keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Gut microb

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682508/a-three-ring-circus-metabolism-of-the-three-proteogenic-aromatic-amino-acids-and-their-role-in-the-health-of-plants-and-animals
#1
REVIEW
Anutthaman Parthasarathy, Penelope J Cross, Renwick C J Dobson, Lily E Adams, Michael A Savka, André O Hudson
Tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are the three aromatic amino acids (AAA) involved in protein synthesis. These amino acids and their metabolism are linked to the synthesis of a variety of secondary metabolites, a subset of which are involved in numerous anabolic pathways responsible for the synthesis of pigment compounds, plant hormones and biological polymers, to name a few. In addition, these metabolites derived from the AAA pathways mediate the transmission of nervous signals, quench reactive oxygen species in the brain, and are involved in the vast palette of animal coloration among others pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679938/exposure-to-nanoplastics-disturbs-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-soil-oligochaete-enchytraeus-crypticus
#2
Bo-Kai Zhu, Yi-Meng Fang, Dong Zhu, Peter Christie, Xin Ke, Yong-Guan Zhu
Microplastics are emerging pollutants that have recently aroused considerable concern but most toxicological studies have focused on marine biota, with little investigation of the influence of microplastics on terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we fed the soil oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus with oatmeal containing 0, 0.025, 0.5, and 10% (dry weight basis) nano-polystyrene (0.05-0.1 μm particle size) to elucidate the impact of microplastics on the growth and gut microbiome of Enchytraeus crypticus. We observed a significant reduction of weight in the animals fed 10% polystyrene and an increase in the reproduction of those fed 0...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678794/aggravated-gut-inflammation-in-mice-lacking-the-taste-signaling-protein-%C3%AE-gustducin
#3
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678198/metabolic-retroconversion-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-the-gut-microbiota
#4
Lesley Hoyles, Maria L Jiménez-Pranteda, Julien Chilloux, Francois Brial, Antonis Myridakis, Thomas Aranias, Christophe Magnan, Glenn R Gibson, Jeremy D Sanderson, Jeremy K Nicholson, Dominique Gauguier, Anne L McCartney, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
BACKGROUND: The dietary methylamines choline, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine are used by the gut microbiota to produce a range of metabolites, including trimethylamine (TMA). However, little is known about the use of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by this consortium of microbes. RESULTS: A feeding study using deuterated TMAO in C57BL6/J mice demonstrated microbial conversion of TMAO to TMA, with uptake of TMA into the bloodstream and its conversion to TMAO. Microbial activity necessary to convert TMAO to TMA was suppressed in antibiotic-treated mice, with deuterated TMAO being taken up directly into the bloodstream...
April 20, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675414/spondyloarthritis-acute-anterior-uveitis-and-fungi-updating-the-catterall-king-hypothesis
#5
Martin Laurence, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
Spondyloarthritis is a common type of arthritis which affects mostly adults. It consists of idiopathic chronic inflammation of the spine, joints, eyes, skin, gut, and prostate. Inflammation is often asymptomatic, especially in the gut and prostate. The HLA-B*27 allele group, which presents intracellular peptides to CD8+ T cells, is by far the strongest risk factor for spondyloarthritis. The precise mechanisms and antigens remain unknown. In 1959, Catterall and King advanced a novel hypothesis explaining the etiology of spondyloarthritis: an as-yet-unrecognized sexually acquired microbe would be causing all spondyloarthritis types, including acute anterior uveitis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#6
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672197/inflammasomes-make-the-case-for-littermate-controlled-experimental-design-in-studying-host-microbiota-interactions
#7
Michail Mamantopoulos, Francesca Ronchi, Kathy D McCoy, Andy Wullaert
Several human diseases are thought to evolve due to a combination of host genetic mutations and environmental factors that include alterations in intestinal microbiota composition termed dysbiosis. Although in some cases, host genetics may shape the gut microbiota and enable it to provoke disease, experimentally disentangling cause and consequence in such host-microbe interactions requires strict control over non-genetic confounding factors. Mouse genetic studies previously proposed Nlrp6/ASC inflammasomes as innate immunity regulators of the intestinal ecosystem...
April 19, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671359/current-evidence-linking-diet-to-gut-microbiota-and-brain-development-and-function
#8
Florencia Ceppa, Andrea Mancini, Kieran Tuohy
The gut:brain axis is emerging as an important information highway linking the foods we eat with neurophysiological development and functions. Some gut microorganisms have shown to alleviate anxiety and depression, improve cognitive performance and play a role in brain development in early life. However, most studies were conducted in laboratory animals and these findings await confirmation in carefully designed human interventions. Similarly, little attention has been given to how diet:microbe interactions within the gut can impact on neurotransmitter production or their subsequent biological effects within the nervous system...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670218/the-impact-of-genome-variation-and-diet-on-the-metabolic-phenotype-and-microbiome-composition-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Lisa Jehrke, Fiona A Stewart, Andrea Droste, Mathias Beller
The metabolic phenotype of an organism depends on a complex regulatory network, which integrates the plethora of intrinsic and external information and prioritizes the flow of nutrients accordingly. Given the rise of metabolic disorders including obesity, a detailed understanding of this regulatory network is in urgent need. Yet, our level of understanding is far from completeness and complicated by the discovery of additional layers in metabolic regulation, such as the impact of the microbial community present in the gut on the hosts' energy storage levels...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669589/similarity-of-the-dog-and-human-gut-microbiomes-in-gene-content-and-response-to-diet
#10
Luis Pedro Coelho, Jens Roat Kultima, Paul Igor Costea, Coralie Fournier, Yuanlong Pan, Gail Czarnecki-Maulden, Matthew Robert Hayward, Sofia K Forslund, Thomas Sebastian Benedikt Schmidt, Patrick Descombes, Janet R Jackson, Qinghong Li, Peer Bork
BACKGROUND: Gut microbes influence their hosts in many ways, in particular by modulating the impact of diet. These effects have been studied most extensively in humans and mice. In this work, we used whole genome metagenomics to investigate the relationship between the gut metagenomes of dogs, humans, mice, and pigs. RESULTS: We present a dog gut microbiome gene catalog containing 1,247,405 genes (based on 129 metagenomes and a total of 1.9 terabasepairs of sequencing data)...
April 19, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669199/deciphering-human-gut-microbiota-nutrient-interactions-a-role-for-biochemistry
#11
Carina Chittim, Stephania M Irwin, Emily P Balskus
The human gut contains trillions of microorganisms that play a central role in many aspects of host biology, including the provision of key nutrients from the diet. However, our appreciation of how gut microbes and their extensive metabolic capabilities affect the nutritional status of the human host is in its infancy. In this perspective, we highlight how recent efforts to elucidate the biochemical basis for gut microbial metabolism of dietary components are reshaping our view of these organisms' roles in host nutrition...
April 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668946/a-system-biology-perspective-on-environment-host-microbe-interactions
#12
Lianmin Chen, Sanzhima Garmaeva, Alexandra Zherankova, Jingyuan Fu, Cisca Wijmenga
A vast, complex and dynamic consortium of microorganisms known as the gut microbiome colonizes the human gut. Over the past few decades we have developed an increased awareness of its important role in human health. In this review we discuss the role of the gut microbiome in complex diseases and the possible causal scenarios behind its interactions with the host genome and environmental factors. We then propose a new analysis framework that combines a systems biology approach, cross-kingdom integration of multiple levels of omics data, and innovative in vitro models to yield an integrated picture of human host-microbe interactions...
April 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668928/akkermansia-muciniphila-can-reduce-the-damage-of-gluco-lipotoxicity-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-and-normalize-intestine-microbiota-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Ling Zhang, Qianqian Qin, Manni Liu, Xiangling Zhang, Fang He, Guoqing Wang
This study aimed to investigate how Akkermansia muciniphila can implicate type 2 diabetes mellitus and the mechanisms underlying the effects Akkermansia muciniphila on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with Akkermansia muciniphila and solvent. After four weeks of treatment, diabetic rats orally administered with live or pasteurized Akkermansia muciniphila exhibited significant increase in the blood concentration of high-density lipoprotein, and decrease in the hepatic glycogen, serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide, malondialdehyde, and total glucagon-like peptide-1...
April 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668558/archaea-microbial-candidates-in-next-generation-probiotics-development
#14
Jean-François Brugère, Wajdi Ben Hania, Marie-Edith Arnal, Céline Ribière, Nathalie Ballet, Pascal Vandeckerkove, Bernard Ollivier, Paul W O'Toole
Pharmabiotics and probiotics in current use or under development belong to 2 of 3 domains of life, Eukarya (eg, yeasts) and Bacteria (eg, lactobacilli). Archaea constitute a third domain of life, and are currently not used as probiotics, despite several interesting features. This includes the absence of known pathogens in humans, animals, or plants and the existence of some archaea closely associated to humans in various microbiomes. We promote the concept that some specific archaea that naturally thrive in the human gut are potential next-generation probiotics that can be rationally selected on the basis of their metabolic phenotype not being encountered in other human gut microbes, neither Bacteria nor Eukarya...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666764/evaluation-of-a-therapy-for-idiopathic-chronic-enterocolitis-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-linked-microbial-community-correlates
#16
Joshua M Taylor, Erik L Clarke, Kate Baker, Abigail Lauder, Dorothy Kim, Aubrey Bailey, Gary D Wu, Ronald G Collman, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Frederic D Bushman, Rudolf Bohm
Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663668/effect-of-cryopreservation-and-lyophilization-on-viability-and-growth-of-strict-anaerobic-human-gut-microbes
#17
Lea Bircher, Annelies Geirnaert, Frederik Hammes, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660942/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-metabolism-of-polyphenols-as-characterized-by-gnotobiotic-mice
#18
Giulio Maria Pasinetti, Risham Singh, Susan Westfall, Francis Herman, Jeremiah Faith, Lap Ho
A growing body of experimental data suggests that microbes in the gut influence behavior and can alter brain physiology and neurochemistry. Although promising, researchers are only starting to understand the potential of the gut microbiota for use in neurological disease. Recent evidence demonstrated that gastrointestinal activities are linked to mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, and most recently, cognitive functions in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Studies from our group and others are uncovering new evidence suggesting that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the metabolism and bioavailability of certain dietary compounds and synthetic drugs...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660284/non-microbicidal-small-molecule-inhibition-of-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-human-gut-microbes-a-potential-therapeutic-avenue
#19
Anthony D Santilli, Elizabeth M Dawson, Kristi Whitehead, Daniel C Whitehead
A new approach for the non-microbicidal phenotypic manipulation of prominent gastrointestinal microbes is presented. Low micromolar concentrations of a chemical probe, acarbose, can selectively inhibit the Starch Utilization System and ablate the ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and B. fragilis strains to metabolize potato starch and pullulan. This strategy has potential therapeutic relevance for the selective modulation of the GI microbiota in a non-microbicidal manner.
April 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659960/obese-mice-losing-weight-due-to-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-or-food-restriction-harbor-distinct-gut-microbiota
#20
Laura J den Hartigh, Zhan Gao, Leela Goodspeed, Shari Wang, Arun K Das, Charles F Burant, Alan Chait, Martin J Blaser
Background: trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12-CLA) is a dietary supplement that promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. We previously reported that in the absence of t10,c12-CLA, mice forced to lose equivalent body weight by food restriction (FR) do not exhibit increases in fat oxidation or energy expenditure but have improved glucose metabolism, consistent with FR as a metabolically healthy weight-loss method. Objective: Because diet is a primary determinant of gut bacterial populations, we hypothesized that the disparate metabolic effects accompanying weight loss from t10,c12-CLA or FR could be related to altered intestinal microbiota...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
keyword
keyword
62807
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"