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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003943/envisioning-and-leading-organizational-transformation-one-organ-procurement-organization-s-journey
#1
Jeffrey P Orlowski
BACKGROUND:  In 2012, one organ procurement organization (OPO) welcomed a new President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). This OPO, LifeShare Transplant Donor Services of Oklahoma (LifeShare), had just celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2011. While LifeShare was well-established chronologically, growth in organ donors and organs transplanted from these donors had occurred at a much slower rate during the collaborative era and afterward (2003-2011) than the donor/transplant growth the United States (US), as a whole, had experienced...
November 15, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973722/a-mitochondrial-story-mitochondrial-replacement-identity-and-narrative
#2
Jackie Leach Scully
Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT) are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity (i) directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (ii) indirectly through changing the child's experience of disease, and by generating novel intrafamilial relationships that shape the sense of self...
January 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934872/structural-analysis-of-glycine-sarcosine-n-methyltransferase-from-methanohalophilus-portucalensis-reveals-mechanistic-insights-into-the-regulation-of-methyltransferase-activity
#3
Yi-Ru Lee, Te-Sheng Lin, Shu-Jung Lai, Mu-Sen Liu, Mei-Chin Lai, Nei-Li Chan
Methyltransferases play crucial roles in many cellular processes, and various regulatory mechanisms have evolved to control their activities. For methyltransferases involved in biosynthetic pathways, regulation via feedback inhibition is a commonly employed strategy to prevent excessive accumulation of the pathways' end products. To date, no biosynthetic methyltransferases have been characterized by X-ray crystallography in complex with their corresponding end product. Here, we report the crystal structures of the glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase from the halophilic archaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis (MpGSMT), which represents the first structural elucidation of the GSMT methyltransferase family...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919073/mitochondrial-replacement-in-human-oocytes-carrying-pathogenic-mitochondrial-dna-mutations
#4
Eunju Kang, Jun Wu, Nuria Marti Gutierrez, Amy Koski, Rebecca Tippner-Hedges, Karen Agaronyan, Aida Platero-Luengo, Paloma Martinez-Redondo, Hong Ma, Yeonmi Lee, Tomonari Hayama, Crystal Van Dyken, Xinjian Wang, Shiyu Luo, Riffat Ahmed, Ying Li, Dongmei Ji, Refik Kayali, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Susan Olson, Jeffrey Jensen, David Battaglia, David Lee, Diana Wu, Taosheng Huang, Don P Wolf, Dmitry Temiakov, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Paula Amato, Shoukhrat Mitalipov
Maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA mutations can cause fatal or severely debilitating syndromes in children, with disease severity dependent on the specific gene mutation and the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA (heteroplasmy) in each cell and tissue. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations are relatively common, with an estimated 778 affected children born each year in the United States. Mitochondrial replacement therapies or techniques (MRT) circumventing mother-to-child mtDNA disease transmission involve replacement of oocyte maternal mtDNA...
December 8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723157/improving-the-screening-of-blood-donors-with-syphilis-rapid-diagnostic-test-rdt-and-rapid-plasma-reagin-rpr-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lmic
#5
F Sarkodie, O Hassall, E Owusu-Dabo, S Owusu-Ofori, I Bates, I C Bygbjerg, A Owusu-Ofori, L H Harritshøj, H Ullum
BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors...
October 10, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710940/the-structure-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-29-family-member-from-a-rumen-bacterium-reveals-unique-dual-carbohydrate-binding-domains
#6
Emma L Summers, Christina D Moon, Renee Atua, Vickery L Arcus
Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 29 consists solely of α-L-fucosidases. These enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds. Here, the structure of GH29_0940, a protein cloned from metagenomic DNA from the rumen of a cow, has been solved, which reveals a multi-domain arrangement that has only recently been identified in bacterial GH29 enzymes. The microbial species that provided the source of this enzyme is unknown. This enzyme contains a second carbohydrate-binding domain at its C-terminal end in addition to the typical N-terminal catalytic domain and carbohydrate-binding domain arrangement of GH29-family proteins...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643843/building-the-nation-s-body-the-contested-role-of-abortion-and-family-planning-in-post-war-south-sudan
#7
Jennifer J Palmer, Katerini T Storeng
This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634655/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-blood-donation-in-barbados
#8
A E Atherley, C G Taylor, A Whittington, C Jonker
OBJECTIVE: To obtain information to devise strategies for a voluntary blood donor mobilisation campaign in Barbados. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that 100% blood should be collected from voluntary non-remunerated donors (VNRD), yet the majority of blood donations (75%) in Barbados are family/replacement donations. Increasing VNRD is paramount to achieving a safe, reliable blood supply, and understanding the population is a strategy suggested by the WHO to inform donor recruitment and education...
December 2016: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590038/new-histopathologic-and-ultrastructural-findings-in-reis-b%C3%A3-cklers-corneal-dystrophy-caused-by-the-arg124leu-mutation-of-tgfbi-gene
#9
Wen-Ya Qiu, Li-Bin Zheng, Fei Pan, Bei-Bei Wang, Yu-Feng Yao
BACKGROUND: Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD) was consistently reported as a corneal dystrophy only affected Bowman's layer and superficial corneal stroma, and superficial keratectomy was a recommendation surgery for treatment in literatures. The study reported new histopathological and ultrastructural findings in RBCD caused by the Arg124Leu mutation of transforming growth factor induced (TGFBI) gene in a four-generation Chinese pedigree. METHODS: Subjects including eight patients and seven unaffected family members received slit-lamp biomicroscopy and photography...
September 2, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490049/microrna-29b-overexpression-decreases-extracellular-matrix-mrna-and-protein-production-in-human-corneal-endothelial-cells
#10
Tetsuya Toyono, Tomohiko Usui, Guadalupe Villarreal, Laura Kallay, Mario Matthaei, Lucas M M Vianna, Angela Y Zhu, Masahiko Kuroda, Shiro Amano, Albert S Jun
PURPOSE: MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. We reported that levels of microRNA (miR)-29 family are decreased in corneas of patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). The miR-29 family regulates the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Accumulation of ECM proteins in Descemet membrane is an important pathologic change in FECD. In this study, we transfected miR-29b into human corneal endothelial cells and tissues and evaluated ECM protein expression levels...
November 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263024/solving-shortage-in-a-priceless-market-insights-from-blood-donation
#11
Tianshu Sun, Susan Feng Lu, Ginger Zhe Jin
Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage...
July 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129325/update-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-retroviral-gene-therapy-for-immunodeficiency-due-to-adenosine-deaminase-deficiency
#12
Maria Pia Cicalese, Francesca Ferrua, Laura Castagnaro, Roberta Pajno, Federica Barzaghi, Stefania Giannelli, Francesca Dionisio, Immacolata Brigida, Marco Bonopane, Miriam Casiraghi, Antonella Tabucchi, Filippo Carlucci, Eyal Grunebaum, Mehdi Adeli, Robbert G Bredius, Jennifer M Puck, Polina Stepensky, Ilhan Tezcan, Katie Rolfe, Erika De Boever, Rickey R Reinhardt, Jonathan Appleby, Fabio Ciceri, Maria Grazia Roncarolo, Alessandro Aiuti
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a rare, autosomal-recessive systemic metabolic disease characterized by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The treatment of choice for ADA-deficient SCID (ADA-SCID) is hematopoietic stem cell transplant from an HLA-matched sibling donor, although <25% of patients have such a donor available. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) partially and temporarily relieves immunodeficiency. We investigated the medium-term outcome of gene therapy (GT) in 18 patients with ADA-SCID for whom an HLA-identical family donor was not available; most were not responding well to ERT...
July 7, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110013/preemptive-renal-transplantation-the-best-treatment-option-for-terminal-chronic-renal-failure
#13
L Arze Aimaretti, S Arze
Renal transplantation is the best therapeutic option for end-stage chronic renal disease. Assuming that it is more advisable if performed early, we aimed to show the clinical, social, and economic advantages in 70% of our patients who were dialyzed only for a short period. For this purpose, we retrospectively collected data over 28 years in 142 kidney transplants performed in patients with <6 weeks on dialysis. 66% of our patients were 30-60 years old; 98% of the patients had living donors. At transplantation, 64% of our patients had no public support; however, 64% of them returned to work and got health insurance 2 months later...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102224/blood-donation-in-guangdong-province-china-from-2006-2014
#14
J Ou-Yang, C-H Bei
OBJECTIVE: To explore the trends in blood collection from 2006 to 2014 in Guangdong, China. BACKGROUND: Although the Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in 1998, voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) has been promoted fully for only a decade. The provincial and local governments of Guangdong, one of the most well-developed provinces in China, have promoted blood donation by various means. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Official data on blood donation from 2006 to 2014, including the number of blood donations and the family replacement/mutual blood donation (FRMBD) rate, were collected from all blood collection and supply institutions in Guangdong...
June 2016: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071848/glycomimetics-targeting-glycosyltransferases-synthetic-computational-and-structural-studies-of-less-polar-conjugates
#15
Mattia Ghirardello, Matilde de Las Rivas, Alessandra Lacetera, Ignacio Delso, Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Tomás Tejero, Sonsoles Martín-Santamaría, Ramón Hurtado-Guerrero, Pedro Merino
The Leloir donors are nucleotide sugars essential for a variety of glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the transfer of a carbohydrate to an acceptor substrate, typically a protein or an oligosaccharide. A series of less-polar nucleotide sugar analogues derived from uridine have been prepared by replacing one phosphate unit with an alkyl chain. The methodology is based on the radical hydrophosphonylation of alkenes, which allows coupling of allyl glycosyl compounds with a phosphate unit suitable for conjugation to uridine...
May 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069031/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections-in-donors-to-an-ethiopian-blood-bank-between-2009-and-2013-and-donation-factors-that-would-improve-the-safety-of-the-blood-supply-in-underdeveloped-countries
#16
Misganaw Birhaneselassie
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentages of blood donors at an Ethiopian blood bank who tested positive for 4 transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) and to compare TTI infection levels among individuals of different sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: We reviewed 5 years of data (2009 to 2013) from registration records of blood donors at the blood bank of Yirgalem Hospital in Hawassa, Ethiopia. RESULT: Of the 6367 donors, 447 (7...
May 2016: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011677/nucleic-acid-testing-is-it-the-only-answer-for-safe-blood-in-india
#17
N K Naidu, Z S Bharucha, Vandana Sonawane, Imran Ahmed
BACKGROUND: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out...
January 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011664/family-donors-are-critical-and-legitimate-in-developing-countries
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Allain, Cees Th Smit Sibinga
INTRODUCTION: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified...
January 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874467/priority-needs-and-wisdom-strategy-for-blood-transfusion-safety-in-developing-low-resource-countries
#19
Abeer Mohamed Abdelrazik, Ghada M Ezzat Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of alternative safety measures that reduce the risk of transfusion transmissible infections as an affordable measure in low resource countries. BACKGROUND: It is still difficult in developing countries with limited resources to mandate nucleic acid testing due to its high cost. Although NAT reduces the window period of infection, the developing countries are still in need of an efficient and effective transfusion programme before implementing the complex high cost NAT...
February 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26605137/sulfurtransferase-and-thioredoxin-specifically-interact-as-demonstrated-by-bimolecular-fluorescence-complementation-analysis-and-biochemical-tests
#20
Melina Henne, Nicolas König, Tiziana Triulzi, Sara Baroni, Fabio Forlani, Renate Scheibe, Jutta Papenbrock
Sulfurtransferases (Strs) and thioredoxins (Trxs) are members of large protein families. Trxs are disulfide reductases and play an important role in redox-related cellular processes. They interact with a broad range of proteins. Strs catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from a suitable sulfur donor to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors in vitro, but the physiological roles of these enzymes are not well defined. Several studies in different organisms demonstrate protein-protein interactions of Strs with members of the Trx family...
2015: FEBS Open Bio
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