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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043390/p-nitrophenyl-acetate-esterase-activity-and-cortisol-as-biomarkers-of-metal-pollution-in-blood-of-olive-ridley-turtles-lepidochelys-olivacea
#1
Adriana A Cortés-Gómez, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Mariana Teles, Rafaela Cuenca, Gisela Fuentes-Mascorro, Diego Romero
This study was designed to determine the concentrations of p-nitrophenyl acetate esterase activity (EA) and cortisol in serum of marine Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) from a Mexican Pacific population ("La Escobilla" beach) and to evaluate the possible relationship of inorganic elements with these biomarkers. EA, cortisol, and selected chemical elements (Cd, Pb, Ti, Sr, Se, Al, As, and Zn) were measured in the blood of 44 sea turtles from the Eastern Pacific (Southeast Mexico). Serum EA ranged from 0...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042487/differential-response-of-glioma-stem-cells-to-arsenic-trioxide-therapy-is-regulated-by-mnk1-and-mrna-translation
#2
Jonathan B Bell, Frank Eckerdt, Harshil Dhruv, Darren Finlay, Sen Peng, Seungchan Kim, Barbara Kroczynska, Elspeth Beauchamp, Kristen Alley, Jessica Clymer, Stewart Goldman, Shi-Yuan Cheng, C David James, Ichiro Nakano, Craig Horbinski, Andrew P Mazar, Kristiina Vuori, Priya Kumthekar, Jeffery Raizer, Michael E Berens, Leonidas C Platanias
Mesenchymal (MES) and proneural (PN) are two distinct glioma stem cells (GSCs) populations that drive therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). We screened a panel of 650 small molecules against patient-derived GBM cells to discover compounds targeting specific GBM subtypes. Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a FDA-approved drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier, was identified as a potent PN-specific compound in the initial screen and follow-up validation studies. Furthermore, MES and PN GSCs exhibited differential sensitivity to ATO...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040891/acceptance-lowers-stress-reactivity-dismantling-mindfulness-training-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Emily K Lindsay, Shinzen Young, Joshua M Smyth, Kirk Warren Brown, J David Creswell
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects. METHOD: In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control)...
October 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040257/current-challenges-in-the-management-of-essential-thrombocythemia
#4
Ariel Kleman, Arun K Singavi, Laura C Michaelis
Essential thrombocythemia (ET), an uncommon blood cancer, is one of the classic myeloproliferative neoplasms, a category that also includes polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis. All 3 diseases are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders. Since 2005, when scientists discovered a molecular aberration driving clonal hematopoiesis in polycythemia vera, our understanding of the genomic underpinnings of these conditions has increased rapidly. Over the last decades, primary prevention of thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications has improved the lives of patients with ET, and the ability to characterize the disease by the presence or absence of molecular mutations has lent precision to our prognostic models...
October 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039724/paravascular-spaces-at-the-brain-surface-low-resistance-pathways-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow
#5
Beatrice Bedussi, Mitra Almasian, Judith de Vos, Ed VanBavel, Erik Ntp Bakker
Clearance of waste products from the brain is of vital importance. Recent publications suggest a potential clearance mechanism via paravascular channels around blood vessels. Arterial pulsations might provide the driving force for paravascular flow, but its flow pattern remains poorly characterized. In addition, the relationship between paravascular flow around leptomeningeal vessels and penetrating vessels is unclear. In this study, we determined blood flow and diameter pulsations through a thinned-skull cranial window...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038590/chronic-hepatitis-c-liver-microenvironment-role-of-the-th17-treg-interplay-related-to-fibrogenesis
#6
Daniela Alejandra Rios, Pamela Valva, Paola Cecilia Casciato, Silvia Frias, María Soledad Caldirola, María Isabel Gaillard, Liliana Bezrodnik, Juan Bandi, Omar Galdame, Beatriz Ameigeiras, Diana Krasniansky, Carlos Brodersen, Eduardo Mullen, Elena Noemí De Matteo, María Victoria Preciado
The role of the different lymphocyte populations in liver microenvironment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients is still matter of debate. Since Th17 and Treg have opposite functions, their balance could affect disease progression. The aim was to explore liver microenvironment and its peripheral blood counterpart in adult CHC patients. CD4(+) lymphocytes were predominant in the liver, with high Foxp3(+) but low IL-17A(+) frequency. IL-17A(+) lymphocytes and IL-17A(+)/Foxp3(+) ratio displayed association with advanced fibrosis (p = 0...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038511/gene-delivery-of-hypoxia-inducible-vegf-targeting-collagen-effectively-improves-cardiac-function-after-myocardial-infarction
#7
Jing-Bo Xia, Hai-Yan Wu, Bing-Lin Lai, Li Zheng, Deng-Cheng Zhou, Zao-Shang Chang, Cheng-Zhou Mao, Guang-Hui Liu, Kyu-Sang Park, Hui Zhao, Soo-Ki Kim, Guo-Hua Song, Dong-Qing Cai, Xu-Feng Qi
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays important roles in improvement of cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI). However, the lack of a steerable delivery system of VEGF targeting the infarcted myocardium reduces the therapeutic efficacy and safety. Here, we constructed a series of lentiviral vector systems which could express a fusion protein consisted of a collagen-binding domain (CBD) and hVEGF (CBDhVEGF), under the control of 5HRE-hCMVmp (5HRE), the hypoxia-inducible promoter consists of five copies of the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) and a human cytomegalovirus minimal promoter (hCMVmp)...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038312/dynamic-stroma-reorganization-drives-blood-vessel-dysmorphia-during-glioma-growth
#8
Thomas Mathivet, Claire Bouleti, Matthias Van Woensel, Fabio Stanchi, Tina Verschuere, Li-Kun Phng, Joost Dejaegher, Marly Balcer, Ken Matsumoto, Petya B Georgieva, Jochen Belmans, Raf Sciot, Christian Stockmann, Massimiliano Mazzone, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Holger Gerhardt
Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages...
October 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038237/the-gain-of-function-integrin-%C3%AE-3-pro33-variant-alters-the-serotonin-system-in-the-mouse-brain
#9
Michael R Dohn, Christopher G Kooker, Lisa Bastarache, Tammy Jessen, Capria Rinaldi, Seth Varney, Matthew D Mazalouskas, Hope Pan, Kendra H Oliver, Digna R Velez Edwards, James S Sutcliffe, Joshua C Denny, Ana M D Carneiro
Engagement of integrins by the extracellular matrix initiates signaling cascades that drive a variety of cellular functions, including neuronal migration and axonal pathfinding in the brain. Multiple lines of evidence link the ITGB3 gene encoding the integrin β3 subunit with the serotonin (5-HT) system, likely via its modulation of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). The ITGB3 coding polymorphism Leu33Pro (rs5918, Pl(A2)) produces hyperactive αvβ3 receptors that influence whole blood 5-HT levels and may influence risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034234/interleukin-13-in-asthma-and-other-eosinophilic-disorders
#10
Emma Doran, Fang Cai, Cécile T J Holweg, Kit Wong, Jochen Brumm, Joseph R Arron
Asthma is characterized by episodic, reversible airflow obstruction associated with variable levels of inflammation. Over the past several decades, there has been an increasing appreciation that the clinical presentation of asthma comprises a diverse set of underlying pathologies. Rather than being viewed as a single disease entity, asthma is now thought of as a clinical syndrome with the involvement of multiple pathological mechanisms. While it is appreciated that eosinophilia is present in only a subset of patients, it remains a key feature of asthma and other eosinophilic disorders such as atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028303/neutrophil-particle-interactions-in-blood-circulation-drive-particle-clearance-and-alter-neutrophil-responses-in-acute-inflammation
#11
Catherine A Fromen, William J Kelley, Margaret B Fish, Reheman Adili, Jeffery Noble, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
Although nano- and microparticle therapeutics have been studied for a range of drug delivery applications, the presence of these particles in blood flow may have considerable and understudied consequences to circulating leukocytes, especially neutrophils, which are the largest human leukocyte population. The objective of this work was to establish if particulate drug carriers in circulation interfere with normal neutrophil adhesion and migration. Circulating blood neutrophils in vivo were found to be capable of rapidly binding and sequestering injected carboxylate-modified particles of both 2 µm and 0...
October 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022837/critical-parameters-for-particle-based-pulmonary-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics
#12
Ali Dabbagh, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Chai Hong Yeong, Tin Wui Wong, Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman
Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics through the respiratory system is a potential approach to improve drug accumulation in the lung tumor, while decreasing their negative side effects. However, elimination by the pulmonary clearance mechanisms, including the mucociliary transport system, and ingestion by the alveolar macrophages, rapid absorption into the blood, enzymatic degradation, and low control over the deposition rate and location remain the main complications for achieving an effective pulmonary drug delivery...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020107/diacetylenic-lipids-in-the-design-of-stable-lipopolymers-able-to-complex-and-protect-plasmid-dna
#13
C Facundo Temprana, M Jimena Prieto, Daniela E Igartúa, A Lis Femia, M Silvia Amor, Silvia Del Valle Alonso
Different viral and non-viral vectors have been designed to allow the delivery of nucleic acids in gene therapy. In general, non-viral vectors have been associated with increased safety for in vivo use; however, issues regarding their efficacy, toxicity and stability continue to drive further research. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the polymerizable diacetylenic lipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC) as a strategy to formulate stable cationic lipopolymers in the delivery and protection of plasmid DNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017368/the-burden-of-severe-hypoglycemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jieruo Liu, Rosa Wang, Michael L Ganz, Yurek Paprocki, Doron Schneider, James Weatherall
AIMS: More than 29 million people in the United States have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by a progressive deterioration of glucose control, which eventually requires insulin. Abnormally low levels of blood glucose, a feared side effect of insulin treatment, may cause severe hypoglycemia (SHO), leading to emergency department (ED) admission, hospitalization, and long-term complications; these, in turn, drive up the costs of T2DM. This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence and costs of SHO-related hospitalizations and their additional longer-term impact on patients with T2DM using insulin...
October 11, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016733/endothelial-to-haematopoietic-transition-contributes-to-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Olin D Liang, Eui-Young So, Pamela C Egan, Laura R Goldberg, Jason M Aliotta, Keith Q Wu, Patrycja M Dubielecka, Corey E Ventetuolo, Anthony M Reginato, Peter J Quesenberry, James R Klinger
Aims: The pathogenic mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remain unclear, but involve dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs), dysregulated immunity and inflammation in the lung. We hypothesize that a developmental process called endothelial to haematopoietic transition (EHT) contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We sought to determine the role of EHT in mouse models of PH, to characterize specific cell types involved in this process, and to identify potential therapeutic targets to prevent disease progression...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994702/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-drives-the-transendothelial-migration-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#16
Petra Koudelkova, Victor Costina, Gerhard Weber, Steven Dooley, Peter Findeisen, Peter Winter, Rahul Agarwal, Karin Schlangen, Wolfgang Mikulits
The entry of malignant hepatocytes into blood vessels is a key step in the dissemination and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The identification of molecular mechanisms involved in the transmigration of malignant hepatocytes through the endothelial barrier is of high relevance for therapeutic intervention and metastasis prevention. In this study, we employed a model of hepatocellular transmigration that mimics vascular invasion using hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and malignant hepatocytes evincing a mesenchymal-like, invasive phenotype by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994182/traffic-congestion-and-blood-pressure-elevation-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study-in-lebanon
#17
Patrick Bou Samra, Paul El Tomb, Mohammad Hosni, Ahmad Kassem, Robin Rizk, Sami Shayya, Sarah Assaad
This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993728/age-drives-distortion-of-brain-metabolic-vascular-and-cognitive-functions-and-the-gut-microbiome
#18
Jared D Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J Green, George Chlipala, Robert P Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M S Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin
Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987639/mismatch-between-suspected-pyelonephritis-and-microbiological-diagnosis-a-cohort-study-from-a-uk-teaching-hospital
#19
Laura Shallcross, Kate Gaskell, Andrew Fox-Lewis, Malin Bergstrom, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Urinary tract infection (UTI) syndromes are a common reason for empirical antibiotic prescribing in the Emergency Department (ED). We investigated the role of microbiological culture and urinalysis in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis by extracting data on 105 patients with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis at a London teaching hospital. 96/102 patients were treated empirically with intravenous antibiotics but only 55/100 patients who were sampled had microbiological evidence of infection in urine and/or blood...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983872/pearls-and-pitfalls-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-the-multimodal-evaluation-of-uveitis
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Pichi, David Sarraf, Mariachiara Morara, Shahana Mazumdar, Piergiorgio Neri, Vishali Gupta
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) employs a novel imaging algorithm that detects the amplitude or phase decorrelation of blood cell movement. It thus provides a flow map with depth-resolved visualization of the various vascular layers in the posterior pole of the eye including the retina capillary plexus and the choroid. In the past 3 years, the number of research papers on the subject of OCTA in retinal diseases has grown exponentially including important applications in the field of uveitis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
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