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blood banks

Dhanya Lakshmi Narayanan, Shubha R Phadke
Stem cell transplantation and cord blood banking have received much popularity among general public and medical professionals in the recent past. But information about the scientific aspects, its utility and limitations is incomplete amongst laypersons as well as many medical practitioners. Stem cells differ from all other types of cells in the human body because of their ability to multiply in order to self perpetuate and differentiate into specialized cells. Stems cells could be totipotent, multipotent, pluripotent, oligopotent or unipotent depending on the type of cells that can arise or differentiate from them...
March 20, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Stephane Olindo, Severine Jeannin, Martine Saint-Vil, Aissatou Signate, Mireille Edimonana-Kaptue, Julien Joux, Harold Merle, Pascale Richard, Samuel Granjeaud, Philippe Cabre, Didier Smadja, Raymond Cesaire, Agnes Lezin
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been discovered in 1980 and has been linked to tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in 1985 in Martinique. There is no data on HAM/TSP incidence trends. We report, in the present work, the temporal trends incidence of HAM/TSP in Martinique over 25 years. METHODS: Martinique is a Caribbean French West Indies island deserved by a unique Neurology Department involved in HAM/TSP diagnosis and management. A registry has been set up since 1986 and patients diagnosed for a HAM/TSP were prospectively registered...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ahmad Yaseen, Sa'd Suleiman, Omar Abu Zenah, Adham Abu Taha
BACKGROUND: Red blood-cell transfusion has greatly reduced the mortality and morbidity in multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. However, this can result in red blood-cell isoimmunisation with autoantibodies and alloantibodies, which can lead to serious complications such as delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and types of alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients living in the north of the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Marco Guarene, Carla Badulli, Anna L Cremaschi, Ilaria Sbarsi, Rosalia Cacciatore, Carmine Tinelli, Annamaria Pasi, Paola Bergamaschi, Cesare G Perotti
INTRODUCTION: Allele-level donor-recipient match at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C and HLA-DRB1 loci impacts the outcome after cord blood transplantation for hematologic malignancies and modifies the strategy of donor selection. High definition of both class I and II HLA loci at time of listing is a way to improve the attractiveness of cord blood bank inventories, reducing the time for donor search and procurement and simplifying donor choice, in particular, for patients of non-European heritage...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Jeliazko R Jeliazkov, Adnan Sljoka, Daisuke Kuroda, Nobuyuki Tsuchimura, Naoki Katoh, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jeffrey J Gray
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody's antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yolentha Maria Slootweg, Johanna Maria Koelewijn, Wim L de Kort, Masja de Haas, Eva-Maria Merz
BACKGROUND: The successful introduction of prophylaxis with anti-RhD immunoglobulin has resulted in a significant decline of pregnancy-related RhD immunizations but also has decreased the availability of naturally immunized women as (new) anti-D donors. An influx of new donors is necessary to maintain a sufficient pool of anti-D donors. We investigated motivators, barriers, and predictors for anti-D donorship in RhD-immunized women. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A mixed-methods design was applied, including focus group discussions and questionnaires...
March 12, 2018: Transfusion
Paulo Pereira, Jerard Seghatchian, Beatriz Caldeira, Sandra Xavier, Gracinda de Sousa
General quality control good practices require the control of the production of blood components using statistical techniques, such as mandatory by the European Commission Directives and the American Association of Blood Banks standards. Sometimes, the control procedure is exclusively in favor of the compliance verification with specifications per individual component or to compute the number of defective parts usually on a monthly basis. However, this is a critical restriction to detect unnatural patterns such as to guarantee that the production has a non-significance chance to manufacturing nonconforming components...
February 20, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Peter Okokhere, Andres Colubri, Chukwuemeka Azubike, Christopher Iruolagbe, Omoregie Osazuwa, Shervin Tabrizi, Elizabeth Chin, Sara Asad, Ehi Ediale, Mojeed Rafiu, Donatus Adomeh, Ikponmwosa Odia, Rebecca Atafo, Chris Aire, Sylvanus Okogbenin, Meike Pahlman, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Danny Asogun, Terrence Fradet, Ben Fry, Stephen F Schaffner, Christian Happi, George Akpede, Stephan Günther, Pardis C Sabeti
BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic disease endemic to west Africa. No large-scale studies exist from Nigeria, where the Lassa virus (LASV) is most diverse. LASV diversity, coupled with host genetic and environmental factors, might cause differences in disease pathophysiology. Small-scale studies in Nigeria suggest that acute kidney injury is an important clinical feature and might be a determinant of survival. We aimed to establish the demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with mortality in Nigerian patients with Lassa fever, and hypothesised that LASV was the direct cause of intrinsic renal damage for a subset of the patients with Lassa fever...
March 6, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Brant M Wagener, Parker J Hu, Joo-Yeun Oh, Cilina A Evans, Jillian R Richter, Jaideep Honavar, Angela P Brandon, Judy Creighton, Shannon W Stephens, Charity Morgan, Randal O Dull, Marisa B Marques, Jeffrey D Kerby, Jean-Francois Pittet, Rakesh P Patel
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability in patients aged 1-46 y. Severely injured patients experience considerable blood loss and hemorrhagic shock requiring treatment with massive transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Preclinical and retrospective human studies in trauma patients have suggested that poorer therapeutic efficacy, increased severity of organ injury, and increased bacterial infection are associated with transfusion of large volumes of stored RBCs, although the mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Yuntong Kou, Mike Halpenny, Heidi Elmoazzen, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of cord blood (CB) represents a safety risk for transplantation patients. CB sterility testing at Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank is performed using a 1:1 mix of CB-derived plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). Culture bottles of an automated culture system, which lack antimicrobial neutralization properties, are used for bacterial screening of CB. This process is unsuitable for CB-containing antibiotics, potentially resulting in false-negative results...
March 7, 2018: Transfusion
Mitchell P McInerney, Irene Volitakis, Ashley I Bush, William A Banks, Jennifer L Short, Joseph A Nicolazzo
PURPOSE: Biometals such as zinc and copper have been shown to affect tight junction expression and subsequently blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Whether these biometals also influence the expression and function of BBB transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) however is currently unknown. METHODS: Using the immortalised human cerebral microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cell line, an in-cell western assay (alongside western blotting) assessed relative P-gp expression after treatment with the metal ionophore clioquinol and biometals zinc and copper...
March 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Shazia Moeen, Nazish Farooq, Romana Irshad, Muhammad Ashfaq, Umer Farooq, Muhammad Idris
BACKGROUND: Lifelong transfusions are life savers for thalassaemia patients but are associated with many complications. Alloimmunization is a major problem for blood banks. Antigens of foreign red blood cells induce the formation of antibodies in patients suffering from thalassaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of red cell alloantibodies and to express the type of these antibodies in thalassaemia patients. METHODS: Patients that have received multiple transfusions were included in this study...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Tetsuya Yumoto, Hiromichi Naito, Takashi Yorifuji, Hiroki Maeyama, Yoshinori Kosaki, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Takaaki Osako, Atsunori Nakao
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether Cushing's sign could predict severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring immediate neurosurgical intervention (BI-NSI) in children after blunt trauma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using Japan Trauma Data Bank. SETTING: Emergency and critical care centres in secondary and tertiary hospitals in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Children between the ages of 2 and 15 years with Glasgow Coma Scale motor scores of 5 or less at presentation after blunt trauma from 2004 to 2015 were included...
March 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks
Central nervous system (CNS) barriers predominantly mediate the immune-privileged status of the brain, and are also important regulators of neuroimmune communication. It is increasingly appreciated that communication between the brain and immune system contributes to physiologic processes, adaptive responses, and disease states. In this review, we discuss the highly specialized features of brain barriers that regulate neuroimmune communication in health and disease. In section I , we discuss the concept of immune privilege, provide working definitions of brain barriers, and outline the historical work that contributed to the understanding of CNS barrier functions...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
M Antonieta Núñez, Karla Contreras, M Soledad Depix, Enrique Geoffroy, Nicolás Villagra, Sandra Mellado, Ana M Salinas
BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae is the causal agent of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent persons and bacterial angiomatosis in immunocompromised patients. In Chile, the prevalence of antibodies against B. henselae in healthy children and adolescents is 13.3%, in persons with occupational risk 60.5%, and in cats 85.6%. There are no published data regarding the seroprevalence in blood donors in our country, so determining if B. henselae is present in the blood of donors at the time of donation is very important, since this microorganism can survive up to 35 days in the red blood cells stored in a blood bank at 4 °C...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Sadakatsu Ikeda, Igor F Tsigelny, Åge A Skjevik, Yuko Kono, Michel Mendler, Alexander Kuo, Jason K Sicklick, Gregory Heestand, Kimberly C Banks, AmirAli Talasaz, Richard B Lanman, Scott Lippman, Razelle Kurzrock
BACKGROUND: Because imaging has a high sensitivity to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and tissue biopsies carry risks such as bleeding, the latter are often not performed in HCC. Blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis can identify somatic alterations, but its utility has not been characterized in HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 14 patients with advanced HCC (digital ctDNA sequencing [68 genes]). Mutant relative to wild-type allele fraction was calculated...
February 27, 2018: Oncologist
Stephen Tembo, Nicola E Collins, Kgomotso P Sibeko-Matjila, Milana Troskie, Ilse Vorster, Charles Byaruhanga, Marinda C Oosthuizen
Little is known about the occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Mungwi District of Northern Province, Zambia. Clinical signs and post mortem lesions are pathognomonic of mixed tick-borne infections especially babesiosis, anaplasmosis and East Coast fever. The main objective of this study was to screen selected communal herds of cattle for tick-borne haemoparasites, and identify the tick vectors associated with the high cattle mortalities due to suspected tick-borne diseases in the local breeds of cattle grazing along the banks of the Chambeshi River in Mungwi District, Northern Province, Zambia...
February 16, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Shaun Lawicki, Emily A Coberly, Laura A Lee, Mary Johnson, Quentin Eichbaum
BACKGROUND: The Kidd-null phenotype, Jk(a-b-), occurs in individuals who do not express the JK glycoprotein. Jk(a-b-) individuals can make an antibody against the Jk3 antigen, a high-incidence antigen present in more than 99.9% of most populations. This presents many challenges to the blood bank including identification of the antibody, masking of other antibodies, and how to provide transfusion support given the rarity of Jk3-negative blood products. Kidd antibodies may cause acute and delayed hemolytic reactions as well as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN)...
February 25, 2018: Transfusion
Geng Zong, Damaskini Valvi, Brent Coull, Thomas Göen, Frank B Hu, Flemming Nielsen, Philippe Grandjean, Qi Sun
BACKGROUND: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may predispose to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but prospective human evidence is scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between plasma-POP concentrations in the late 1990s and incident T2D over 11 years of follow-up in the Nurses' Health Study II. DISCUSSION: Three organochlorine pesticides and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in banked plasma from 793 case-control pairs of T2D...
February 21, 2018: Environment International
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