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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237628/trends-in-breast-cancer-incidence-among-women-with-type-2-diabetes-in-british-general-practice
#1
Heleen K Bronsveld, Paul J H L Peeters, Mark C H de Groot, Anthonius de Boer, Marjanka K Schmidt, Marie L De Bruin
AIMS: To quantify breast cancer incidence in women with type-2 diabetes and assess age-standardized trends in invasive breast cancer incidence over time and by age groups. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the British general practice database (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) using data from 1989 to 2012. All adult women prescribed anti-hyperglycemic medication were selected and matched (1:1) on age and clinical practice to a reference cohort without diabetes...
February 22, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237201/developing-a-value-framework-the-need-to-reflect-the-opportunity-costs-of-funding-decisions
#2
Mark Sculpher, Karl Claxton, Steven D Pearson
A growing number of health care systems internationally use formal economic evaluation methods to support health care funding decisions. Recently, a range of organizations have been advocating forms of analysis that have been termed "value frameworks." There has also been a push for analytical methods to reflect a fuller range of benefits of interventions through multicriteria decision analysis. A key principle that is invariably neglected in current and proposed frameworks is the need to reflect evidence on the opportunity costs that health systems face when making funding decisions...
February 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236807/pediatric-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-united-kingdom-highlights-the-need-for-better-therapy-monitoring-tools-a-case-report
#3
Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Elizabeth Whittaker, Isobella Honeyborne, Timothy D McHugh, Nigel Klein, Delane Shingadia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236688/interventions-and-working-relationships-of-voluntary-organisations-for-diabetes-self-management-a-cross-national-study
#4
Mari Carmen Portillo, Anne Kennedy, Elka Todorova, Elena Regaira, Michel Wensing, Christina Foss, Christos Lionis, Ivaylo Vassilev, Valentin Goev, Anne Rogers
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has become a challenging health priority globally. Given the tensions of financially burdened health systems in Europe the mobilisation of community resources like voluntary organisations and community groups is seen as a health policy strategy to sustain the management of long-term conditions like diabetes. However, little is known about how this is happening in practice in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To explore diabetes self-management interventions undertaken or promoted by voluntary organisations and community groups in Europe; and describe the types of working relationships between these organisations, European health systems and users when implementing diabetes self-management programmes in different areas...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236271/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-attributes-important-to-injection-experienced-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-preference-study-in-germany-and-the-united-kingdom
#5
Lei Qin, Stephanie Chen, Emuella Flood, Alka Shaunik, Beverly Romero, Marie de la Cruz, Cynthia Alvarez, Susan Grandy
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the relative importance of treatment-related attributes in influencing patient preferences for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) among injection-experienced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany and the United Kingdom. METHODS: T2DM patients experienced with injecting once-weekly (QW) exenatide or once-daily (QD) liraglutide completed an online discrete-choice experiment (DCE) survey. Patients chose between hypothetical blinded treatment profiles reflecting attributes of GLP-1RAs...
February 24, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235733/core-principles-to-reduce-current-variations-that-exist-in-grading-of-midwifery-practice-in-the-united-kingdom
#6
Margaret Fisher, Susan Way, Sam Chenery-Morris, Judith Jackson, Heather Bower
AIM: To reduce variations in grading of midwifery practice and enhance reliability of assessment. BACKGROUND: The first phase of a national project showed there to be widely ranging interpretation and application of professional educational standards in relation to grading of practice in midwifery. This raised concerns about reliability and equity of professional assessment. The second phase therefore sought to achieve consensus on a set of core principles. METHODS: A participatory action research process in two stages, using a Mini-Delphi approach...
February 10, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235642/national-survey-of-neurosurgeons-and-stroke-physicians-on-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#7
Pallavi Basu, Harri Jenkins, Kevin Tsang, Vejay N Vakharia
BACKGROUND: Several studies have evaluated the use of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (MMCAI). In the United Kingdom (UK), the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has set criteria for selection of patients for DHC in MMCAI. We set out to survey the attitudes and practice of neurosurgeons and stroke physicians within the UK towards DHC in MMCAI. METHODS: An electronic survey of questions on management of MMCAI in various clinical scenarios was submitted to the academic committees of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons (SBNS) and the British Association of Stroke Physicians (BASP) for approval, prior to dissemination through the consultant members...
February 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231649/optimal-timing-for-hemoglobin-concentration-determination-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-day-1-versus-day-2
#8
Mahdi Yacine Khalfaoui, Charles Godavitarne, Michael C P Wilkinson
Purpose: Postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) determination remains an essential parameter for quantifying blood loss following total knee replacement (TKR) surgery and guiding transfusion practice. In this study we aimed to ascertain the optimal timing for Hb determination postoperatively and assess its relationship to serum hematocrit (Hct). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 61 consecutive patients undergoing preoperative, day 1 and day 2 Hb and Hct concentration determination following TKR surgery...
March 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231609/print-media-representations-of-united-kingdom-accident-and-emergency-treatment-targets-winter-2014-15
#9
Aimee Grant, Louise Hoyle
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to undertake an analysis of UK national daily newspaper coverage of accident and emergency treatment targets, in order to understand if the media could be seen to be creating a scandal. BACKGROUND: Emergency Department treatment targets have become common in developed countries. In the United Kingdom (UK), hospitals are required to treat and discharge patients within four hours, and statistics are published daily. Breaches of targets are regularly reported by the UK print media...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230408/psychometric-properties-of-adolescent-time-inventory-time-attitude-ati-ta-scores-in-three-waves-of-longitudinal-data
#10
Frank C Worrell, Michael T McKay, James R Andretta
Within the broad area of time perspective, there are numerous narrower or more specific constructs. One of these, time attitudes, is said to refer to an individual's emotional and evaluative feelings toward the past, the present, and the future. Scores on the Adolescent Time Inventory-Time Attitudes Scale (ATI-TA) have been shown to be psychometrically sound in a range of cross-sectional studies in different cultural contexts. The present study is the first longitudinal (3 waves) examination of these scores...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230249/early-home-activities-and-oral-language-skills-in-middle-childhood-a-quantile-analysis
#11
James Law, Robert Rush, Tom King, Elizabeth Westrupp, Sheena Reilly
Oral language development is a key outcome of elementary school, and it is important to identify factors that predict it most effectively. Commonly researchers use ordinary least squares regression with conclusions restricted to average performance conditional on relevant covariates. Quantile regression offers a more sophisticated alternative. Using data of 17,687 children from the United Kingdom's Millennium Cohort Study, we compared ordinary least squares and quantile models with language development (verbal similarities) at 11 years as the outcome...
February 23, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229808/knowledge-of-behavioural-management-principles-amongst-specialist-paediatric-dental-practitioners-in-the-united-kingdom
#12
James Coxon, Marie Therese Hosey, J Tim Newton
BACKGROUND: Paediatric specialist dental practitioners are often faced with the challenge of disruptive behaviour or refusal to comply with treatment. Behaviour management skills are an essential component of their role. However, little is known of the confidence or competence of practitioners in these approaches. AIM: To identify paediatric dentists' knowledge of behavioural management principles as applied to paediatric dentistry. METHOD: Postal questionnaire survey of all specialists in Paediatric Dentistry on the General Dental Council UK register (n = 234), using the Knowledge of Behavioural Principles as Applied to Children Questionnaire (KBPACQ; O'Dell, 1979) adapted for the dental setting...
March 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228822/the-feasibility-of-implementation-of-ultrasound-equipment-standards-set-by-united-kingdom-professional-bodies
#13
Nicholas J Dudley, Debbie Harries, Jessica Wardle
INTRODUCTION: The Royal College of Radiologists and the Society and College of Radiographers in the United Kingdom published 'Standards for the provision of an ultrasound service', including application-specific limiting values for resolution and penetration. No measurement methods were detailed. We aimed to explore a possible theoretical basis for the standards and to develop a measurement protocol. METHODS: Since application-specific standards fail to account for probes of different frequencies used for similar applications and no evidence for the standards was provided, we developed generic standards based on theoretical considerations...
February 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228230/expanding-professional-pharmacy-services-in-european-community-setting-is-it-cost-effective-a-systematic-review-for-health-policy-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Clémence Perraudin, Olivier Bugnon, Nathalie Pelletier-Fleury
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize cost-effectiveness analyses on professional pharmacy services (PPS) performed in Europe in order to contribute to current debates on their funding and reimbursement. METHODS: Systematic review in PubMed, Embase and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases to identify full economic evaluation studies of PPS in community setting from 2004. FINDINGS: Twenty-one studies were included, conducted in the United-Kingdom (n=13), the Netherlands (n=3), Spain (n=2), Belgium (n=1), France (n=1) and Denmark (n=1)...
December 2016: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228048/use-of-google-scholar-public-profiles-in-orthopedics
#15
Kevin Tetsworth, Dave Fraser, Vaida Glatt, Erik Hohmann
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to survey the growth of Google Scholar public profiles in orthopedics over a 12-month period and to investigate global patterns. METHODS: Data was prospectively acquired from June 2013 to June 2014. Google Scholar queries specific to orthopedic surgery were performed at 90-day intervals. Demographic aspects of each user were also compiled, including gender, current location, and primary interests. To determine differences between the growth of Google Scholar public profile registrations and citation counts, as well as differences in growth in different regions, repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA) were used...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225988/estimation-of-cardiovascular-risk-and-detection-of-subclinical-carotid-atheromatosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-without-a-history-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Walter Masson, Salvador De Francesca, Micaela Molinero, Daniel Siniawski, Andrés Mulassi, Frank Espinoza Morales, Melina Huerin, Martín Lobo, Graciela Molinero
Objectives: Cardiovascular risk estimated by several scores in patients with diabetes mellitus without a cardiovascular disease history and the association with carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: Cardiovascular risk was calculate using United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine, Framingham risk score for cardiovascular (FSCV) and coronary disease (FSCD), and the new score (NS) proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223459/evolution-and-epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#17
Danesh Moradigaravand, Veronique Martin, Sharon J Peacock, Julian Parkhill
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223290/nephrologists-perspectives-on-defining-and-applying-patient-centered-outcomes-in-hemodialysis
#18
Allison Tong, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, David C Wheeler, Wim van Biesen, Peter Tugwell, Braden Manns, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Tess Harris, Sally Crowe, Angela Ju, Emma O'Lone, Nicole Evangelidis, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient centeredness is widely advocated as a cornerstone of health care, but it is yet to be fully realized, including in nephrology. Our study aims to describe nephrologists' perspectives on defining and implementing patient-centered outcomes in hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nephrologists from 27 dialysis units across nine countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Singapore, and New Zealand...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223204/increases-in-ige-eosinophils-and-mast-cells-can-be-used-in-diagnosis-and-to-predict-relapse-of-igg4-related-disease
#19
Emma L Culver, Ross Sadler, Adrian C Bateman, Mateusz Makuch, Tamsin Cargill, Berne Ferry, Rob Aalberse, Eleanor Barnes, Theo Rispens
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG4 and infiltration of biliary, and pancreatic, and other tissues by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We assessed the prevalence of allergy and/or atopy, serum and tissue IgE antibodies, and blood and tissue eosinophils in patients with IgG4-RD. We investigated the association between serum IgE and diagnosis and relapse of this disease. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 48 patients with IgG4-RD, 42 patients with an increased serum level of IgG4 with other inflammatory and autoimmune conditions (disease controls), and 51 healthy individuals (healthy controls) recruited from Oxford, United Kingdom from March 2010 through March 2014, and followed for a median of 41 months (range 3-73 months)...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222961/the-complex-role-of-social-care-services-in-supporting-the-development-of-sustainable-identities-insights-from-the-experiences-of-british-south-asian-women-with-intellectual-disabilities
#20
Kulsoom Jawaid Malik, Gemma Unwin, Michael Larkin, Biza Stenfert Kroese, John Rose
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carers and service users with intellectual disabilities from minority ethnic groups have typically been reported to be dissatisfied with the social care services they receive. However, service users themselves have rarely been asked directly about their experiences of social care. This paper aims to understand the meaning of social care services in the lives of South Asian women with intellectual disabilities, in the United Kingdom. METHOD AND PROCEDURE: 10 British South Asian women with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed about their experiences of social care services...
February 17, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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