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hcv clearance

Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Claudia Pinacchio, Maura Statzu, Arnolfo Petruzziello, Vincenzo Vullo
Introduction: Globally, between 64 and 103 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), with more than 4.6 million people in the United States and is associated with more than 15.000 deaths annually. Chronic infection can result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Explanation: Epidemiological studies have indicated that persistent infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly through chronic inflammation, cell deaths, and proliferation...
2018: Open Virology Journal
John L M Law, Michael Logan, Jason Wong, Juthika Kundu, Darren Hockman, Amir Landi, Chao Chen, Kevin Crawford, Mark Wininger, Janelle Johnson, Catalina Mesa Prince, Elzbieta Dudek, Ninad Mehta, D Lorne Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
Current evidence supports a protective role for virus neutralizing antibodies in immunity against HCV infection. Many cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been identified. These antibodies have been shown to protect or clear infection in animal models. Previous clinical trials have shown a gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce antibodies that neutralize the in vitro infectivity of all the major HCVcc genotypes around the world. However, cross-neutralization appeared to favour certain genotypes with significant but lower neutralization against others...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Pil Soo Sung, Eun Byul Lee, Dong Jun Park, Angelo Lozada, Jeong Won Jang, Si Hyun Bae, Jong Young Choi, Seung Kew Yoon
Background/Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs). It is well known that the gene expression profile of PBMC is similar to that of the liver. The present study explored the dynamic gene expression profile of PBMCs collected from HCV-infected patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Methods: A prospective cohort comprising 27 patients under DAA therapy was formed...
March 12, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Carmina Pallarés, Ângela Carvalho-Gomes, Vanessa Hontangas, Isabel Conde, Tomasso Di Maira, Victoria Aguilera, Salvador Benlloch, Marina Berenguer, F Xavier López-Labrador
BACKGROUND: A reliable population screening strategy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be based in easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) tests for HCV antibodies, but validation data is needed before their potential widespread use in primary care or outreach practice. Besides, the sensitivity of these POC tests in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced viral clearance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of a non-invasive POC anti-HCV test (OraQuick HCV rapid test) in oral mucosal transudate (OMT) and fingerstick blood from patients with known anti-HCV serostatus and with or without active viremia (after treatment-induced clearance)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ke-Qin Hu, Wei Cui
BACKGROUND: Our recent study indicated the possible presence of detectable hepatitis C virus antigens (HCV-Ags) after denaturation of sera with resolved HCV (R-HCV) infection. The present study determined and characterized persistent HCV-Ags-specific immune complexes (ICs) in these patients. METHODS: Sixty-eight sera with R-HCV and 34 with viremic HCV (V-HCV) infection were tested for free and IC-bound HCV-Ags using HCV-Ags enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the presence of HCV-Ags-specific ICs by immunoprecipitation and Western blot (IP-WB), HCV ICs containing HCV virions using IP and HCV RNA RT-PCR, and correlation of HCV ICs with clinical presentation in these patients...
March 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Giuliano Ramadori, Patrizia Bosio, Federico Moriconi, Ihtzaz A Malik
BACKGROUND: After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recurrent HCC mostly develops within 2 years. All cases of de novo HCC described so far occurred later than 2 years after OLT. Prevention of post-transplantation HCC has usually been tried to achieve by curing or controlling recurrent liver disease. This has been rationale for treatment with interferon (IFN)/ribavirin of HCV-recurrence in patients after OLT, transplanted for advanced HCV-induced liver disease and/or HCC...
March 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Salvatore Petta, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, Francesca Rini, Rosalia Caldarella, Vincenza Calvaruso, Calogero Cammà, Marcello Ciaccio, Vito Di Marco, Stefania Grimaudo, Anna Licata, Aldo Marrone, Riccardo Nevola, Rosaria Maria Pipitone, Antonio Pinto, Luca Rinaldi, Daniele Torres, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Luca Valenti, Silvia Fargion, Antonio Craxì
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies suggest an association between HCV infection and cardiovascular damage, including carotid atherosclerosis, with a possible effect of HCV clearance on cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to examine whether HCV eradication by direct antiviral agents (DAA) improves carotid atherosclerosis in HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis/compensated cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-two consecutive HCV patients with advanced fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis were evaluated by virological, anthropometric and metabolic measurements...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Norio Akuta, Joji Toyota, Yoshiyasu Karino, Fusao Ikeda, Akio Ido, Katsuaki Tanaka, Koichi Takaguchi, Atsushi Naganuma, Eiichi Tomita, Kazuaki Chayama, Shigetoshi Fujiyama, Yukiko Inada, Hitoshi Yoshiji, Hideaki Watanabe, Hiroki Ishikawa, Fiona McPhee, Stephanie Noviello, Hiromitsu Kumada
BACKGROUND: In the UNITY-3 study, 96% sustained virologic response (SVR12) rate was observed in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-1 infection treated for 12 weeks with fixed-dose daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir (DCV-TRIO). As HCV clearance may improve liver outcomes, we assessed hepatic fibrosis and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a hepatocellular carcinoma risk marker, pre- and post-treatment in UNITY-3. METHODS: Treatment-naive or interferon-experienced UNITY-3 patients with HCV GT-1 who received twice-daily DCV-TRIO were assessed for fibrosis [FibroTest; FibroScan; fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio index] and AFP at baseline and Weeks 4 (FIB-4 only), 12 or 24 post-treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Natalia Echeverría, Daniela Chiodi, Pablo López, Adriana Sanchez Ciceron, Jenniffer Angulo, Marcelo López-Lastra, Paola Silvera, Adrian Canavesi, Carla Bianchi, Valentina Colistro, Juan Cristina, Nelia Hernandez, Pilar Moreno
BACKGROUND: Host single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the interleukin 28B (IL28B) locus are associated with sustained virological response to antiviral therapy and with spontaneous Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) clearance. Prevalence of these SNPs varies depending on ethnicity. The impact of IL28B SNPs in HCV-infected patients is currently unknown in Uruguay. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the distribution of polymorphisms in the IL28B gene (rs12979860 and rs8099917) among HCV-infected patients and healthy individuals in Uruguay and thus assess their possible association with the establishment of HCV infection...
March 2, 2018: Virology Journal
Tatiane Assone, Tatiana M Kanashiro, Maira P M Baldassin, Arthur Paiva, Michel Haziot, Jerusa Smid, Augusto Penalva de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto M Fonseca, Philip J Norris, Jorge Casseb
BACKGROUND: Infection with HTLV-1 can be associated with myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other inflammatory diseases. Lymphocytes from about half of HTLV-1-infected subjects spontaneously proliferate in vitro, and how this phenomenon relates to symptomatic disease and viral burden is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate T-cell proliferation in vitro among patients co-infected with HTLV-1/HCV/HIV-1. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 610 HTLV-infected patients of the HTLV outpatient clinic from Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emilio Ribas" in São Paulo, 273 agreed to participate: 72 had HAM/TSP (excluded from this analysis) and 201 were asymptomatic, a classification performed during a regular neurological appointment...
February 27, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
K Deterding, M P Manns, H Wedemeyer
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) has changed dramatically since the approval of the direct-acting antivirals (DAA). Depending on the HCV genotype and the stage of liver disease, sustained HCV clearance can be achieved in more than 95% of patients with a treatment duration of 8-12 weeks in most of the cases. The selection and combination of the drugs depends on previous antivirals therapies, the stage of liver fibrosis, HCV genotype and subtype, viral load at baseline, and renal function. Nowadays, potent antiviral therapy with minimal side effects can be offered to almost every patient...
March 1, 2018: Der Internist
James A Hutchinson, Kilian Weigand, Akinbami Adenugba, Katharina Kronenberg, Jan Haarer, Florian Zeman, Paloma Riquelme, Matthias Hornung, Norbert Ahrens, Hans J Schlitt, Edward K Geissler, Jens M Werner
Recent introduction of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment has revolutionized care of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Regrettably, the high cost of DAA treatment is burdensome for healthcare systems and may be prohibitive for some patients who would otherwise benefit. Understanding how patient-related factors influence individual responses to DAA treatment may lead to more efficient prescribing. In this observational study, patients with chronic HCV infection were comprehensively monitored by flow cytometry to identify pretreatment immunological variables that predicted HCV RNA negativity within 4 weeks of commencing DAA treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Niels Steinebrunner, Kerstin Stein, Catharina Sandig, Thomas Bruckner, Wolfgang Stremmel, Anita Pathil
AIM: To define predictors of functional benefit of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We analysed a cohort of 199 patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 infection involving previously treated and untreated patients with compensated (76%) and decompensated (24%) liver cirrhosis at two tertiary centres in Germany. Patients were included with treatment initiation between February 2014 and August 2016...
February 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Long V Pham, Santseharay Ramirez, Judith M Gottwein, Ulrik Fahnøe, Yi-Ping Li, Jannie Pedersen, Jens Bukh
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 are prevalent in Asia, and millions of people require treatment with direct-acting antiviral regimens, such as NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir combined with the NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir. We developed infectious cell culture models of HCV genotype 6a infection to study the effects of these inhibitors and the development of resistance. METHODS: The consensus sequences of prototype strains HK2 (MG717925) and HK6a (MG717928), originating from serum of patients with chronic HCV infection, were determined by Sanger sequencing of genomes amplified by reverse transcription-PCR...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
Zhengang Shan, Jieting Huang, Qiao Liao, Ke Huang, Min Wang, Ru Xu, Xi Tang, Weiyun Zhang, Kenrad Nelson, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li, Xia Rong
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are critical components in innate immune response to viral infection. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in regulating the balance of activation or inhibitory function of NK cells. However, the association of KIRs with the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains unclear in the Chinese population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 407 HCV-seropositive voluntary blood donors were recruited, including 203 with spontaneous viral clearance and 204 with chronic infection...
February 15, 2018: Transfusion
Asad Zia, Muhammad Ali, Hafsa Aziz, Muhammad Zia, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Abida Raza
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 million people in Pakistan are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most patients develop chronic hepatitis, with rare cases of spontaneous clearance. However, little is known about multidrug resistant viral variants in Pakistan. FINDINGS: This case study describes a 47-year-old male diagnosed with chronic HCV genotype 3a infection in 2003. After an initial diagnosis of viral infection, the patient remained treatment naïve for 5 years...
February 11, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Vincenza Calvaruso, Salvatore Petta, Antonio Craxì
The elimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been made possible through the availability of new antiviral drugs which may now be administered to all patients with HCV infection, even those with decompensated cirrhosis. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to reduce the incidence of chronic hepatitis infection from the current 6-10 million to 0.9 million cases of chronic infections by 2030, and annual deaths from 1.4 million to fewer than 0.5 million. Achieving these targets will require full implementation of epidemiological knowledge of HCV infection, screening and testing practices and strategies to link HCV patients to care...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Stacey B Prenner, Laura Kulik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight the current data for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) awaiting orthotopic liver transplant and incorporation of various factors to decide the optimal time to initiate HCV therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Viral eradication on the waiting list has been found to lead to significant clinical improvement in approximately 20% of HCV-positive patients. However, there have been concerns raised for direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in patients listed with HCC...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Yucel Aydin, Animesh Chatterjee, Partha K Chandra, Srinivas Chava, Weina Chen, Anamika Tandon, Asha Dash, Milad Chedid, Martin W Moehlen, Frederic Regenstein, Luis A Balart, Ari Cohen, Hua Lu, Tong Wu, Srikanta Dash
The mechanism why hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) does not eliminate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with advanced cirrhosis is unclear. Many viral and bacterial infections degrade p53 in favor of cell survival to adapt an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response. In this study, we examined whether HCV clearance by interferon-alpha or DAAs normalizes the ER stress and restores the expression of p53 tumor suppressor in cell culture. We found that HCV infection induces chronic ER stress and unfolded protein response in untransformed primary human hepatocytes...
May 2017: Hepatology Communications
Dan Yan Zhu, Xiao Zhao Deng, Yu Meng Zhu, Guo Tao Li, Guo Qiang Zhang, Ling Ju Wang, Jing Hai Zhang, Wen Xiao, Zhen Xian Zhou, Wei Liang Ding
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The outcomes of both spontaneous HCV clearance and response to therapy depend on both viral and host factors. To investigate the influence of polymorphisms of IL-28B rs12979860 and TBX21 rs17250932, rs4794067 as well as viral factors (HCV genotype, F protein) on the outcome of HCV infection, we genotyped 565 patients with chronic HCV infection, 191 patients spontaneously resolved from HCV infection, 359 healthy controls and 383 treatment-naïve CHC patients with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV)...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Virology
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