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Gut microb

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449892/possible-correlation-between-gut-microbiota-and-immunity-among-healthy-middle-aged-and-elderly-people-in-southwest-china
#1
Xi Shen, Junjie Miao, Qun Wan, Shuyue Wang, Ming Li, Fangfang Pu, Guoqing Wang, Wei Qian, Qian Yu, Francesco Marotta, Fang He
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible association between gut microbes and immunity among healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals in southwest China. A total of 148 healthy adults aged ≥ 50 years were divided into two age groups: middle-aged group (50-59 years; n = 67, 54.13 ± 3.32) and elderly group (≥ 60 years; n = 81, 64.70 ± 3.93). Blood samples were collected to measure serum immune and biochemical indices. Gut microbiota compositions of the groups were characterized on the basis of faecal DNA using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441232/detection-of-stable-community-structures-within-gut-microbiota-co-occurrence-networks-from-different-human-populations
#2
Matthew A Jackson, Marc Jan Bonder, Zhana Kuncheva, Jonas Zierer, Jingyuan Fu, Alexander Kurilshikov, Cisca Wijmenga, Alexandra Zhernakova, Jordana T Bell, Tim D Spector, Claire J Steves
Microbes in the gut microbiome form sub-communities based on shared niche specialisations and specific interactions between individual taxa. The inter-microbial relationships that define these communities can be inferred from the co-occurrence of taxa across multiple samples. Here, we present an approach to identify comparable communities within different gut microbiota co-occurrence networks, and demonstrate its use by comparing the gut microbiota community structures of three geographically diverse populations...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440265/causal-effects-of-the-microbiota-on-immune-mediated-diseases
#3
REVIEW
June L Round, Noah W Palm
The mammalian immune system has evolved in the presence of a complex community of indigenous microorganisms that constitutively colonize all barrier surfaces. This intimate relationship has resulted in the development of a vast array of reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and the host immune system, particularly in the intestine, where the density and diversity of indigenous microbes are greatest. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been correlated with almost every known immunological disease, but in most cases, it remains unclear whether these changes are a cause or effect of the disease or merely a reflection of epidemiological differences between groups...
February 9, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438479/novel-tn916-like-elements-confer-aminoglycoside-macrolide-co-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-gallolyticus-ssp-gallolyticus
#4
Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434314/elevated-circulating-levels-of-succinate-in-human-obesity-are-linked-to-specific-gut-microbiota
#5
Carolina Serena, Victoria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Noelia Keiran, Maria Isabel Queipo-Ortuño, Rosa Bernal, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Mónica Sabater, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Andres Moya, Francisco J Tinahones, Jose Manuel Fernández-Real, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Gut microbiota-related metabolites are potential clinical biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating succinate, a metabolite produced by both microbiota and the host, is increased in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to analyze systemic levels of succinate in obesity, a major risk factor for CVD, and its relationship with gut microbiome. We explored the association of circulating succinate with specific metagenomic signatures in cross-sectional and prospective cohorts of Caucasian Spanish subjects...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432061/atorvastatin-treatment-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-hypercholesterolemic-patients
#6
Tariq Jamal Khan, Youssri M Ahmed, Mazin A Zamzami, Aisha M Siddiqui, Imran Khan, Othman A S Baothman, Mohamed G Mehanna, Abudukadeer Kuerban, Mohammed Kaleemuddin, Muhammad Yasir
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for development of cardiovascular diseases. The composition of gut microbiota (total microbes residing in the gut) impacts on cholesterol and lipid metabolism. On the contrary, alterations in gut microbiota in response to hypercholesterolemia or drug treatment with atorvastatin (a cholesterol-lowering agent) are rarely investigated. We performed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to evaluate the gut bacterial community of 15 untreated hypercholesterolemic patients (HP) and 27 atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients (At-HP) and compared with 19 healthy subjects (HS)...
February 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427583/a-gut-feeling-microbiome-brain-immune-interactions-modulate-social-and-affective-behaviors
#7
REVIEW
Kristyn E Sylvia, Gregory E Demas
The expression of a wide range of social and affective behaviors, including aggression and investigation, as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, involves interactions among many different physiological systems, including the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Recent work suggests that the gut microbiome may also play a critical role in modulating behavior and likely functions as an important integrator across physiological systems. Microbes within the gut may communicate with the brain via both neural and humoral pathways, providing numerous avenues of research in the area of the gut-brain axis...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427300/the-ecosystem-services-of-animal-microbiomes
#8
E A McKenney, K Koelle, R R Dunn, A D Yoder
Microbiologists often evaluate microbial community dynamics by formulating functional hypotheses based on ecological processes. Indeed, many of the methods and terms currently used to describe animal microbiomes derive from ecology and evolutionary biology. As our understanding of the composition and functional dynamics of "the microbiome" grows, we increasingly refer to the host as an ecosystem within which microbial processes play out. Even so, an ecosystem services framework that extends to the context of the host has thus far been lacking...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426776/therapeutic-implications-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Purna C Kayshap, Eamonn Mm Quigley
Gut microbiome is an integral part of the metabolic machinery that contributes to normal host function. The advent of next generation sequencing technologies has allowed an in-depth investigation of the microbiome at various body sites including microbes which are challenging to culture. The same technologies have revealed the metabolic capacity of the microbiome, identified novel microbial products and suggested possible implications for human health. The gut microbiome has previously not been considered in aspects of human health such as response to medications, which may be metabolized to a varying extent by the microbiome, thereby, altering their efficacy and the incidence of adverse events...
February 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425888/understanding-the-microbiome-emerging-biomarkers-for-exploiting-the-microbiota-for-personalized-medicine-against-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425570/a-potential-relationship-between-gut-microbes-and-atrial-fibrillation-trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-gut-microbe-derived-metabolite-facilitates-the-progression-of-atrial-fibrillation
#11
Lilei Yu, Guannan Meng, Bing Huang, Xiaoya Zhou, Stavros Stavrakis, Menglong Wang, Xuefei Li, Liping Zhou, Yuhong Wang, Meng Wang, Zhenya Wang, Jielin Deng, Sunny S Po, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates gut microbes and their products could activate the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which plays important roles in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite derived from gut microbes, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TMAO in the progression of AF. METHODS: In part 1: TMAO or saline was locally injected into 4 major atrial ganglionated plexi (GP) to clarify its effect on cardiac ANS and AF inducibility in normal canines...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425062/microbiota-regulate-the-development-and-function-of-the-immune-cells
#12
Qing Yu, Anna Jia, Yan Li, Yujing Bi, Guangwei Liu
Microbiota is a group of microbes coexisting and co-evolving with the immune system in the host body for millions of years. There are mutual interaction between microbiota and the immune system. Immune cells can shape the populations of microbiota in the gut of animals and humans, and the presence of microbiota and the microbial products can regulate the development and function of the immune cells in the host. Although microbiota resides mainly at the mucosa, the effect of microbiota on the immune system can be both local at the mucosa and systemic through the whole body...
February 9, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423662/environmental-exposures-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-what-role-does-the-gut-immune-brain-axis-play
#13
REVIEW
Shannon Delaney, Mady Hornig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415111/a-comprehensive-review-of-the-fate-of-pathogens-during-vermicomposting-of-organic-wastes
#14
Ankita Swati, Subrata Hait
Management of both municipal and industrial organic wastes remains a major threat to biota and the environment due to the presence of pathogens in abundance. Vermicomposting employing earthworms is increasingly gaining attention as a sustainable and ecofriendly technique to transform and sanitize a variety of organic wastes into nutrient-rich biofertilizer. Although considerable research has been undertaken to show that vermicomposting can significantly reduce pathogenic contents, there is little effort to summarize the various mechanisms responsible for it...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411548/searching-for-the-gut-microbial-contributing-factors-to-social-behavior-in-rodent-models
#15
REVIEW
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411455/can-social-partnerships-influence-the-microbiome-insights-from-ant-farmers-and-their-trophobiont-mutualists
#16
A B F Ivens, A Gadau, E T Kiers, D J C Kronauer
Mutualistic interactions with microbes have played a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of animal hosts. However, it is unclear what factors are most important in influencing particular host-microbe associations. While closely related animal species may have more similar microbiota than distantly related species due to phylogenetic contingencies, social partnerships with other organisms, such as those in which one animal farms another, may also influence an organism's symbiotic microbiome. We studied a mutualistic network of Brachymyrmex and Lasius ants farming several honeydew-producing Prociphilus aphids and Rhizoecus mealybugs to test whether the mutualistic microbiomes of these interacting insects are primarily correlated with their phylogeny or with their shared social partnerships...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411013/gut-microbes-may-shape-response-to-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
Tracy Hampton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409751/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-il-23-il-17-pathway-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-immunopathogenesis-new-insights-and-updates
#18
REVIEW
Farhad Babaie, Milad Hasankhani, Hamed Mohammadi, Elham Safarzadeh, Alireza Rezaiemanesh, Reza Salimi, Behzad Baradaran, Zohreh Babaloo
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that is referred to a group of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases termed as seronegative spondyloarthropathies or spondyloarthritides. It typically affects the joints of the spinal and axial skeleton and exhibits common clinical features and genetic factors such as human leukocyte antigen class I allele HLA-B27, the Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), and environmental factors such as microbial triggers. Although the precise etiopathogenic mechanisms that implicate the pathogenesis of AS have still remained to be clarified, the IL-23/IL-17 immune axis has been detected as an important factor in the immunopathogenesis of AS...
February 2, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409713/bilirubin-in-the-liver-gut-signaling-axis
#19
REVIEW
Abdul-Rizaq Hamoud, Lauren Weaver, David E Stec, Terry D Hinds
Bilirubin is a component of the heme catabolic pathway that is essential for liver function and has been shown to reduce hepatic fat accumulation. High plasma bilirubin levels are reflective of liver disease due to an injurious effect on hepatocytes. In healthy liver, bilirubin is conjugated and excreted to the intestine and converted by microbes to urobilinoids, which are reduced to the predominant pigment in feces, stercobilin, or reabsorbed. The function of urobilinoids in the gut or their physiological relevance of reabsorption is not well understood...
February 3, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405826/anaerobic-4-hydroxyproline-utilization-discovery-of-a-new-glycyl-radical-enzyme-in-the-human-gut-microbiome-uncovers-a-widespread-microbial-metabolic-activity
#20
Yolanda Y Huang, Ana Martínez-Del Campo, Emily P Balskus
The discovery of enzymes responsible for previously unappreciated microbial metabolic pathways furthers our understanding of host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. We recently identified and characterized a new gut microbial glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) responsible for anaerobic metabolism of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (Hyp). Hyp dehydratase (HypD) catalyzes the removal of water from Hyp to generate Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). This enzyme is encoded in the genomes of a diverse set of gut anaerobes and is prevalent and abundant in healthy human stool metagenomes...
February 6, 2018: Gut Microbes
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