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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186872/acoustic-pattern-evaluation-during-cementless-hip-arthroplasty-surgery-may-be-a-new-method-for-predicting-complications
#1
Itaru Morohashi, Hideaki Iwase, Akio Kanda, Taichi Sato, Yasuhiro Homma, Atsuhiko Mogami, Osamu Obayashi, Kazuo Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Although surgeons must perform implantation of the cementless stem during total hip arthroplasty (THA) without complications, assessment is left to the surgeon's intuitive judgement, which could contain inter/intra-observer bias variety. We therefore asked (1) whether the sound created during the stem implantation could be evaluated objectively and (2) whether those sounds are correlate to the complication specific to the cementless stems. Our hypothesis is that the sounds produced during stem insertion could be quantified and related to the complications...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184087/learning-to-look-from-different-perspectives-what-can-dental-undergraduates-learn-from-an-arts-and-humanities-based-teaching-approach
#2
F Smyth Zahra, K Dunton
By its nature, clinical teaching involves supporting small groups of dental students at the chairside as they treat their own patients. Scaffolding their learning in this way enables observation at close quarters of the various stages of development from early novice, just commencing clinical treatment of patients, to those approaching qualification. The students' main concerns throughout are not primarily with the technical skills required, which they have already been taught in the clinical skills laboratories, but dealing with the complex realities and ambiguities of clinical practice; the 'hidden curriculum' of decision making, judgement calls, issues of communication and what it actually means to be professional...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183330/th17-and-cd24-hi-cd27-regulatory-b-lymphocytes-are-biomarkers-of-response-to-biologics-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Sarah Salomon, Caroline Guignant, Pierre Morel, Gauthier Flahaut, Clément Brault, Clément Gourguechon, Patrice Fardellone, Jean-Pierre Marolleau, Brigitte Gubler, Vincent Goëb
BACKGROUND: The aim was to describe the regulatory B and T cells (Breg and Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes before and under treatment with biologic drugs, and to assess their potential predictive value as biomarkers of response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: This was a non-randomised, single-centre, prospective study. Patients with active RA (American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) 2010) who required the initiation or switch to any biologic drug except rituximab were included...
February 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168820/counter-intuitive-moral-judgement-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Dane A Rowley, Miles Rogish, Timothy Alexander, Kevin J Riggs
Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167821/variation-among-conventional-cultivars-could-be-used-as-a-criterion-for-environmental-safety-assessment-of-bt-rice-on-nontarget-arthropods
#5
Fang Wang, Cong Dang, Xuefei Chang, Junce Tian, Zengbin Lu, Yang Chen, Gongyin Ye
The current difficulty facing risk evaluations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on nontarget arthropods (NTAs) is the lack of criteria for determining what represents unacceptable risk. In this study, we investigated the biological parameters in the laboratory and field population abundance of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on two Bt rice lines and the non-Bt parent, together with 14 other conventional rice cultivars. Significant difference were found in nymphal duration and fecundity of N...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163990/authors-response-on-schick-et-al-2017-an-experiment-of-the-impact-of-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-honey-bees-the-value-of-a-formal-analysis-of-the-data-environ-sci-eur-2017
#6
EDITORIAL
Peter Campbell, Mike Coulson, Keith Ward
Whilst a formal statistical analysis of any experimental data is always preferable in principle, in the case of Pilling et al. (PLoS ONE 8:e77193, 2013), it is hard to see how the results of any formal analysis-including those provided by Schick et al.-could be considered reliable. Regardless of the issue of statistical analysis, there was a wealth of valuable and novel biological and chemical residue data generated under field conditions of use in Pilling et al., which when taken into consideration alongside other relevant available published data and information (i...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150267/-the-adaptation-to-an-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-in-a-survivor-of-sudden-death-due-to-fatal-arrhythmia
#7
Ching-Yi Chou, Tzu-Yen Chen, Chyi Lo
The purpose of this article was to explore the adaptation to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) of a survivor of sudden death due to fatal arrhythmia. Owing to medical urgency, the case patient, a woman, did not have sufficient time to get prepared mentally. Therefore, the case had difficulty coping and ultimately rejected the ICD device. During the period of hospital care (November 10th to 19th, 2015), in-depth interview and clinical observation were used to obtain information from the case. The interview was transcribed and analyzed by repeated reading...
February 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148572/the-predictive-validity-of-a-situational-judgement-test-a-clinical-problem-solving-test-and-the-core-medical-training-selection-methods-for-performance-in-specialty-training%C3%A2
#8
Fiona Patterson, Safiatu Lopes, Stephen Harding, Emma Vaux, Liz Berkin, David Black
The aim of this study was to follow up a sample of physicians who began core medical training (CMT) in 2009. This paper examines the long-term validity of CMT and GP selection methods in predicting performance in the Membership of Royal College of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations. We performed a longitudinal study, examining the extent to which the GP and CMT selection methods (T1) predict performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations (T2). A total of 2,569 applicants from 2008-09 who completed CMT and GP selection methods were included in the study...
February 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066893/content-and-cultural-validity-in-the-development-of-the-indigenous-play-partner-scale
#9
Alma M Dender, Karen E Stagnitti
BACKGROUND/AIM: Culturally relevant assessments of Australian Indigenous children's social pretend play do not exist. This study investigated the content validity and cultural validity of the Indigenous Play Partner Scale (I-PPS). METHODS: Six pairs of children (i.e. 12 children) aged four-six years from a remote Australian town were videoed playing in pairs, and 14 community elders and mothers participated across three focus groups. The social interactions between the children were transcribed from the videos...
January 8, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018006/embodying-deficiency-through-affective-practice-shame-relationality-and-the-lived-experience-of-social-class-and-gender-in-higher-education
#10
Vik Loveday
Based on empirical research with participants from working-class backgrounds studying and working in higher education in England, this article examines the lived experience of shame. Building on a feminist Bourdieusian approach to social class analysis, the article contends that 'struggles for value' within the field of higher education precipitate classed judgements, which have the potential to generate shame. Through an examination of the 'affective practice' of judgement, the article explores the contingencies that precipitate shame and the embodiment of deficiency...
December 2016: Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007808/dangerous-liaisons-psychiatry-and-law-in-the-court-of-protection-expert-discourses-of-insight-and-compliance
#11
Paula Case
A finding that 'P' (as the person who is subject to Court of Protection proceedings is known) lacks mental capacity is the trigger for exposing them to decision-making by others and the powers of the Court of Protection (CoP) which, in the words of Justice Hedley, can be 'invasive and draconian' (Hedley J in PC v City of York Council cited in [2013] EWCA Civ 478 [13]). Whilst the law asserts the upper hand in the assessment of mental capacity for persons who come before the CoP, it is the discipline of psychiatry, which dominates expert witness testimony in these proceedings...
2016: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995660/a-new-paradigm-for-clinical-communication-critical-review-of-literature-in-cancer-care
#12
REVIEW
Peter Salmon, Bridget Young
OBJECTIVES: To: (i) identify key assumptions of the scientific 'paradigm' that shapes clinical communication research and education in cancer care; (ii) show that, as general rules, these do not match patients' own priorities for communication; and (iii) suggest how the paradigm might change to reflect evidence better and thereby serve patients better. METHODS: A critical review, focusing on cancer care. We identified assumptions about patients' and clinicians' roles in recent position and policy statements...
December 20, 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992896/child-molesters-cognitive-distortions-conceptualizations-of-the-term
#13
REVIEW
Filip Szumski, Monika Zielona-Jenek
The concept of cognitive distortion was created by A. T. Beck and it is one of the key-concepts of cognitive psychotherapy. In the 80s of the twentieth century, researchers began to use it in studies of sexual offending, but with reference to the social learning theory rather than to the theory of cognitive psychotherapy. Subsequent authors continued the use of this term in the determinants of child molestation and defined them as products emerging from specific implicit theory of the offender, the judgements resulting from his beliefs, values and actions, dysfunctional cognitive schemas, deviant cognitive practices undertaken in the interaction of internal and external components of perpetrator's cognitive system and his social practices...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987492/-significance-and-diagnostic-value-of-synovial-fluid-anti-cyclic-citrullinated-peptide-antibody-and-anti-mutated-citrullinated-vimentin-antibodies-in-patients-with-serum-negative-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
S J Qu, H Ye, R L Jia, Z G Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the significance of synovial fluid (SF) anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV) antibodies in the diagnosis of serum negative rheumatoid arthritis (SNRA). METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was apllied in the detection of two groups of patients with knee joint fluid resistance against CCP antibody and antibody of MCV, the experimental group to SNRA patients, a total of 29 cases, and the control for patients with osteoarthritis (OA), a total of 28 cases, and clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters of the two groups were collected...
December 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943099/incremental-value-of-high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-3-t-for-prediction-of-extracapsular-extension-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-preliminary-experience
#15
Ayumu Kido, Tsutomu Tamada, Teruki Sone, Naoki Kanomata, Yoshiyuki Miyaji, Akira Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi Ito
PURPOSE: To investigate whether high b value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) contributes to the improvement of diagnostic ability of extracapsular extension (ECE) in prostate cancer (PC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with PC underwent multiparametric MRI including DWI (b values: 0, 2000 s/mm(2)) at 3-T. Two radiologists assessed the presence of ECE and the diagnostic certainty degree using conventional diagnostic method by consensus. Tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) was also measured...
March 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936927/evaluating-semantic-metamemory-retrospective-confidence-judgements-on-the-information-subtest
#16
Ricki L Ladowsky-Brooks
The current research explored the potential value of adding a supplementary measure of metamemory to the Information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III in Study 1) or Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV in Study 2) in order to assess its relationship to other neuropsychological measures and to brain injury. After completing the Information subtest, neuropsychological examinees were asked to make retrospective confidence judgements (RCJ) by rating their answer certainty in the original order of item administration...
December 12, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931802/evaluation-of-in-vivo-mutagenicity-of-isopropyl-methanesulfonate-by-rbc-pig-a-and-pigret-assays
#17
Satoru Itoh, Chiharu Hattori, Shiho Nakayama, Akiharu Hanamoto
A comparison between the original red blood cell (RBC) Pig-a assay, which measures Pig-a mutant cells in RBCs, and the PIGRET assay, which uses reticulocytes, was conducted using the in vivo mutagenesis assay with isopropyl methanesulfonate (iPMS) as a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group in the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society. Three dose levels of iPMS (50, 100, and 200mg/kg) were administered once intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male Crl:CD(SD) rats, and peripheral blood was sampled at 0 (1 day before dosing), and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after dosing with iPMS...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931801/pigret-assay-can-detect-mutagenicity-of-ethyl-methanesulfonate-much-earlier-than-rbc-pig-a-assay
#18
Satoru Itoh, Chiharu Hattori, Shiho Nakayama, Akiharu Hanamoto
The comparison between the original red blood cell (RBC) Pig-a assay, which measures Pig-a mutant RBCs, and the PIGRET assay, which uses reticulocytes, was conducted using in vivo mutagenesis by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group in the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society. Three dose levels of EMS (180, 360, and 720mg/kg) were administered once by oral gavage to 8-week-old male Crl:CD(SD) rats, and peripheral blood was sampled at 0 (1 day before dosing), 1, 2, and 4 weeks after dosing with EMS...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927978/community-families-a-qualitative-study-of-families-who-volunteer-to-support-persons-with-severe-mental-illness
#19
Lotte Groth Jensen, Stina Lou, Jørgen Aagaard, Ulla Væggemose
BACKGROUND: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. This article investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. MATERIAL: Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. DISCUSSION: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and by engaging in a rewarding relationship...
February 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925274/supplementation-of-a-clinical-trial-by-historical-control-data-is-the-prospect-of-dynamic-borrowing-an-illusion
#20
N W Galwey
There are strong arguments, ethical, logistical and financial, for supplementing the evidence from a new clinical trial using data from previous trials with similar control treatments. There is a consensus that historical information should be down-weighted or discounted relative to information from the new trial, but the determination of the appropriate degree of discounting is a major difficulty. The degree of discounting can be represented by a bias parameter with specified variance, but a comparison between the historical and new data gives only a poor estimate of this variance...
December 7, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
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