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Value judgement

Latifah Alazmi, Grace E Gadsby, Nicola R Heneghan, T David Punt
BACKGROUND: Left/right judgment tasks (LRJTs) are used in the management of chronic pain. This use is predicated on their ability to elicit the simulation of movements (i.e. motor imagery), including those where the execution of the same movements induces pain. While established for limb-based LRJTs, the ability of trunk-based LRJTs to elicit motor imagery of trunk movements has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether data from a trunk-based LRJT are indicative of motor imagery being elicited for the specific lateralised trunk postures presented...
March 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
J Liu, Y Li, Y Cai, Z C Jin
Objective: To investigate the predictive value of elevated serum S100B level in patients with multiple traumas combined delirium for the clinical prognosis prior to intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Methods: One hundred seventy-nine patients with multiple traumas diagnosed as delirium after admission over 48 hours to the Department of Critical Care Medicine, People's Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University from January 2013 to December 2016 were divided into two groups according to the level of serum S100B measured prior to the ICU discharge: high S100B group (≥0...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Bhornsawan Thanathornwong
Objectives: In this study, a clinical decision support system was developed to help general practitioners assess the need for orthodontic treatment in patients with permanent dentition. Methods: We chose a Bayesian network (BN) as the underlying model for assessing the need for orthodontic treatment. One thousand permanent dentition patient data sets chosen from a hospital record system were prepared in which one data element represented one participant with information for all variables and their stated need for orthodontic treatment...
January 2018: Healthcare Informatics Research
Valerie Matarese, Karen Shashok
A team of stakeholders in biomedical publishing recently proposed a set of core competencies for journal editors, as a resource that can inform training programs for editors and ultimately improve the quality of the biomedical research literature. This initiative, still in its early stages, would benefit from additional sources of expert information. Based on our experiences as authors' editors, we offer two suggestions on how to strengthen these competencies so that they better respond to the needs of readers and authors - the main users of and contributors to research journals...
2018: F1000Research
Melih Iphar, Ali Kivanc Cukurluoz
Decision matrix method is preferred as a measure of risk evaluation considering the risk value obtained by two risk factors such as the likelihood and severity of the hazard. However, it has some deficiencies since crisp risk score is assigned for the likelihood and severity. In this paper, fuzzy logic based safety evaluation method to enhance the risk assessment process is introduced to overcome the uncertainties encountered in classical decision matrix risk assessment method. The proposed method is of more realistic evaluation of the risks which may be available in the mechanized coal panels in Turkey...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Rosalind E M Hatton, Maria Gardani
OBJECTIVES: Parental knowledge on sleep hygiene in children may be a contributing factor for sleep difficulties in preschoolers. As sleep is crucial for healthy development, it is important to understand how parental knowledge can be improved. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of advice available in the United Kingdom (UK) on sleep in young children. DESIGN: This study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. METHODS: Participants were recruited via social media and a previously constructed participant database...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Ole Rogeberg, Daniel Bergsvik, Lawrence D Phillips, Jan van Amsterdam, Niamh Eastwood, Graeme Henderson, Micheal Lynskey, Fiona Measham, Rhys Ponton, Steve Rolles, Anne Katrin Schlag, Polly Taylor, David Nutt
BACKGROUND: Drug policy, whether for legal or illegal substances, is a controversial field that encompasses many complex issues. Policies can have effects on a myriad of outcomes and stakeholders differ in the outcomes they consider and value, while relevant knowledge on policy effects is dispersed across multiple research disciplines making integrated judgements difficult. METHODS: Experts on drug harms, addiction, criminology and drug policy were invited to a decision conference to develop a multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA) model for appraising alternative regulatory regimes...
February 16, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Michelle McDowell, Mirta Galesic, Gerd Gigerenzer
Patients and doctors often need to make decisions based on the results of medical tests. When these results are presented in the form of conditional probabilities, even doctors find it difficult to interpret them correctly. There is over 20 y of research supporting the finding that people are better able to calculate the correct positive predictive value of a test when given information in natural frequencies, as opposed to conditional probabilities. Natural frequencies are one of a few psychological tools that have made it into evidence-based medicine...
February 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
John Andrew Tyson-Carr, Katerina Kokmotou, Vicente Soto, Stephanie Cook, Nicholas B Fallon, Timo Giesbrecht, Andrej Stancak
The value of environmental cues and internal states is continuously evaluated by the human brain and it is this subjective value that largely guides decision-making. The present study aimed to investigate the initial value attribution process, specifically the spatio-temporal activation patterns associated with values and valuation context using electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants completed a stimulus rating task in which everyday household items marketed up to a price of £4 were evaluated with respect to their desirability or material properties...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Andrea Gabrio, Alexina J Mason, Gianluca Baio
Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly designed to collect resource use and preference-based health status data for the purpose of healthcare technology assessment. However, because of the way these measures are collected, they are prone to missing data, which can ultimately affect the decision of whether an intervention is good value for money. We examine how missing cost and effect outcome data are handled in RCT-based CEAs, complementing a previous review (covering 2003-2009, 88 articles) with a new systematic review (2009-2015, 81 articles) focussing on two different perspectives...
June 2017: PharmacoEconomics open
Ein Soon Shin, Ji Eun Jang, Ji Yun Yeon, Da Sol Kim, Sung Goo Chang, Yoon Seong Lee
BACKGROUND: A standardized systematic approach to grade evidence and the strength of recommendations is important for guideline users to minimize bias and help interpret the most suitable decisions at the point of care. The study aims to identify and classify determinants used to make judgement for the strength of recommendations among 56 Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and explore strong recommendations based on low quality of evidence. METHODS: Determinants used in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach among 34 CPGs which have reported both strength of recommendations and level of evidence were reviewed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jessica Gerrard
This paper examines the affective dimensions of new forms of informal entrepreneurial work carried out in spaces of unemployment. Situating the analysis within contemporary scholarship on deservingness and on affect and labour, I shed light on the forms of entrepreneurial labour that rely upon affect-driven economies of exchange underpinned by moral judgements of deservingness, value and worth. In particular, this paper draws on a multi-city (Melbourne, London, San Francisco) study of homeless street press sellers (The Big Issue and Street Sheet) to explore the ways in which contemporary practices of charity and care are carried out through individualized market-place exchanges...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Phil McEwan, Hayley Bennett Wilton, Albert C M Ong, Bjarne Ørskov, Richard Sandford, Francesco Scolari, Maria-Cristina V Cabrera, Gerd Walz, Karl O'Reilly, Paul Robinson
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the leading inheritable cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD); however, the natural course of disease progression is heterogeneous between patients. This study aimed to develop a natural history model of ADPKD that predicted progression rates and long-term outcomes in patients with differing baseline characteristics. METHODS: The ADPKD Outcomes Model (ADPKD-OM) was developed using available patient-level data from the placebo arm of the Tolvaptan Efficacy and Safety in Management of ADPKD and its Outcomes Study (TEMPO 3:4; ClinicalTrials...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
L Huls, L Nentjes, T Rinne, B Verschuere
When estimating the risk of sexual recidivism, the specialised behavioural pro Justitia reporter in the Netherlands generally uses risk assessment tools, although it is the reporter who pronounces the final judgement.<br/> AIM: To examine which risk factors reporters take into account when assessing the risk of sexual recidivism, to test to what degree this assessment is based on the scientific accuracy of the risk factors and to what extent the assessment is influenced by moral considerations.<br/> METHOD: 151 reporters indicated how important they considered risk factors to be in the assessment of sexual recidivism risk in adult sex offenders...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Kazuhiro Hirayasu, Hideyuki Sasaki, Shohei Kishimoto, Seigo Kurisu, Koji Noda, Kenichi Ogawa, Hiroto Tanaka, Yumiko Sakakibara, Shohei Matsuno, Hiroto Furuta, Mikio Arita, Keigo Naka, Kishio Nanjo
AIM/INTRODUCTION: Studies on a novel point-of-care device for nerve conduction study called DPNCheck have been limited to Westerners. We aimed to clarify Japanese normal limits of nerve action potential (Amp) and conduction velocity (CV) by DPNCheck (Investigation-I), and validity of DPNCheck to identify diabetic symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) (Investigation-II). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Investigation-I: 463 non-neuropathic Japanese subjects underwent DPNCheck examinations...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Benjamin D Welling, Lee S Haruno, Scott B Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is frequently associated with adjacent infections including osteomyelitis and subperiosteal and intramuscular abscesses. While often clinically indiscernible from isolated septic arthritis, the diagnosis of adjacent infections is important in determining the need for additional surgical intervention. MRI has been used as the diagnostic gold standard for assessing adjacent infection. Routine MRI, however, can be resource-intensive and delay surgical treatment...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Daniel Lawrence, Tracey-Lee Davies, Ruth Bagshaw, Paul Hewlett, Pamela Taylor, Andrew Watt
Aims and method Structured clinical judgement tools provide scope for the standardisation of forensic service gatekeeping and also allow identification of heuristics in this decision process. The DUNDRUM-1 triage tool was completed retrospectively for 121 first-time referrals to forensic services in South Wales. Fifty were admitted to medium security, 49 to low security and 22 remained in open conditions. RESULTS: DUNDRUM-1 total scores differed appropriately between different levels of security...
February 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Carina King, Nicholas Boyd, Isabeau Walker, Beatiwel Zadutsa, Abdullah H Baqui, Salahuddin Ahmed, Mazharul Islam, Esther Kainja, Bejoy Nambiar, Iain Wilson, Eric D McCollum
OBJECTIVE: To gain an understanding of what challenges pulse oximetry for paediatric pneumonia management poses, how it has changed service provision and what would improve this device for use across paediatric clinical settings in low-income countries. DESIGN: Focus group discussions (FGDs), with purposive sampling and thematic analysis using a framework approach. SETTING: Community, front-line outpatient, and hospital outpatient and inpatient settings in Malawi and Bangladesh, which provide paediatric pneumonia care...
January 30, 2018: BMJ Open
Jennifer Cleland, Tania Fahey Palma
Despite repeated calls for change, the problem of widening access (WA) to medicine persists globally. One factor which may be operating to maintain social exclusion is the language used in representing WA applicants and students by the gatekeepers and representatives of medical schools, Admissions Deans. We therefore examined the institutional discourse of UK Medical Admissions Deans in order to determine how values regarding WA are communicated and presented in this context. We conducted a linguistic analysis of qualitative interviews with Admissions Deans and/or Staff from 24 of 32 UK medical schools...
January 24, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Ivo Vlaev
Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i...
January 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
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