-points-of-religious-affairs-administration-in-turkey-roman-catholicism-and-orthodox-judaism
#17
Cemal Huseyin Güvercin, Kerim M Munir
The arguments set forth by religious authority are important since they play a crucial role in shaping the social values of the public and influence the decision of individuals in practice pertaining to bioethical issues. The Religious Affairs Administration (RAA) was established at the inception of the Republic of Turkey in 1924 to guide religious considerations moving out of the Ottoman caliphate to a secular bioethical framework. In this article, the bioethical views of the RAA under Islamic tradition is examined and contrasted with those influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Judaic traditions...
July 2017: Acta Bioethica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111998/combining-the-outcomes-of-endoscopy-laboratory-testing-and-professional-judgement-in-gastroenterological-decision-making
#18
Amnon Sonnenberg
The need to combine the results of multiple separate tests or make decisions based on the judgement by multiple experts permeates the clinical and professional practice of a gastroenterologist. The present analysis is aimed at delineating four different means to combine results of multiple tests and discuss their applicability and limitations. In serial testing, the overall test outcome is rated as being positive if the outcome is positive in all individual tests applied in series. Serial testing increases the overall specificity at the expense of decreasing sensitivity...
December 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091232/the-purpose-and-power-of-reporting-effect-sizes-in-nursing-education-research
#19
Darrell Spurlock
Like many other fields and subfields within the social sciences, education, and medicine, nursing education research has a long history of giving p-values associated with common statistical tests a position of primary importance in interpreting study findings. Global, transdisciplinary efforts are underway to diminish the role p-values play in making judgements about the significance of study findings by changing the threshold p-value used to pronounce statistical significance, through the use of Bayesian statistics, and through efforts to report effect sizes alongside p-values...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080001/the-relevance-of-the-hippocratic-oath-to-the-ethical-and-moral-values-of-contemporary-medicine-part-i-the-hippocratic-oath-from-antiquity-to-modern-times
#20
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Antoniοs N Vgontzas
The present paper discusses the relevance and significance of the Hippocratic Oath to contemporary medical ethical and moral values. It attempts to answer the questions about some controversial issues related to the Oath. The text is divided in two parts. Part I discusses the general attributes and ethical values of the Oath, while Part II presents a detailed analysis of each passage of the Oath with regard to perennial ethical principles and moral values. Part I starts with the contribution of Hippocrates and his School of Cos to medicine...
October 27, 2017: European Spine Journal
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