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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229466/insight-into-calculated-risk-an-application-to-the-prioritization-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#1
R E J Neslo, W Oei, M P Janssen
Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228722/transcranial-doppler-sonography-reveals-reductions-in-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-healthy-older-adults-during-vigilance
#2
Amanda E Harwood, Pamela M Greenwood, Tyler H Shaw
Given that older adults are remaining longer in the workforce, their ability to perform demanding cognitive tasks such as vigilance assignments needs to be thoroughly examined, especially since many vigilance assignments affect public safety (e.g., aviation, medicine and long distance driving). Previous research exploring the relation between aging and vigilance is conflicted, with some studies finding decreased vigilance performance in older adults but others finding no effect of age. We sought a better understanding of effects of age on vigilance by assessing neurophysiological change over the course of a vigil in young (aged 18-24) and healthy older (aged 66-77) adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226984/analysis-of-causal-cardio-postural-interaction-under-orthostatic-stress-using-convergent-cross-mapping
#3
Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Andrew Blaber, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Andrew Blaber, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Andrew Blaber
Knowledge of a cause-and-effect relationship between different physiological systems is helpful in predicting their performance under perturbations, such as orthostatic challenge. The causal coupling between representative signals of the cardiovascular and postural systems under orthostatic challenge remains unknown. Understanding the causal relationship between these two systems is critical, as their interplay is vital to maintain stable upright posture of the human body during quiet standing. In this research, convergent cross mapping (CCM) method was applied to study the causal relationship between the cardiovascular and postural systems previously shown to have coherent activity during quiet standing...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226751/deep-neural-ensemble-for-retinal-vessel-segmentation-in-fundus-images-towards-achieving-label-free-angiography
#4
A Lahiri, Abhijit Guha Roy, Debdoot Sheet, Prabir Kumar Biswas, A Lahiri, Abhijit Guha Roy, Debdoot Sheet, Prabir Kumar Biswas, Debdoot Sheet, Prabir Kumar Biswas, A Lahiri
Automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels in label-free fundus images entails a pivotal role in computed aided diagnosis of ophthalmic pathologies, viz., diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The challenge remains active in medical image analysis research due to varied distribution of blood vessels, which manifest variations in their dimensions of physical appearance against a noisy background. In this paper we formulate the segmentation challenge as a classification task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226398/dysregulation-of-interleukin-5-expression-in-familial-eosinophilia
#5
Senbagavalli Prakash Babu, Yun-Yun K Chen, Sandra Bonne-Annee, Jun Yang, Irina Maric, Timothy G Myers, Thomas B Nutman, Amy D Klion
BACKGROUND: Familial eosinophilia (FE) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presence of lifelong peripheral eosinophilia (>1500/μL). Mapped to chromosome 5q31-q33, the genetic cause of FE is unknown, and prior studies have failed to demonstrate a primary abnormality in the eosinophil lineage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the cells driving the eosinophilia in FE. METHODS: Microarray analysis and real-time PCR were used to examine transcriptional differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in purified cell subsets from affected and unaffected family members belonging to a single large kindred...
February 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225764/cynomolgus-macaques-naturally-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-exhibit-an-overall-mixed-pro-inflammatory-modulated-cytokine-signature-characteristic-of-human-chagas-disease
#6
Danielle Marquete Vitelli-Avelar, Renato Sathler-Avelar, Armanda Moreira Mattoso-Barbosa, Nicolas Gouin, Marcelo Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Leydiane Valério-Dos-Reis, Ronaldo Peres Costa, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Edward J Dick, Gene B Hubbard, Jane F VandeBerg, John L VandeBerg
BACKGROUND: Non-human primates have been shown to be useful models for Chagas disease. We previously reported that natural T. cruzi infection of cynomolgus macaques triggers clinical features and immunophenotypic changes of peripheral blood leukocytes resembling those observed in human Chagas disease. In the present study, we further characterize the cytokine-mediated microenvironment to provide supportive evidence of the utility of cynomolgus macaques as a model for drug development for human Chagas disease...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225482/a-case-report-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-a-patient-receiving-gemcitabine-and-cisplatin
#7
Hannah Cherniawsky, Neesha Merchant, Micheal Sawyer, Maria Ho
RATIONALE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a subacute syndrome causing characteristic neurologic and radiologic findings. PRES is predominantly caused by malignant hypertension though it has been associated with immunosuppressive treatments such as chemotherapy. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe a case of a 58 year old female who developed fluctuant level of consciousness, agitation. DIAGNOSIS: MRI findings were in keeping with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following cycle 6 of palliative gemcitabine and cisplatin therapy for metastatic cholangiocarcinoma...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224046/eighth-international-chorea-acanthocytosis-symposium-summary-of-workshop-discussion-and-action-points
#8
Samuel S Pappas, Juan Bonifacino, Adrian Danek, William T Dauer, Mithu De, Lucia De Franceschi, Gilbert DiPaolo, Robert Fuller, Volker Haucke, Andreas Hermann, Benoit Kornmann, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Johannes Levin, Aaron M Neiman, Dobrila D Rudnicki, Ody Sibon, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Jan J Vonk, Ruth H Walker, Lois S Weisman, Roger L Albin
Chorea-Acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a rare hereditary neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements, red blood cell pathology, and progressive neurodegeneration. Little is understood of the pathogenesis of ChAc and related disorders (collectively Neuroacanthocytosis). The Eighth International Chorea-Acanthocytosis Symposium was held in May 2016 in Ann Arbor, MI, USA, and focused on molecular mechanisms driving ChAc pathophysiology. Accompanying the meeting, members of the neuroacanthocytosis research community and other invited scientists met in a workshop to discuss the current understanding and next steps needed to better understand ChAc pathogenesis...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223486/serum-borne-bioactivity-caused-by-pulmonary-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-induces-neuroinflammation-via-blood-brain-barrier-impairment
#9
Mario J Aragon, Lauren Topper, Christina R Tyler, Bethany Sanchez, Katherine Zychowski, Tamara Young, Guy Herbert, Pamela Hall, Aaron Erdely, Tracy Eye, Lindsey Bishop, Samantha A Saunders, Pretal P Muldoon, Andrew K Ottens, Matthew J Campen
Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) causes indirect systemic inflammation through unknown pathways. MWCNTs translocate only minimally from the lungs into the systemic circulation, suggesting that extrapulmonary toxicity may be caused indirectly by lung-derived factors entering the circulation. To assess a role for MWCNT-induced circulating factors in driving neuroinflammatory outcomes, mice were acutely exposed to MWCNTs (10 or 40 µg/mouse) via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 h after MWCNT exposure, broad disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was observed across the capillary bed with the small molecule fluorescein, concomitant with reactive astrocytosis...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#10
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217126/high-endothelial-venules-and-other-blood-vessels-critical-regulators-of-lymphoid-organ-development-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Ann Ager
The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer's patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216546/bach2-controls-homeostasis-of-eosinophils-by-restricting-the-type-2-helper-function-of-t-cells
#12
Yuki Sato, Hiroki Kato, Risa Ebina-Shibuya, Ari Itoh-Nakadai, Ryuhei Okuyama, Kazuhiko Igarashi
Bach2 is a transcription factor which represses its target genes and plays important roles in the differentiation of B and T lymphoid cells. Bach2-deficient (KO) mice develop severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which is associated with increased numbers of granulocytes and T cells. Bach2 is essential for the regulation of T cells, but its role in the regulation of granulocytes is not clear. Here, we observed increased numbers of eosinophils but not neutrophils in the bone marrow, spleen, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of Bach2 KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215134/drainage-of-pleural-effusion-improves-diaphragmatic-function-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#13
Michele Umbrello, Giovanni Mistraletti, Andrea Galimberti, Ilaria R Piva, Ottavia Cozzi, Paolo Formenti
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion adversely affects the pressuregenerating capacity of the diaphragm. It uncouples the lung and chest wall, which may result in diaphragmatic dysfunction. Information on the effects of effusion drainage on diaphragmatic function is limited, but several studies report relief of dyspnoea after drainage, which was attributed to improved diaphragmatic mechanics, even if this issue was never formally addressed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of drainage of unilateral pleural effusion on diaphragmatic function...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214671/atp-mediated-intrinsic-peroxidase-like-activity-of-fe3o4-based-nanozyme-one-step-detection-of-blood-glucose-at-physiological-ph
#14
N V Srikanth Vallabani, Ajay S Karakoti, Sanjay Singh
Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs), demonstrating peroxidase-like activity has garnered attention in the detection of several biomolecules, therefore, emerged as an excellent nano-biosensing agent. The intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of Fe3O4 NPs at acidic pH is the fundamental action driving the oxidation of substrates like TMB, resulting in a colorimetric product formation used in the detection of biomolecules. Hence, the detection sensitivity essentially depends on the ability of oxidation by Fe3O4 NPs in presence of H2O2...
February 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213888/transfusion-in-critical-care-a-uk-regional-audit-of-current-practice
#15
J O M Plumb, M G Taylor, E Clissold, M P W Grocott, R Gill
A consistent message within critical care publications has been that a restrictive transfusion strategy is non-inferior, and possibly superior, to a liberal strategy for stable, non-bleeding critically ill patients. Translation into clinical practice has, however, been slow. Here, we describe the degree of adherence to UK best practice guidelines in a regional network of nine intensive care units within Wessex. All transfusions given during a 2-month period were included (n = 444). Those given for active bleeding or within 24 h of major surgery, trauma or gastrointestinal bleeding were excluded (n = 148)...
February 18, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210205/the-atp-gated-p2x7-receptor-as-a-target-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Edward Beamer, Wolfgang Fischer, Tobias Engel
Despite the progress made in the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the biggest challenges that epilepsy presents to drug development have remained unchanged for the last 80 years: finding a treatment with potential for modifying disease progression and reducing the percentage of patients resistant to all pharmacological interventions. The mechanism of action of the majority of AEDs is based on blocking Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) channels, promotion of GABA or inhibition of glutamate signaling. In order for further progress to be made, however, a fuller picture of epilepsy will need to be considered, including changes to blood-brain barrier permeability, synaptic plasticity, network reorganization, and gliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209527/exploring-deformable-particles-in-vascular-targeted-drug-delivery-softer-is-only-sometimes-better
#17
Margaret B Fish, Catherine A Fromen, Genesis Lopez-Cazares, Alexander W Golinski, Timothy F Scott, Reheman Adili, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
The ability of vascular-targeted drug carriers (VTCs) to localize and bind to a targeted, diseased endothelium determines their overall clinical utility. Here, we investigate how particle modulus and size determine adhesion of VTCs to the vascular wall under physiological blood flow conditions. In general, deformable microparticles (MPs) outperformed nanoparticles (NPs) in all experimental conditions tested. Our results indicate that MP modulus enhances particle adhesion in a shear-dependent manner. In low shear human blood flow profiles in vitro, low modulus particles showed favorable adhesion, while at high shear, rigid particles showed superior adhesion...
February 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208064/mitochondrial-genes-are-altered-in-blood-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Katie Lunnon, Aoife Keohane, Ruth Pidsley, Stephen Newhouse, Joanna Riddoch-Contreras, Elisabeth B Thubron, Matthew Devall, Hikka Soininen, Iwona Kłoszewska, Patrizia Mecocci, Magda Tsolaki, Bruno Vellas, Leonard Schalkwyk, Richard Dobson, Afshan N Malik, John Powell, Simon Lovestone, Angela Hodges
Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease in the brain and blood, the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are unknown. Here we have replicated our previous findings demonstrating reduced expression of nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits and subunits required for the translation of mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes in blood from people with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Interestingly this was accompanied by increased expression of some mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS genes, namely those residing closest to the transcription start site of the polycistronic heavy chain mitochondrial transcript (MT-ND1, MT-ND2, MT-ATP6, MT-CO1, MT-CO2, MT-C03) and MT-ND6 transcribed from the light chain...
January 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194407/robust-retinal-blood-vessel-segmentation-based-on-reinforcement-local-descriptions
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Meng Li, Zhenshen Ma, Chao Liu, Guang Zhang, Zhe Han
Retinal blood vessels segmentation plays an important role for retinal image analysis. In this paper, we propose robust retinal blood vessel segmentation method based on reinforcement local descriptions. A novel line set based feature is firstly developed to capture local shape information of vessels by employing the length prior of vessels, which is robust to intensity variety. After that, local intensity feature is calculated for each pixel, and then morphological gradient feature is extracted for enhancing the local edge of smaller vessel...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191928/self-assembling-multidomain-peptide-nanofibers-for-delivery-of-bioactive-molecules-and-tissue-regeneration
#20
Amanda N Moore, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Multidomain peptides (MDPs) are a class of self-assembling peptides that are organized in a β-sheet motif, resulting in a nanofibrous architecture. This structure is stabilized by hydrophobic packing in the fiber core and a hydrogen-bonding network down the fiber long axis. Under easily controllable conditions, regulated by electrostatic interactions between the peptides and the pH and salt composition of the solvent, the nanofiber length can be dramatically extended, resulting in fiber entanglement and hydrogel formation...
February 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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