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Child sexual abuse

Gail Hornor, Beth A Fischer
INTRODUCTION: The purposes of this study were to describe child demographics, familial psychosocial factors, and sexual abuse case characteristics in children experiencing sexual abuse revictimization before the age of 18 years, and to compare them with children not identified as experiencing revictimization. METHOD: A retrospective chart review was conducted from both the revictimization group and the one-assessment group and reviewed for child sexual abuse case characteristics, familial psychosocial characteristics, and child demographic information...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
Lara Gerassi, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Brett Drake
Little is known about whether there are specific subpopulations of youth with known problem behaviors that are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors. This study's sample (n=4,117) was drawn from a larger longitudinal administrative data, consisting of young adults with child abuse and/or poverty histories and records of some form of high-risk behavior or mental health diagnosis during adolescence. A cluster-controlled, logistic regression resulted in eleven statistically significant relationships. Youth treated for a mental health disorder and experienced multiple forms of abuse were more likely to be treated for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)...
September 2016: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
J Michael Bailey, Paula A Bernhard, Kevin J Hsu
We conducted an Internet survey of 1,102 men sexually attracted to children concerning their history of adjudicated offenses related to child pornography and sexual contact with children. Most of the men reported no offenses, but their rate of offenses was much higher than that expected for adult-attracted men. Correlates of offending are consistent with a strong role of the cumulative effects of temptation, especially age. Older men, men who had repeatedly worked in jobs with children, men who had repeatedly fallen in love with children, and men who had often struggled not to offend were especially likely to have offended...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Scott D Easton, Jooyoung Kong
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a widely acknowledged trauma that affects a substantial number of boys/men and has the potential to undermine mental health across the lifespan. Despite the topic's importance, few studies have examined the long-term effects of CSA on mental health in middle and late life for men. Most empirical studies on the effects of CSA have been conducted with women, non-probability samples, and samples of young or emerging adults with inadequate control variables. Based on complex trauma theory, the current study investigated: a) the effect of CSA on mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms, somatic symptom severity, hostility) in late life for men, and b) the moderating effects of childhood adversities and masculine norms in the relationship between CSA and the three mental health outcomes...
October 5, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Amy K Fisher, Tomiko D Mackey, Carol Langendoen, Marie Barnard
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Rannveig Sigurvinsdottir, Sarah E Ullman
Sexual minorities and racial minorities experience greater negative impact following sexual assault. We examined recovery from sexual assault among women who identified as heterosexual and bisexual across racial groups. A community sample of women (N = 905) completed three yearly surveys about sexual victimization, recovery outcomes, race group, and sexual minority status. Bisexual women and Black women reported greater recovery problems. However, Black women improved more quickly on depression symptoms than non-Black women...
October 2016: Journal of Family Violence
April Chiung-Tao Shen, Joyce Yen Feng, Jui-Ying Feng, Hsi-Sheng Wei, Yi-Ping Hsieh, Soar Ching-Yu Huang, Hsiao-Lin Hwa
This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children's mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Charlotte Heleniak, Jessica L Jenness, Ann Vander Stoep, Elizabeth McCauley, Katie A McLaughlin
Child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. We examined the role of disruptions in emotion regulation processes as a developmental mechanism linking child maltreatment to the onset of multiple forms of psychopathology in adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether child maltreatment was associated with emotional reactivity and maladaptive cognitive and behavioral responses to distress, including rumination and impulsive behaviors, in two separate samples...
June 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Yael Lahav, Ask Elklit
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is an extreme traumatic event associated with numerous long lasting difficulties and symptoms (e.g., Herman, 1992). These include, among other things, the impediment of basic interpersonal structures of attachment (Rumstein-McKean & Hunsley, 2001), as well as impairment of mental integration manifested in dissociation (Van Den Bosch et al., 2003). Theoretically, attachment insecurities and dissociation are closely linked, since dissociation is generated as a way to resolve the conflicted attachment demands faced by the abused child (e...
September 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Pamela T Avila
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is associated with child abuse, neglect, poverty, homelessness, and societal causes. Sex trafficking is the participation in commercial sex acts in which force, fraud, or coercion occur. This article discusses the scope of CSEC and sex trafficking, and the necessary identification skills and medical evaluations needed to help these patients.
September 27, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
Martine Hébert, Rachel Langevin, Elisa Guidi, Anne Claude Bernard-Bonnin, Claire Allard-Dansereau
OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a host of deleterious impacts, yet little is known on the short-term correlates in children. This study aimed to investigate the association between dissociation and sleep problems in a sample of preschool-aged sexual abuse victims, while controlling for potentially confounding variables, including gender, age, polytrauma, CSA characteristics and parental distress. METHOD: The sample consisted of 179 children (ages 3-6 years) and their non-offending parent...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Geraldine Macdonald, Nuala Livingstone, Jennifer Hanratty, Claire McCartan, Richard Cotmore, Maria Cary, Danya Glaser, Sarah Byford, Nicky J Welton, Tania Bosqui, Lucy Bowes, Suzanne Audrey, Gill Mezey, Helen L Fisher, Wendy Riches, Rachel Churchill
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is a substantial social problem that affects large numbers of children and young people in the UK, resulting in a range of significant short- and long-term psychosocial problems. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise evidence of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of interventions addressing the adverse consequences of child maltreatment. STUDY DESIGN: For effectiveness, we included any controlled study...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Eleonora C V Costa, Sara Guimarães, Domingos Ferreira, M Graça Pereira
This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Anne Kirkner, Mark Relyea, Sarah E Ullman
This study examined effects of participating in survey research for women sexual assault survivors with other trauma histories to understand the role of study participation on perceived insight and long-term help-seeking behaviors. A diverse sample of 1,863 women from a large Midwestern city participated in a 3-year study on women's experiences with sexual assault. Regression analyses were conducted to (a) examine predictors of immediate positive and negative reactions to survey participation and (b) assess the impact of the survey on perceived insight and women's long-term help-seeking behavior...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rehana A Salam, Jai K Das, Zohra S Lassi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Owing to child survival initiatives around the world in the 1970s and 1980s, a dramatic rise in the population of adolescents has been seen, especially in the developing countries. A quarter of world's population in 2012 comprised adolescents and young adults; of these, 90% lived in low- and middle-income countries. More recently, there has been a consensus on investing in adolescent health and development for the success of post-2015 developmental agenda. In this series of articles, we aimed to assess various interventions identified in our conceptual framework to evaluate their effectiveness in improving adolescent health...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Laura Ann McCloskey, Kelly A Doran, Megan R Gerber
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) may interfere with women's use of preferred forms of contraception, resulting in unwanted pregnancies forcing women to seek permanent sterilization. A history of child sexual abuse (CSA) presages the risk for IPV in adulthood setting the stage for adverse reproductive outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CSA and IPV are associated with women's voluntary sterilization when adjusting for demographics and reproductive health history...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Chad E Shenk, Jennie G Noll, Amanda M Griffin, Elizabeth K Allen, Shelby E Lee, Kristen L Lewkovich, Brian Allen
The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Comprehensive Trauma Interview Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms Scale (CTI-PSS), a novel method of assessing PTSD symptoms following exposure to a range of child adversities in the child maltreatment population. A sample of female adolescents (n = 343) exposed to substantiated child sexual abuse and a nonmaltreated comparison condition completed the CTI-PSS and other established measures to assess internal consistency, factor structure, test discriminability as well as convergent, discriminant, and incremental validities...
September 22, 2016: Child Maltreatment
Andrea L Wirtz, Carmen Alvarez, Alessandra C Guedes, Luisa Brumana, Cecilie Modvar, Nancy Glass
BACKGROUND: Violence against children (VAC) remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector's response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC) countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. METHOD: National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region...
2016: BMC Public Health
Cynthia Kaplan, Naomi Tarlow, Jeremy G Stewart, Blaise Aguirre, Gillian Galen, Randy P Auerbach
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by greater engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality. The aim of the study is to test whether the occurrence of child abuse contributes to these high-risk behaviors in BPD youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BPD female youth aged 13-21years with (n=29) and without (n=29) a history of child abuse were administered clinical interviews assessing diagnostic history, child abuse, NSSI and suicidality (i...
September 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jeremy C Kane, Laura K Murray, Judith Cohen, Shannon Dorsey, Stephanie Skavenski van Wyk, Jennica Galloway Henderson, Mwiya Imasiku, John Mayeya, Paul Bolton
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of mental health interventions such as trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) may vary by client, caregiver, and intervention-level variables, but few randomized trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) have conducted moderation analyses to investigate these characteristics. This study explores moderating factors to TF-CBT treatment response among a sample of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Zambia. METHODS: Data were obtained from a completed randomized trial of TF-CBT among 257 OVC in Zambia...
October 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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