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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642381/chemical-transformation-of-xenobiotics-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#1
REVIEW
Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P Balskus
The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636967/a-few-good-commensals-gut-microbes-use-ifn-%C3%AE-to-fight-salmonella
#2
Kyla S Ost, June L Round
Whereas strong evidence supports the notion that the microbiota promotes immune system maturation in multiple tissues, the identity of the specific microbes that elicit protective immunity to different infections is less clear. In a recent issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Thiemann et al. (2017) report the identification of specific gut bacteria that protect from Salmonella infection by priming host IFN-γ responses.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#3
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636934/the-tmao-producing-enzyme-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-regulates-obesity-and-the-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue
#4
Rebecca C Schugar, Diana M Shih, Manya Warrier, Robert N Helsley, Amy Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Amanda L Brown, Anthony D Gromovsky, Markus Heine, Arunachal Chatterjee, Lin Li, Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Belinda Willard, YongHong Meng, Hanjun Kim, Nam Che, Calvin Pan, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Richard E Morton, Carl D Langefeld, Swapan K Das, Lawrence L Rudel, Nizar Zein, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, W H Wilson Tang, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Markku Laakso, Mete Civelek, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Joerg Heeren, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, J Mark Brown
Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636417/a-novel-antimicrobial-approach-based-on-the-inhibition-of-zinc-uptake-in-salmonella-enterica
#5
Andrea Battistoni, Serena Ammendola, Emilia Chiancone, Andrea Ilari
In this review we discuss evidences suggesting that bacterial zinc homeostasis represents a promising target for new antimicrobial strategies. The ability of the gut pathogen Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium to withstand the host responses aimed at controlling growth of the pathogen critically depends on the zinc importer ZnuABC. Strains lacking a functional ZnuABC or its soluble component ZnuA display a dramatic loss of pathogenicity, due to a reduced ability to express virulence factors; withstand the inflammatory response; and compete with other gut microbes...
June 21, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632181/spirulina-protects-against-hepatic-inflammation-in-aging-an-effect-related-to-the-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#6
Audrey M Neyrinck, Bernard Taminiau, Hannah Walgrave, Georges Daube, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Aging predisposes to hepatic dysfunction and inflammation that can contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a cyanobacterium used as a food additive or food supplement, has been shown to impact immune function. We have tested the potential hepatoprotective effect of a Spirulina in aged mice and to determine whether these effects can be related to a modulation of the gut microbiota. Old mice have been fed a standard diet supplemented with or without 5% Spirulina for six weeks...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630299/bacteria-mediated-hypoxia-functions-as-a-signal-for-mosquito-development
#7
Kerri L Coon, Luca Valzania, David A McKinney, Kevin J Vogel, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. Here, we designed a genetic screen around E...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629967/isolation-of-fungi-from-dung-of-wild-herbivores-for-application-in-bioethanol-production
#8
Rhulani Makhuvele, Ignatious Ncube, Elbert Lukas Jansen van Rensburg, Daniël Coenrad La Grange
Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides...
June 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629947/temporal-microbiota-changes-of-high-protein-diet-intake-in-a-rat-model
#9
Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Zhen Luo, Weiyun Zhu
Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis...
June 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628333/coupling-targeted-and-untargeted-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolome-microbiome-wide-association-studies-of-human-fecal-samples
#10
Alexey V Melnik, Pieter C Dorrestein, Ricardo R da Silva, Embriette R Hyde, Alexander A Aksenov, Fernando Vargas, Amina Bouslimani, Ivan Protsyuk, Alan Jarmusch, Anupriya Tripathi, Theodore Alexandrov, Rob Knight
Increasing appreciation of the gut microbiome's role in health motivates understanding the molecular composition of human feces. To analyze such complex samples, we developed a platform coupling targeted and untargeted metabolomics. The approach is facilitated through split flow from one UPLC, joint timing triggered by contact closure relays and a script to retrieve the data. It is designed to detect specific metabolites of interest with high sensitivity, allows for correction of targeted information, enables better quantitation thus providing an advanced analytical tool for exploratory studies...
June 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626612/postmortem-succession-of-gut-microbial-communities-in-deceased-human%C3%A2-subjects
#11
Jennifer M DeBruyn, Kathleen A Hauther
The human microbiome has demonstrated an importance for the health and functioning in living individuals. However, the fate of the microbiome after death is less understood. In addition to a better understanding of microbe-mediated decomposition processes, postmortem succession of human-associated microbial communities has been suggested as a possible forensic tool for estimating time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of our study was to document postmortem changes in human gut bacterial communities...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625867/understanding-the-holobiont-how-microbial-metabolites-affect-human-health-and-shape-the-immune-system
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Siegmund Postler, Sankar Ghosh
The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior...
June 14, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#13
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624689/from-complex-gut-communities-to-minimal-microbiomes-via-cultivation
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Bärbel Stecher
The mammalian gut microbiota is dominated by populations of bacteria, mostly strict anaerobes. Because these bacteria can influence the health of their host, it is important to investigate their diversity and functions, which can be done via culture-based or molecular approaches. In recent years, microbiologists have very often preferred the use of molecular techniques, as they do not limit the analysis to the fraction of communities that can be grown in the laboratory. In reality, cultivation and molecular methods are complementary, and we are now witnessing a period of unification...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623729/host-microbiota-interactions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-their-significance
#15
REVIEW
Michael Shapira
As a useful genetic model, C. elegans can facilitate investigation of the genetic underpinnings of host-microbiota interactions. However, decades of feeding it with Escherichia coli left a gap in our understanding of its interactions with microbes, hindering such use. This is changing, with recent studies characterizing the gut microbiota of worms in their natural habitats, comparing them to those in their environment, and evaluating the significance of gut and environmental commensals. This work defined a shared core gut microbiota significantly influenced by host genetics, and unraveled bacterial contributions to life history traits...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622510/microbial-genetic-composition-tunes-host-longevity
#16
Bing Han, Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Chih-Chun J Lin, Isaiah A A Neve, Jingquan He, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Jessica N Sowa, Antons Sizovs, Guangwei Du, Jin Wang, Christophe Herman, Meng C Wang
Homeostasis of the gut microbiota critically influences host health and aging. Developing genetically engineered probiotics holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm to promote healthy aging. Here, through screening 3,983 Escherichia coli mutants, we discovered that 29 bacterial genes, when deleted, increase longevity in the host Caenorhabditis elegans. A dozen of these bacterial mutants also protect the host from age-related progression of tumor growth and amyloid-beta accumulation. Mechanistically, we discovered that five bacterial mutants promote longevity through increased secretion of the polysaccharide colanic acid (CA), which regulates mitochondrial dynamics and unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in the host...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622501/microbiome-and-longevity-gut-microbes-send-signals-to-host-mitochondria
#17
Jan Gruber, Brian K Kennedy
The microbiome has emerged as a major determinant of the functioning of host organisms, affecting both health and disease. Here, Han et al. use the workhorse of aging research, C. elegans, to identify specific mechanisms by which gut bacteria influence mitochondrial dynamics and aging, a first step toward analogous manipulations to modulate human aging.
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621304/epigenetic-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-ankylosing-spondylitis-associated-loci-implicate-immune-cells-and-the-gut-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#18
Z Li, K Haynes, D J Pennisi, L K Anderson, X Song, G P Thomas, T Kenna, P Leo, M A Brown
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common immune-mediated arthropathy primarily affecting the spine and pelvis. Most AS patients have subclinical intestinal inflammation, suggesting the gut microbiome and the immune response play a role in pathogenesis. Susceptibility to AS is primarily genetic, and at least 114 susceptibility variants have been identified to date. We applied bioinformatic methods utilizing epigenetic and gene and protein expression data to identify the cell types through which AS-associated variants operate...
June 15, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618142/functional-diversity-and-redundancy-across-fish-gut-sediment-and-water-bacterial-communities
#19
Arthur Escalas, Marc Troussellier, Yuan Tong, Thierry Bouvier, Corinne Bouvier, Maud A Mouchet, Domingo Flores Hernandez, Julia Ramos Miranda, Jizhong Zhou, David Mouillot
This paper explores the functional diversity and redundancy in a bacterial metacommunity constituted of three habitats (sediment, water column and fish gut) in a coastal lagoon under anthropogenic pressure. We used comprehensive functional gene arrays covering a wide range of ecological processes and stress resistance genes to estimate the functional potential of bacterial communities. Then, we used diversity partitioning to characterize functional diversity and redundancy within (α), between (β) and across (γ) habitats...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617651/microbiota-therapy-for-clostridium-difficile-and-antibiotic-resistant-enteric-infections
#20
Brittany B Lewis, Eric G Pamer
Bacterial pathogens are increasingly antibiotic resistant, and development of clinically effective antibiotics is lagging. Curing infections increasingly requires antimicrobials that are broader spectrum, more toxic, and more expensive, and mortality attributable to antibiotic-resistant pathogens is rising. The commensal microbiota, comprising microbes that colonize the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, can provide high levels of resistance to infection, and the contributions of specific bacterial species to resistance are being discovered and characterized...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
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