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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722755/the-potential-of-anti-infectives-and-immunomodulators-as-therapies-for-asthma-and-asthma-exacerbations
#1
Michael R Edwards, Ross P Walton, David J Jackson, Wojciech Feleszko, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Tuomas Jartti, Heidi Makrinoti, Alexandra Nikonova, Igor Shilovskiy, Jurgen Schwarze, Sebastian L Johnston, Musa Khaitov
Asthma is responsible for approximately 25,000 deaths annually in Europe despite available medicines that maintain asthma control and reduce asthma exacerbations. Better treatments are urgently needed for the control of chronic asthma and reduction of asthma exacerbations, the major cause of asthma mortality. Much research spanning >20 years shows a strong association between microorganisms including pathogens in asthma onset, severity and exacerbation, yet with the exception of antibiotics, few treatments are available that specifically target the offending pathogens...
July 19, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#2
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715471/habitat-and-indigenous-gut-microbes-contribute-to-the-plasticity-of-gut-microbiome-in-oriental-river-prawn-during-rapid-environmental-change
#3
Cheng-Yu Chen, Po-Cheng Chen, Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Daryi Wang
Growing evidence points out that the capacity of organisms to acclimate or adapt to new habitat conditions basically depends on their phenomic plasticity attributes, of which their gut commensal microbiota might be an essential impact factor. Especially in aquatic organisms, which are in direct and continual contact with the aquatic environment, the complex and dynamic microbiota have significant effects on health and development. However, an understanding of the relative contribution of internal sorting (host genetic) and colonization (environmental) processes is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713343/the-bacterial-ecosystem-of-mother-s-milk-and-infant-s-mouth-and-gut
#4
Elena Biagi, Sara Quercia, Arianna Aceti, Isadora Beghetti, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Giacomo Faldella, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi, Luigi Corvaglia
The progressive building of the infants' gut microbiota is pivotal for educating their immune system. Human breast milk is among the first sources of microbes for the assembly of the infant's microbiota, but research struggles to give a demonstration for the origin of bacteria in milk. Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on assembly of the mother's milk and infant's microbiome, here we characterized the oral, gut and milk ecosystems in a homogeneous cohort of 36 healthy mother-infants pairs, by 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713336/development-and-use-of-a-real-time-quantitative-pcr-method-for-detecting-and-quantifying-equol-producing-bacteria-in-human-faecal-samples-and-slurry-cultures
#5
Lucía Vázquez, Lucía Guadamuro, Froilán Giganto, Baltasar Mayo, Ana B Flórez
This work introduces a novel real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocol for detecting and quantifying equol-producing bacteria. To this end, two sets of primers targeting the dihydrodaidzein reductase (ddr) and tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (tdr) genes, which are involved in the synthesis of equol, were designed. The primers showed high specificity and sensitivity when used to examine DNA from control bacteria, such as Slackia isoflavoniconvertens, Slackia equolifaciens, Asaccharobacter celatus, Adlercreutzia equolifaciens, and Enterorhabdus mucosicola...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#6
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705224/more-than-just-a-gut-feeling-constraint-based-genome-scale-metabolic-models-for-predicting-functions-of-human-intestinal-microbes
#8
REVIEW
Kees C H van der Ark, Ruben G A van Heck, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
The human gut is colonized with a myriad of microbes, with substantial interpersonal variation. This complex ecosystem is an integral part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a major role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Its dysfunction has been correlated to a wide array of diseases, but the understanding of causal mechanisms is hampered by the limited amount of cultured microbes, poor understanding of phenotypes, and the limited knowledge about interspecies interactions. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have been used in many different fields, ranging from metabolic engineering to the prediction of interspecies interactions...
July 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704452/influence-of-lung-ct-changes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-on-the-human-lung-microbiome
#9
Marion Engel, David Endesfelder, Brigitte Schloter-Hai, Susanne Kublik, Michael S Granitsiotis, Piera Boschetto, Mariarita Stendardo, Imre Barta, Balazs Dome, Jean-François Deleuze, Anne Boland, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Antje Prasse, Tobias Welte, Jens Hohlfeld, Deepak Subramanian, David Parr, Ivo Glynne Gut, Timm Greulich, Andreas Rembert Koczulla, Adam Nowinski, Dorota Gorecka, Dave Singh, Sumit Gupta, Christopher E Brightling, Harald Hoffmann, Marion Frankenberger, Thomas P Hofer, Dorothe Burggraf, Marion Heiss-Neumann, Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock, Michael Schloter, Wolfgang Zu Castell
BACKGROUND: Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. METHODS: Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698093/bile-acids-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-autoimmune-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#10
REVIEW
You Li, Ruqi Tang, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Cholestatic liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), are manifested as an impairment of normal bile flow and excessive accumulation of potentially toxic bile acids. Endogenous bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cholestasis. Consequently, chronic cholestasis affects the expression of bile acids transporters and nuclear receptors, and results in liver injury. Several lines of evidence suggest that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases by regulating metabolism and immune responses...
July 8, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697651/mucosal-immune-system-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-maintaining-balance-between-the-good-and-the-bad
#11
Bani Ahluwalia, Maria K Magnusson, Lena Öhman
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a unique organ inhabited by a range of commensal microbes, while also being exposed to an overwhelming load of antigens in the form of dietary antigens on a daily basis. The GI tract has dual roles in the body, in that it performs digestion and uptake of nutrients while also carrying out the complex and important task of maintaining immune homeostasis, i.e., keeping the balance between the good and the bad. It is equally important that we protect ourselves from reacting against the good, meaning that we stay tolerant to harmless food, commensal bacteria and self-antigens, as well as react with force against the bad, meaning induction of immune responses against harmful microorganisms...
July 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696777/therapeutic-uses-of-triphala-in-ayurvedic-medicine
#12
Christine Tara Peterson, Kate Denniston, Deepak Chopra
AIM: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696041/the-contribution-of-microbial-biotechnology-to-sustainable-development-goals-microbiome-therapies
#13
Paul W O'Toole, Max Paoli
Complex communities of microbes live on and in plants, humans and other animals. These communities are collectively referred to as the microbiota or microbiome. Plants and animals evolved to co-exist with these microbes. In mammals, particular kinds of alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) are associated with loss of health, most likely due to loss of microbial metabolites, signalling molecules, or regulators of host pathways. Modern life-style diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome have been linked to dysbiosis...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694176/anxiogenic-effects-of-a-lactobacillus-inulin-and-the-synbiotic-on-healthy-juvenile-rats
#14
Camila Barrera-Bugueño, Ornella Realini, Jorge Escobar-Luna, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Martin Gotteland, Marcela Julio-Pieper, Javier A Bravo
Gut microbiota interventions, including probiotic and prebiotic use can alter behavior in adult animals and healthy volunteers. However, little is known about their effects in younger individuals. To investigate this, male Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 21, PND21) received Lactobacillus casei 54-2-33 (10(4)cfu/ml), inulin as prebiotic (16mg/ml), or both together (synbiotic) via drinking water for 14days. Control rats received water alone. Open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) behaviors were evaluated at PND34 and 35, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686482/outer-membrane-vesicles-blebbing-contributes-to-b-vulgatus-mpk-mediated-immune-response-silencing
#16
Jan Kevin Maerz, Alex Steimle, Anna Lange, Annika Bender, Birgit Fehrenbacher, Julia-Stefanie Frick
The Gram negative intestinal symbiont Bacteroides vulgatus mpk is able to prevent from induction of colonic inflammation in Rag1(-/-) mice and promotes immune balance in Il2(-/-) mice. These inflammation-silencing effects are associated with B. vulgatus mpk-mediated induction of semi-mature dendritic cells, especially in the colonic lamina propria (cLP). However the beneficial interaction of bacteria with host immune cells is limited due to the existence of a large mucus layer covering the intestinal epithelium...
July 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685027/interactions-between-gut-microbes-and-host-cells-control-gut-barrier-and-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
P D Cani
Gut microbes are now considered as key partners involved in human physiology. Data have shown that microbes contribute to regulate energy, lipid, and glucose homeostasis through several mechanisms. Among them, the role of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and bacterial metabolites has been proposed (for example, metabolic endotoxemia and bioactive lipids). This short review, briefly discusses the role of the gut barrier as well as the impact of both the innate immune system and bioactive molecules (for example, endocannabinoids, cytochrome P450 derived arachidonic acids compounds) in the framework of gut microbes and cardiometabolic disorders...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#18
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684750/molecular-ecological-network-analysis-reveals-the-effects-of-probiotics-and-florfenicol-on-intestinal-microbiota-homeostasis-an-example-of-sea-cucumber
#19
Gang Yang, Mo Peng, Xiangli Tian, Shuanglin Dong
Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular ecological network analysis indicated that P...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684208/mucosal-bioengineering-gut-in-a-dish
#20
Ivaylo I Ivanov
Studying the interactions between commensal microbes and host intestinal tissue networks is challenging due to the complexity and inaccessibility of the system. A recent study reports a novel organ culture system that will enhance our ability to dissect these interactions.
July 3, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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