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Premalignant cervical disease

Haïtham Mirghani, Alain C Jung, Carole Fakhry
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) represent an increasing proportion of head and neck cancers that could become, in the next few decades, a public health problem in certain western countries. This significant epidemiological change strongly calls for preventive measures. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and screening programmes for early identification and treatment of premalignant lesions are currently being used to reduce the incidence of uterine cervical cancer, which is the paradigm of HPV-driven malignancy...
June 2017: European Journal of Cancer
N C Ramchander, E J Crosbie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pengyuan Liu, Marissa Iden, Samantha Fye, Yi-Wen Huang, Elizabeth Hopp, Chen Chu, Yan Lu, Janet S Rader
Background: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and its premalignant phase (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN1-3) are distinguished by gynecologic and pathologic examination, yet no current methodologies can predict precancerous lesions that are destined to progress to ICC. Thus, development of reliable assays to assess patient prognosis is much needed.Methods: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA methylation is significantly altered in cervical disease. Using an HPV enrichment approach and next-generation DNA sequencing, methylation status was characterized in a case-case comparison of CIN (n = 2 CIN1; n = 2 CIN2; n = 20 CIN3) and ICC (n = 37) samples...
April 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Jessica Dittmann, Angelique Ziegfeld, Lars Jansen, Mieczyslaw Gajda, Vera Kloten, Edgar Dahl, Ingo B Runnebaum, Matthias Dürst, Claudia Backsch
Progression from human papillomavirus-induced premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to cervical cancer (CC) is driven by genetic and epigenetic events. Our microarray-based expression study has previously shown that inter-α-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain 5 (ITIH5) mRNA levels in CCs were significantly lower than in high-grade precursor lesions (CIN3s). Therefore, we aimed to analyze in depth ITIH5 expression during cervical carcinogenesis in biopsy material and cell culture. Moreover, functional analyses were performed by ectopic expression of ITIH5 in different cell lines...
June 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Ishita Ghosh, Richard Muwonge, Srabani Mittal, Dipanwita Banerjee, Pratip Kundu, Ranajit Mandal, Jaydip Biswas, Partha Basu
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Cervico-vaginal infection with pathogens like Chlamydia is a likely cofactor. The interactions between HPV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Candida spp. are less understood, though inflammation induced by these pathogens has been demonstrated to facilitate oncogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to evaluate the association between Candida spp. and TV co-infection with HPV in cervical oncogenesis...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Anneliese Velez-Perez, Xiaohong I Wang, Min Li, Songlin Zhang
Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix involves the progression of premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and is associated with persistent human papillomavirus infection. Most CINs will regress, and the challenge is to identify the lesions likely to progress to invasive cancer. We evaluated Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression in nonneoplastic cervix, CINs, and SCCs as a potential biomarker to predict disease progression. A total of 101 cases were selected including 29 CIN 1s, 32 CIN 2s, 16 CIN 3s, 2 microinvasive SCCs, and 22 invasive SCCs...
January 2017: Human Pathology
Peter Hillemanns, Phillip Soergel, Hermann Hertel, Matthias Jentschke
The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative)...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
L Andreoli, G K Bertsias, N Agmon-Levin, S Brown, R Cervera, N Costedoat-Chalumeau, A Doria, R Fischer-Betz, F Forger, M F Moraes-Fontes, M Khamashta, J King, A Lojacono, F Marchiori, P L Meroni, M Mosca, M Motta, M Ostensen, C Pamfil, L Raio, M Schneider, E Svenungsson, M Tektonidou, S Yavuz, D Boumpas, A Tincani
OBJECTIVES: Develop recommendations for women's health issues and family planning in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Systematic review of evidence followed by modified Delphi method to compile questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. RESULTS: Family planning should be discussed as early as possible after diagnosis. Most women can have successful pregnancies and measures can be taken to reduce the risks of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes...
March 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Efraim Siegler, Yakir Segev, Lena Mackuli, Ron Auslender, Mayan Shiner, Ofer Lavie
BACKGROUND: Vulvar and vaginal malignant and premalignant lesions are uncommon and are clinically heterogeneous diseases with two pathways of carcinogenesis: human papillomavirus (HPV) induced or non-HPV induced. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with vulvar or vaginal cancer and vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN3, VAIN3). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 148 women with vulvar and vaginal malignancy and pre-malignancy for the period October 2004 to October 2012, and identified 59 and 19 patients with vulvar and vaginal cancer respectively, and 57 and 13 patients with VIN3 and VAIN3 respectively RESULTS: The median age of vulvar cancer patients was 30 years older than that of VIN3 patients...
May 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Nicolas Çuburu, John T Schiller
Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and causes a significant number of vulvar, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers. The development of highly effective HPV therapeutic vaccines is a reasonable goal given the recent advances in basic and applied immunology. A number of vaccine strategies designed to induce systemic T cell responses have been tested in clinical trials against high grade cervical or vulvar high grade neoplasia and cancers, but with limited success...
November 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
K Torres-Poveda, A I Burguete-García, M Bahena-Román, R Méndez-Martínez, M A Zurita-Díaz, G López-Estrada, K Delgado-Romero, O Peralta-Zaragoza, V H Bermúdez-Morales, D Cantú, A García-Carrancá, V Madrid-Marina
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the host cellular immune response allow persistent infections with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and development of premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer (CC). Variations of immunosuppressive cytokine levels in cervix are associated with the natural history of CC. To assess the potential role of genetic host immunity and cytokines serum levels in the risk of developing CC, we conducted a case-control study paired by age. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from patients with CC (n = 200) and hospital controls (n = 200), were used to evaluate nine biallelic SNPs of six cytokine genes of the adaptive immune system by allelic discrimination and cytokines serum levels by ELISA...
2016: BMC Cancer
Theresa Guo, David W Eisele, Carole Fakhry
The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections...
August 1, 2016: Cancer
Melda Cömert Özkan, Nazan Özsan, Mine Hekimgil, Güray Saydam, Mahmut Töbü
Progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGCs) is a benign disease of the lymph nodes that is rarely associated with Hodgkin disease. We reviewed the clinical and pathologic features of PTGCs and the relationship of PTGCs with lymphoid neoplasia in an adult population. The data from 33 patients who were diagnosed with PTCGs were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 33 PTGC patients, 48.5% were men and 51.5% were women, with a mean age of 43.8 years at diagnosis. Most of the enlarged and excised lymph nodes were cervical and axillary...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
P Vici, L Pizzuti, L Mariani, G Zampa, D Santini, L Di Lauro, T Gamucci, C Natoli, P Marchetti, M Barba, M Maugeri-Saccà, D Sergi, F Tomao, E Vizza, S Di Filippo, F Paolini, G Curzio, G Corrado, A Michelotti, G Sanguineti, A Giordano, R De Maria, A Venuti
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely known as a cause of cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPVs related to cancer express two main oncogenes, i.e. E6 and E7, considered as tumorigenic genes; their integration into the host genome results in the abnormal regulation of cell cycle control. Due to their peculiarities, these oncogenes represent an excellent target for cancer immunotherapy. In this work the authors highlight the potential use of therapeutic vaccines as safe and effective pharmacological tools in cervical disease, focusing on vaccines that have reached the clinical trial phase...
October 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Hinsermu Bayu, Yibrah Berhe, Amlaku Mulat, Amare Alemu
INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015...
2016: PloS One
M M Koeneman, A J Kruse, L F S Kooreman, A Zur Hausen, A H N Hopman, S J S Sep, T Van Gorp, B F M Slangen, H J van Beekhuizen, M van de Sande, C G Gerestein, H W Nijman, R F P M Kruitwagen
BACKGROUND: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the premalignant condition of cervical cancer. Whereas not all high grade CIN lesions progress to cervical cancer, the natural history and risk of progression of individual lesions remain unpredictable. Therefore, high-grade CIN is currently treated by surgical excision: large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). This procedure has potential complications, such as acute haemorrhage, prolonged bleeding, infection and preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies...
February 20, 2016: BMC Cancer
María Guadalupe Veloz-Martínez, Verónica Quintana-Romero, María del Rosario Sandra Contreras-Morales, Carlos Ramón Jiménez-Vieyra
BACKGROUND: Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) represents a variety of changes that initiate as an intraepithelial squamous lesion with the possibility of resulting in cancer. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the treatment for the different categories of VAIN with electrocoagulation, 5-fluorouracil and combined treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational an analytical study. We stablished groups according to the category of VAIN evaluating and comparing remission, persistence, recurrence, or progression of the disease ac- cording to the received treatment, with a 1-year follow up...
October 2015: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Sarah Crafton, Silpa Nekkanti, Courtney Lynch, David E Cohn, Jeffrey M Fowler, Larry J Copeland, David M O'Malley, Ritu Salani, Floor J Backes, Eric L Eisenhauer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe pregnancy risk assessment, reproductive goals, and incidence of pregnancy among the reproductive age population seen by gynecologic oncologists at a tertiary care center. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted among 18- to 45-year-old women evaluated by a gynecologic oncologist from January 2000 to December 2011. Data abstracted included the following: diagnosis, cancer treatment, parity, pregnancy risk factors (eg, menstrual patterns, sexual activity, and use of contraception), reproductive goals, type of referral, and pregnancy...
January 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Zhiheng Chen, Hong Guan, Hong Yuan, Xia Cao, Yingxin Liu, J I Zhou, Ellen He, Sven Skog
With regard to different types of malignancies, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a useful prognostic marker in clinical oncology, both as a serum proliferation marker and in immunohistochemistry. The present study investigated the use of serum TK1 protein (STK1p) for the identification of multiple proliferating diseases linked to the risk of developing cancer, by following one patient during the period of 2003-2014. The patient presented with adenomatous polyps in the stomach in 2003, follicular cervicitis in 2007 and hyperplasia of the breast/fibrocystic breasts in 2010...
September 2015: Oncology Letters
Gemma L Owens, Henry C Kitchener
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common premalignant disease of the lower genital tract encountered during pregnancy. As in the non-pregnant state, abnormal cytology should be referred for colposcopy. However, the role of colposcopy in pregnant women is to exclude invasive cancer by visual inspection and defer biopsy and definitive treatment until the post-partum period. Colposcopic exclusion of invasive disease is the only absolute indication for conisation in pregnancy. It is now evident that treatment for CIN outside of pregnancy, that involves >15 mm deep excision is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery...
May 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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