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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535495/understanding-the-heterogeneity-of-cervical-cancer-screening-non-participants-data-from-a-national-sample-of-british-women
#1
Laura A V Marlow, Amanda J Chorley, Jessica Haddrell, Rebecca Ferrer, Jo Waller
BACKGROUND: Uptake of cervical cancer screening in the United Kingdom (UK) is falling year on year, and a more sophisticated understanding of non-participation may help design interventions to reverse this trend. This study ascertained the prevalence of different non-participant types using the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). METHODS: Home-based computer-assisted interviews were carried out with 3113 screening-eligible women in Britain. Survey items assessed self-reported screening uptake and intention to attend in future...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535285/delayed-hospital-discharges-of-older-patients-a-systematic-review-on-prevalence-and-costs
#2
Filipa Landeiro, Kenny Roberts, Alastair Mcintosh Gray, José Leal
Purpose of the Study: To determine the prevalence of delayed discharges of elderly inpatients and associated costs. Design and Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, Econlit, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO - CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Health Management Information Consortium, and SCIE - Social Care Online for evidence published between 1990 and 2015 on number of days or proportion of delayed discharges for elderly inpatients in acute hospitals...
May 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535264/the-impact-of-the-physical-environment-on-depressive-symptoms-of-older-residents-living-in-care-homes-a-mixed-methods-study
#3
Rachel Potter, Bart Sheehan, Rebecca Cain, James Griffin, Paul A Jennings
Background and Objectives: Forty percent of residents living in care homes in the United Kingdom have significant depressive symptoms. Care homes can appear to be depressing places, but whether the physical environment of homes directly affects depression in care home residents is unknown. This study explores the relationship between the physical environment and depressive symptoms of older people living in care homes. Research Design and Methods: In a prospective cohort study the physical environment of 50 care homes were measured using the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (SCEAM) and depressive symptoms of 510 residents measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15)...
May 23, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534161/autoantibodies-to-osteoprotegerin-are-associated-with-low-hip-bone-mineral-density-and-history-of-fractures-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#4
Barbara Hauser, Sizheng Zhao, Micaela R Visconti, Philip L Riches, William D Fraser, Isabelle Piec, Nicola J Goodson, Stuart H Ralston
Osteoporosis is a recognised complication of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and is thought to be due to functional impairment and the osteoclast-activating effects of proinflammatory cytokines. The development of autoantibodies to OPG (OPG-Ab) has been associated with severe osteoporosis and increased bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we screened for the presence of OPG-Ab in axSpA and reviewed their clinical significance. We studied 134 patients, recruited from two centres in the United Kingdom...
May 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533561/national-ecosystem-assessments-in-europe-a-review
#5
Matthias Schröter, Christian Albert, Alexandra Marques, Wolke Tobon, Sandra Lavorel, Joachim Maes, Claire Brown, Stefan Klotz, Aletta Bonn
National ecosystem assessments form an essential knowledge base for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze eight European (sub-)national ecosystem assessments (Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Norway, Flanders, Netherlands, Finland, and Germany) and compare their objectives, political context, methods, and operationalization. We observed remarkable differences in breadth of the assessment, methods employed, variety of services considered, policy mandates, and funding mechanisms. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are mainly assessed independently, with biodiversity conceptualized as underpinning services, as a source of conflict with services, or as a service in itself...
October 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532943/evaluation-of-preloaded-intraocular-lens-injection-systems-ex%C3%A2-vivo-study
#6
Mayank A Nanavaty, Magdalena Kubrak-Kisza
PURPOSE: To compare preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) injection systems. SETTING: Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: In 30 porcine eyes, 5 preloaded +22.0 diopters IOLs were implanted from each of the following preloaded IOL systems: Ultrasert (U), iTec (iT), Eyecee (E), iSert (iS), Rayone (R), and CT Lucia (CT). External and internal wound size was measured. Nozzle damage was assessed using digital photography...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532940/effect-of-individual-level-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-long-term-survival-after-cataract-surgery-over-a%C3%A2-30-year%C3%A2-period
#7
Claudia Geue, Sven Jonuscheit
PURPOSE: To evaluate survival and the risk for mortality after cataract surgery in relation to individual-level and socioeconomic factors in Scotland over 3 decades. SETTING: Linked healthcare data, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Representative population-based study. METHODS: A 5% random sample of Scottish decedents linked to hospital records (1981 to 2012) was assessed. Survival time, survival probability, and determinants of mortality were evaluated after the first and second recorded hospital episodes for cataract surgery...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532931/infectious-keratitis-after-laser-vision-correction-incidence-and-risk-factors
#8
Julie M Schallhorn, Steven C Schallhorn, Keith Hettinger, Stephen Hannan
PURPOSE: To describe the incidence and risk factors associated with microbial keratitis in a large population of laser vision correction (LVC) patients. SETTING: Optical Express centers, Glasgow, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Records were searched to identify all cases of presumed microbial keratitis after LVC between January 1, 2008, and April 1, 2015. Consecutive patients having primary or enhancement LVC during that time served as controls...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532800/antimicrobial-susceptibility-monitoring-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-mycoplasma-bovis-isolated-in-europe
#9
Ulrich Klein, Anno de Jong, Hilde Moyaert, Farid El Garch, Rocio Leon, Alexandra Richard-Mazet, Markus Rose, Dominiek Maes, Andrew Pridmore, Jill R Thomson, Roger D Ayling
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532693/a-prospective-national-survey-of-coronary-ct-angiography-radiation-doses-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
Isabel A Castellano, Edward D Nicol, Russell K Bull, Carl A Roobottom, Michelle C Williams, Stephen P Harden
BACKGROUND: Little real-world radiation dose data exist for the majority of cardiovascular CT. Some data have been published for coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) specifically, but they invariably arise from high-volume centres with access to the most recent technology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to document real-world radiation doses for coronary CTA in the United Kingdom, and to establish their relationship to clinical protocol selection, acquisition heart rate, and scanner technology...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532631/competency-based-medical-education-and-assessment-of-training-review-of-selected-national-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-curricula
#11
Milena Garofalo, Rajesh Aggarwal
There are global variations in obstetrics and gynaecology (OBGYN) training curricula, both in length and in their structure and content. The ultimate goal for all residency programs is to ensure a skilled, competent physician, capable of independent practice by the end of his or her training. An online search was used for nationally recognized OBGYN training curricula. The curricula of Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States were individually reviewed and evaluated for their use of competency-based medical education and methods of assessment, including simulation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532194/cost-effectiveness-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-plus-metronidazole-compared-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-as-empiric-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections-based-on-the-in-vitro-surveillance-of-bacterial-isolates-in-the-uk
#12
Vimalanand Prabhu, Jason Foo, Harblas Ahir, Eric Sarpong, Sanjay Merchant
AIMS: An increase in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative pathogens has been noted recently.[1] A challenge in empiric treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) is identifying initial appropriate antibiotic therapy, which is associated with reduced length of stay and mortality compared with inappropriate therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam+metronidazole compared with piperacillin/tazobactam (commonly used in this indication) in the treatment of patients with cIAI in United Kingdom (UK) hospitals...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530515/cost-effectiveness-of-strategies-to-increase-cervical-screening-uptake-at-first-invitation-strategic
#13
Apostolos Tsiachristas, Matthew Gittins, Henry Kitchener, Alastair Gray
Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase cervical cancer screening uptake at first invitation (STRATEGIC trial). Methods We performed an economic analysis alongside the STRATEGIC trial, comparing each of seven novel interventions for improving cervical screening uptake with control general practices in Greater Manchester and Grampian (United Kingdom). A template was developed to measure the intervention costs. Trial estimates of screening uptake were combined with data from the literature to estimate healthcare costs of each intervention...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528125/pre-registration-nursing-student-s-quality-of-practice-learning-clinical-learning-environment-inventory-actual-questionnaire
#14
Eleanor Shivers, Felicity Hasson, Paul Slater
BACKGROUND: Clinical learning is a vital component of nurse education and assessing student's experiences can provide useful insights for development. Whilst most research in this area has focused on the acute setting little attention has been given to all pre-registration nurses' experience across the clinical placements arenas. OBJECTIVES: To examine of pre-registration nursing students (first, second and third year) assessment of their actual experiences of their most recent clinical learning clinical learning experience...
May 11, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527973/molecular-analysis-of-group-a-rotaviruses-detected-in-hospitalized-children-from-rawalpindi-pakistan-during-2014
#15
Massab Umair, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Adnan Khurshid, Ghulam Mujtaba, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
As part of strategy to control diarrheal diseases, World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to include rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs. Sentinel surveillance networks have been established to monitor rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution in both pre and post vaccine era in many countries. Unfortunately due to lack of proper surveillance programs, data on rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution from Pakistan is scarce. We investigated 502 stool samples from children (<5years) hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2014 for the presence of group A rotavirus (RVA) and its genotypic diversity...
May 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527421/a-phase-iii-randomized-multi-center-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-lofexidine-for-relief-of-symptoms-in-individuals-undergoing-inpatient-opioid-withdrawal
#16
Charles W Gorodetzky, Sharon L Walsh, Peter R Martin, Andrew J Saxon, Kristen L Gullo, Kousick Biswas
BACKGROUND: Lofexidine is an alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist approved in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has demonstrated better efficacy than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal with less reported hypotension than clonidine. METHODS: Designed as an FDA registration trial, this 8-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 264 patients dependent on short-acting opioids evaluated the efficacy of lofexidine hydrochloride in reducing withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527374/talking-about-sunbed-tanning-social-representations-and-identity-work
#17
Jennifer Taylor, Michael Murray, Alexandra Lamont
RATIONALE: Despite the publicised health risks associated with its usage, sunbed tanning remains popular in many Western countries. Previous research indicates that knowledge of the harmful effects does not necessarily lead to a reduction in sunbed use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a more extensive social psychological understanding of sunbed use, in the United Kingdom, by exploring the social representations of sunbed tanning held by both those who use and who have never used sunbeds...
May 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#18
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525992/water-and-beverage-consumption-patterns-among-4-to-13-year-old-children-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Florent Vieux, Matthieu Maillot, Florence Constant, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND: The UK government has announced a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages. The aim of this study was to assess consumption patterns for plain drinking water relative to sugary beverages among UK children. METHODS: Dietary intake data for 845 children aged 4-13 years came from the nationally representative cross-sectional National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2008-2011. Beverage categories were drinking water (tap or bottled), milk, 100% fruit juices, soda, fruit drinks, tea, coffee, sports drinks, flavored waters, and liquid supplements...
May 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525835/emerging-and-legacy-flame-retardants-in-uk-human-milk-and-food-suggest-slow-response-to-restrictions-on-use-of-pbdes-and-hbcdd
#20
Fang Tao, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Danielle C Ashworth, Philippa Douglas, Mireille B Toledano, Stuart Harrad
The legacy flame retardants (LFRs) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), together with six emerging flame retardants (EFRs) were measured in United Kingdom (UK) human milk collected in 2010 (n=25) and 2014-15 (n=10). These data are the first report of the presence of EFRs in UK human milk. The most abundant EFR was β-tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) (average=2.5ng/g lw; geometric mean=1.5ng/g lw), which is comparable to the concentrations of the most abundant LFRs i...
May 16, 2017: Environment International
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