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Premalignant cervical disease

Anneliese Velez-Perez, Xiaohong I Wang, Min Li, Songlin Zhang
Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix involves the progression of premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and is associated with persistent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Most CINs will regress, and the challenge is to identify the lesions likely to progress to invasive cancer. We evaluated Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) expression in non-neoplastic cervix, CINs and SCC as a potential biomarker to predict disease progression. A total of 101 cases were selected including 29 CIN 1, 32 CIN 2, 16 CIN 3, 2 microinvasive SCC and 22 invasive SCC...
October 6, 2016: Human Pathology
Peter Hillemanns, Phillip Soergel, Hermann Hertel, Matthias Jentschke
The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative)...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
L Andreoli, G K Bertsias, N Agmon-Levin, S Brown, R Cervera, N Costedoat-Chalumeau, A Doria, R Fischer-Betz, F Forger, M F Moraes-Fontes, M Khamashta, J King, A Lojacono, F Marchiori, P L Meroni, M Mosca, M Motta, M Ostensen, C Pamfil, L Raio, M Schneider, E Svenungsson, M Tektonidou, S Yavuz, D Boumpas, A Tincani
OBJECTIVES: Develop recommendations for women's health issues and family planning in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Systematic review of evidence followed by modified Delphi method to compile questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. RESULTS: Family planning should be discussed as early as possible after diagnosis. Most women can have successful pregnancies and measures can be taken to reduce the risks of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes...
July 25, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Efraim Siegler, Yakir Segev, Lena Mackuli, Ron Auslender, Mayan Shiner, Ofer Lavie
BACKGROUND: Vulvar and vaginal malignant and premalignant lesions are uncommon and are clinically heterogeneous diseases with two pathways of carcinogenesis: human papillomavirus (HPV) induced or non-HPV induced. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with vulvar or vaginal cancer and vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN3, VAIN3). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 148 women with vulvar and vaginal malignancy and pre-malignancy for the period October 2004 to October 2012, and identified 59 and 19 patients with vulvar and vaginal cancer respectively, and 57 and 13 patients with VIN3 and VAIN3 respectively RESULTS: The median age of vulvar cancer patients was 30 years older than that of VIN3 patients...
May 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Nicolas Çuburu, John T Schiller
Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and causes a significant number of vulvar, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers. The development of highly effective HPV therapeutic vaccines is a reasonable goal given the recent advances in basic and applied immunology. A number of vaccine strategies designed to induce systemic T cell responses have been tested in clinical trials against high grade cervical or vulvar high grade neoplasia and cancers, but with limited success...
November 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
K Torres-Poveda, A I Burguete-García, M Bahena-Román, R Méndez-Martínez, M A Zurita-Díaz, G López-Estrada, K Delgado-Romero, O Peralta-Zaragoza, V H Bermúdez-Morales, D Cantú, A García-Carrancá, V Madrid-Marina
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the host cellular immune response allow persistent infections with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and development of premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer (CC). Variations of immunosuppressive cytokine levels in cervix are associated with the natural history of CC. To assess the potential role of genetic host immunity and cytokines serum levels in the risk of developing CC, we conducted a case-control study paired by age. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from patients with CC (n = 200) and hospital controls (n = 200), were used to evaluate nine biallelic SNPs of six cytokine genes of the adaptive immune system by allelic discrimination and cytokines serum levels by ELISA...
2016: BMC Cancer
Theresa Guo, David W Eisele, Carole Fakhry
The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections...
August 1, 2016: Cancer
Melda Cömert Özkan, Nazan Özsan, Mine Hekimgil, Güray Saydam, Mahmut Töbü
Progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGCs) is a benign disease of the lymph nodes that is rarely associated with Hodgkin disease. We reviewed the clinical and pathologic features of PTGCs and the relationship of PTGCs with lymphoid neoplasia in an adult population. The data from 33 patients who were diagnosed with PTCGs were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 33 PTGC patients, 48.5% were men and 51.5% were women, with a mean age of 43.8 years at diagnosis. Most of the enlarged and excised lymph nodes were cervical and axillary...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
P Vici, L Pizzuti, L Mariani, G Zampa, D Santini, L Di Lauro, T Gamucci, C Natoli, P Marchetti, M Barba, M Maugeri-Saccà, D Sergi, F Tomao, E Vizza, S Di Filippo, F Paolini, G Curzio, G Corrado, A Michelotti, G Sanguineti, A Giordano, R De Maria, A Venuti
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely known as a cause of cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPVs related to cancer express two main oncogenes, i.e. E6 and E7, considered as tumorigenic genes; their integration into the host genome results in the abnormal regulation of cell cycle control. Due to their peculiarities, these oncogenes represent an excellent target for cancer immunotherapy. In this work the authors highlight the potential use of therapeutic vaccines as safe and effective pharmacological tools in cervical disease, focusing on vaccines that have reached the clinical trial phase...
October 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Hinsermu Bayu, Yibrah Berhe, Amlaku Mulat, Amare Alemu
INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015...
2016: PloS One
M M Koeneman, A J Kruse, L F S Kooreman, A Zur Hausen, A H N Hopman, S J S Sep, T Van Gorp, B F M Slangen, H J van Beekhuizen, M van de Sande, C G Gerestein, H W Nijman, R F P M Kruitwagen
BACKGROUND: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the premalignant condition of cervical cancer. Whereas not all high grade CIN lesions progress to cervical cancer, the natural history and risk of progression of individual lesions remain unpredictable. Therefore, high-grade CIN is currently treated by surgical excision: large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). This procedure has potential complications, such as acute haemorrhage, prolonged bleeding, infection and preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies...
February 20, 2016: BMC Cancer
María Guadalupe Veloz-Martínez, Verónica Quintana-Romero, María del Rosario Sandra Contreras-Morales, Carlos Ramón Jiménez-Vieyra
BACKGROUND: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) represents a variety of changes that initiate as an intraepithelial squamous lesion with the possibility of resulting in cancer. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the treatment for the different categories of VAIN with electrocoagulation, 5-fluorouracil and combined treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational an analytical study. We stablished groups according to the category of VAIN evaluating and comparing remission, persistence, recurrence, or progression of the disease ac- cording to the received treatment, with a 1-year follow up...
October 2015: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Sarah Crafton, Silpa Nekkanti, Courtney Lynch, David E Cohn, Jeffrey M Fowler, Larry J Copeland, David M O'Malley, Ritu Salani, Floor J Backes, Eric L Eisenhauer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe pregnancy risk assessment, reproductive goals, and incidence of pregnancy among the reproductive age population seen by gynecologic oncologists at a tertiary care center. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted among 18- to 45-year-old women evaluated by a gynecologic oncologist from January 2000 to December 2011. Data abstracted included the following: diagnosis, cancer treatment, parity, pregnancy risk factors (eg, menstrual patterns, sexual activity, and use of contraception), reproductive goals, type of referral, and pregnancy...
January 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Zhiheng Chen, Hong Guan, Hong Yuan, Xia Cao, Yingxin Liu, J I Zhou, Ellen He, Sven Skog
With regard to different types of malignancies, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a useful prognostic marker in clinical oncology, both as a serum proliferation marker and in immunohistochemistry. The present study investigated the use of serum TK1 protein (STK1p) for the identification of multiple proliferating diseases linked to the risk of developing cancer, by following one patient during the period of 2003-2014. The patient presented with adenomatous polyps in the stomach in 2003, follicular cervicitis in 2007 and hyperplasia of the breast/fibrocystic breasts in 2010...
September 2015: Oncology Letters
Gemma L Owens, Henry C Kitchener
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common premalignant disease of the lower genital tract encountered during pregnancy. As in the non-pregnant state, abnormal cytology should be referred for colposcopy. However, the role of colposcopy in pregnant women is to exclude invasive cancer by visual inspection and defer biopsy and definitive treatment until the post-partum period. Colposcopic exclusion of invasive disease is the only absolute indication for conisation in pregnancy. It is now evident that treatment for CIN outside of pregnancy, that involves >15 mm deep excision is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery...
May 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Ricardo López-Romero, Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Pablo Romero-Morelos, Vanessa Villegas, Alejandra Valdivia, Hugo Arreola, Víctor Huerta-Padilla, Mauricio Salcedo
Cervical cancer (CC) is a multifactorial disease associated to genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors, being the infection by human papillomavirus the main etiologic agent. Additionally, the alteration in the expression of transcription factors has been considered of importance for the development of this tumor. HOX genes encode a group of transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation processes during the development of embryonic structures in vertebrates; their aberrant expression is associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis...
2015: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Chel Hun Choi, Joon-Yong Chung, Hanbyoul Cho, Haruhisa Kitano, Eileen Chang, Kris Ylaya, Eun Joo Chung, Jae-Hoon Kim, Stephen M Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies worldwide, and its association with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the clinical correlation between AMPK expression and cervical cancer. METHODS: The expression of AMPKα1, AMPKα2 and phosphorylated AMPKα (p-AMPKα) was determined immunohistochemically in 524 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded malignant and premalignant cervical tissues...
2015: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Adam Pickard, Simon S McDade, Marie McFarland, W Glenn McCluggage, Cosette M Wheeler, Dennis J McCance
Cervical cancer is a multi-stage disease caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of cervical epithelial cells, but the mechanisms regulating disease progression are not clearly defined. Using 3-dimensional organotypic cultures, we demonstrate that HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins alter the secretome of primary human keratinocytes resulting in local epithelial invasion. Mechanistically, absence of the IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) caused increases in IGFI/II signalling and through crosstalk with KGF/FGFR2b/AKT, cell invasion...
June 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Ajeetkumar Patil, Sujatha Bhat, Keerthilatha M Pai, Lavanya Rai, V B Kartha, Santhosh Chidangil
UNLABELLED: An ultra-sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) based technique has been developed by our group at Manipal, for screening, early detection, and staging for various cancers, using protein profiling of clinical samples like, body fluids, cellular specimens, and biopsy-tissue. More than 300 protein profiles of different clinical samples (serum, saliva, cellular samples and tissue homogenates) from volunteers (normal, and different pre-malignant/malignant conditions) were recorded using this set-up...
September 8, 2015: Journal of Proteomics
D G Ferris
Cryotherapy is an office-based ablative procedure for treating premalignant cervical disease. The procedure may be easily performed and serious complications occur rarely. When compared with other types of cervical neoplasia surgical therapies, cryotherapy is relatively inexpensive and comparably effective when properly conducted.
April 1998: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
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