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hcv clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225833/influence-of-hla-class-i-hla-class-ii-and-kirs-on-vertical-transmission-and-chronicity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-children
#1
A Ruiz-Extremera, E J Pavón-Castillero, M Florido, P Muñoz de Rueda, J A Muñoz-Gámez, J Casado, A Carazo, R Quiles, S M Jiménez-Ruiz, A Gila, J D Luna, J León, J Salmerón
BACKGROUND & AIM: There is evidence that maternal viral load of HCV during delivery influences the risk for Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), but this does not explain all cases. We study the role of the immunogenetic profile (HLA, KIRs and KIR-ligand binding) of mothers and children in HCV-MTCT and in chronicity in the children. METHODOLOGY: 79 HCV-RNA (+) mothers and their 98 children were included. 24 children were infected, becoming chronic in 8 cases and clearing in 16...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211910/link-between-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance
#2
Ming-Ling Chang, Yu-Sheng Lin, Li-Heng Pao, Hsin-Chih Huang, Cheng-Tang Chiu
The pathophysiological implications of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HCV infection remain obscure. This prospective study evaluated 669 HCV patients, of whom 536 had completed a course of anti-HCV therapy and had pre-, peri- and post-therapy measurements of various profiles, including PAI-1 levels. Multivariate analysis demonstrated, before anti-HCV-therapy, platelet count and PAI-1-rs1799889 genotype were associated with PAI-1 levels. Among patients with a sustained virological response (SVR, n = 445), platelet count was associated with PAI-1 level at 24 weeks post-therapy...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193657/preclinical-pharmacokinetics-and-first-in-human-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-velpatasvir-a-pangenotypic-hcv-ns5a-inhibitor-in-healthy-subjects
#3
Erik Mogalian, Polina German, Brian P Kearney, Cheng Yong Yang, Diana Brainard, John Link, John McNally, LingLing Han, John Ling, Anita Mathias
Preclinical characterization of velpatasvir (VEL; GS-5816), an inhibitor of HCV NS5A protein, demonstrated favourable in vitro and in vivo properties, including potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 to 6 replicon, good metabolic stability, low systemic clearance, and adequate bioavailability and physicochemical properties to warrant clinical evaluation. The Phase 1 (first-in-human) study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of VEL in healthy human subjects following administration of single and multiple (7) once-daily ascending doses and of VEL in the presence and absence of food...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193102/identification-of-predictors-for-treatment-failure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#4
Jeffrey W Jansen, Gillian M Powderly, Travis W Linneman
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187979/hcv-clearance-by-direct-antiviral-therapy-and-occurrence-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-true-or-false-game
#5
EDITORIAL
Francesco Paolo Russo, Savino Bruno, Fabio Farinati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186161/genetic-variants-in-interferon-%C3%AE-4-influences-hcv-clearance-in-chinese-han-population
#6
Peng Huang, Yinan Yao, Ming Yue, Ting Tian, Hongbo Chen, Mingzhu Chen, Jie Wang, Yun Zhang, Rongbin Yu
Recent many studies indicated a novel dinucleotide variant in ss469415590 (TT vs. ΔG) of interferon-λ 4 (IFNL4) gene strongly associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. To evaluate the impact and clinical usefulness of IFNL4 ss469415590 genotype on predicting both spontaneous HCV clearance and response to therapy in Chinese population, we genotyped 795 chronic HCV carriers, 460 subjects with HCV natural clearance and 362 patients with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant genotypes significantly decreased host HCV clearance, both spontaneous (dominant model: OR = 0...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185946/decreased-tacrolimus-plasma-concentrations-during-hcv-therapy-a-drug-drug-interaction-or-is-there-an-alternative-explanation
#7
E J Smolders, S Pape, C T M M de Kanter, A P van den Berg, J P H Drenth, D M Burger
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause severe liver cirrhosis, for which liver transplantation is the only therapy. To prevent organ rejection, transplanted patients are treated with immunosuppressive agents. We describe two transplanted patients treated with tacrolimus who were simultaneously treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for their chronic HCV infection. No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were expected between tacrolimus and the selected DAAs. However, in both patients, tacrolimus plasma concentrations decreased during HCV treatment...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185943/hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-and-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-htlv-1-coinfection-impact-on-liver-disease-virological-markers-and-neurological-outcome
#8
Otávio M Espíndola, Alexandre G Vizzoni, Elisabeth Lampe, Maria José Andrada-Serpa, Abelardo Q C Araújo, Ana Claudia C Leite
OBJECTIVES: HTLV-1 infection is associated with neurological abnormalities, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). HCV infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and causes PN in approximately 9% of patients. Because the interplay between these potentially neuropathogenic viruses in a same individual is still poorly understood we evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes in coinfected patients and compared them with controls...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174739/increased-mitochondrial-genetic-diversity-in-persons-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus
#9
David S Campo, Ha-Jung Roh, Brian L Pearlman, Daniel S Fierer, Sumathi Ramachandran, Gilberto Vaughan, Andrew Hinds, Zoya Dimitrova, Pavel Skums, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The host genetic environment contributes significantly to the outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and therapy response, but little is known about any effects of HCV infection on the host beyond any changes related to adaptive immune responses. HCV persistence is associated strongly with mitochondrial dysfunction, with liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic diversity linked to disease progression. METHODS: We evaluated the genetic diversity of 2 mtDNA genomic regions (hypervariable segments 1 and 2) obtained from sera of 116 persons using next-generation sequencing...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171829/prevalence-of-false-positive-hepatitis-c-antibody-results-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-study-nhanes-2007-2012
#10
Anne C Moorman, Jan Drobenuic, Saleem Kamili
BACKGROUND: Screening large numbers of persons in a population with low prevalence of a disease leads to many false-positives. However, populations with low HCV prevalence may sometimes be recommended for HCV screening, for instance patients or healthcare workers after a possible healthcare-related exposure. OBJECTIVES: We determined the percentage of true vs false-positive HCV antibody (anti-HCV) test results among 2007-2012 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES), a nationally representative study with approximately 1% HCV infection prevalence, much lower than in groups typically recommended for HCV screening...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170421/comprehensive-mapping-of-antigen-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-with-or-without-spontaneous-viral-clearance
#11
Chao Zhang, Rui Hua, Yuanyuan Cui, Shasha Wang, Hongqing Yan, Dongmei Li, Yonghong Zhang, Zhengkun Tu, Pei Hao, Xinyue Chen, Jin Zhong, Junqi Niu, Xia Jin
Elucidating protective immunity against HCV is important for the development of a preventative vaccine. We hypothesize that spontaneous resolution of acute HCV infection offers clue to protective immune responses, and that DAA therapy affects the quality and quantity of HCV-specific T cell responses. To test these hypotheses, we performed T cell epitope mapping in 111 HCV-infected individuals including 61 chronically HCV-1b (CHC-1b) infected, 24 chronically HCV-2a (CHC-2a) infected and 26 spontaneously recovered (SPR) patients with 376 overlapping peptides covering the entire HCV polyprotein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164633/resistant-effect-of-hla-drb1-09-on-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-identified-by-a-new-cross-validation-method
#12
Zhen Wang, Dong Yang, Meng Cai, Hui Liu
BACKGROUND: The association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) with HCV persistence or clearance has not been clarified. We aim to investigate the associations of HLA with HCV infection based on a new cross-validation method. METHODS: DNA samples from HCV infected patients were collected at random. Sequence based typing (PCR-SBT) was used to detect HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles. The albumin (ALB) levels were detected and compared between the patients carrying the gene and the patients not carrying the gene...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164540/level-of-human-antibodies-targeting-hcv-e1-e2-peptides-and-spontaneous-clearance-of-hcv-in-blood-donors
#13
Ashraf A Tabll, Eman A Salem, Yasmine S El-Abd, Reem M El-Shenawy, Amr Saad, Sanaa O Abdallah, Reham M Dawood, Mostafa K El-Awady
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem worldwide particularly in Egypt. The humoral immune response has an important function in the control of HCV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of neutralizing antibodies in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) clearance in infected individuals. METHODS: This study was carried out on apparently healthy blood donors (n = 200). Detectable HCV antibodies were assessed by commercial ELISA and specific human immunoglobulins targeting peptides derived from HCV E1/E2 glycoproteins were measured in donors' blood using an in house optimized ELISA...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159934/risk-of-hepatitis-c-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-between-subjects-with-spontaneous-and-treatment-induced-viral-clearance
#14
Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ching-I Huang, Yu-Ju Lin, Pei-Chien Tsai, Zu-Yau Lin, Soa-Yu Chan, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Hwai-I Yang, Jee-Fu Huang, Sheng-Nan Lu, Chia-Yen Dai, Chin-Lan Jen, Yong Yuan, Gilbert L'Italien, Li-Yu Wang, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang, Chien-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Both spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and the achievement of sustained virological response (SVR) by anti-viral therapy greatly reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current study aimed to compare the risk of HCC between the two patient groupsMethods: A total of 313 subjects with spontaneous HCV clearance (SC) and 564 age- and sex-matched patients in the treatment-induced SVR group were enrolled for analysis. RESULTS: Nineteen (2...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159835/mir-135a-5p-mediated-downregulation-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-receptor-delta-is-a-candidate-driver-of-hcv-associated-hepatocarcinogenesis
#15
Nicolaas Van Renne, Armando Andres Roca Suarez, Francois H T Duong, Claire Gondeau, Diego Calabrese, Nelly Fontaine, Amina Ababsa, Simonetta Bandiera, Tom Croonenborghs, Nathalie Pochet, Vito De Blasi, Patrick Pessaux, Tullio Piardi, Daniele Sommacale, Atsushi Ono, Kazuaki Chayama, Masashi Fujita, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Yujin Hoshida, Mirjam B Zeisel, Markus H Heim, Thomas F Baumert, Joachim Lupberger
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HCV infection is a leading risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, even after viral clearance, HCC risk remains elevated. HCV perturbs host cell signalling to maintain infection, and derailed signalling circuitry is a key driver of carcinogenesis. Since protein phosphatases are regulators of signalling events, we aimed to identify phosphatases that respond to HCV infection with relevance for hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: We assessed mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in primary human hepatocytes, liver biopsies and resections of patients with HCC, and analysed microarray and RNA-seq data from paired liver biopsies of patients with HCC...
February 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146579/selective-expansion-of-high-functional-avidity-memory-cd8-t-cell-clonotypes-during-hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-and-clearance
#16
Mohamed S Abdel-Hakeem, Maude Boisvert, Julie Bruneau, Hugo Soudeyns, Naglaa H Shoukry
The dynamics of the memory CD8 T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire upon virus re-exposure and factors governing the selection of TCR clonotypes conferring protective immunity in real life settings are poorly understood. Here, we examined the dynamics and functionality of the virus-specific memory CD8 TCR repertoire before, during and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection in patients who spontaneously resolved two consecutive infections (SR/SR) and patients who resolved a primary but failed to clear a subsequent infection (SR/CI)...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143559/health-utilities-using-sf-6d-scores-in-japanese-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-treated-with-sofosbuvir-based-regimens-in-clinical-trials
#17
Zobair Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Masao Omata, Masashi Mizokami, Mercedes Walters, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND: Health utilities are preference-based measures for health states which are typically used in economic analyses to estimate quality-adjusted life years. Our aim is to report the standard SF-6D health utility scores in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during treatment with different regimens. METHODS: Japanese patients were enrolled in clinical trials of sofosbuvir (SOF) used in combination with or without ledipasvir (LDV) and/or ribavirin (RBV)...
January 31, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117537/persistent-neuropsychiatric-impairment-in-hcv-patients-despite-clearance-of-the-virus
#18
M Dirks, H Pflugrad, K Haag, H L Tillmann, H Wedemeyer, D Arvanitis, H Hecker, A Tountopoulou, A Goldbecker, H Worthmann, K Weissenborn
One of the most disabling symptoms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is chronic fatigue. While this is accepted for HCV polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive patients, a relationship between HCV infection and chronic fatigue is questioned after successful virus eradication. As fatigue is a subjective criterion, we aimed to evaluate in addition mood alterations and cognitive function in HCV-exposed patients with only mild liver disease and to assess a) possible interrelationships between these factors and health-related quality of life and b) the impact of viremia and former interferon treatment...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112593/oral-combination-vaccine-comprising-bifidobacterium-displaying-hepatitis-c-virus-nonstructural-protein-3-and-interferon-%C3%AE-induces-strong-cellular-immunity-specific-to-nonstructural-protein-3-in-mice
#19
Koichi Kitagawa, Chika Omoto, Tsugumi Oda, Ayame Araki, Hiroki Saito, Katsumi Shigemura, Takane Katayama, Hak Hotta, Toshiro Shirakawa
We previously generated an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine using Bifidobacterium displaying the HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) polypeptide. NS3-specific cellular immunity is important for viral clearance and recovery from HCV infection. In this study, we enhanced the cellular immune responses induced by our oral HCV vaccine, Bifidobacterium longum 2165 (B. longum 2165), by combining interferon-α (IFN-α) as an adjuvant with the vaccine in a mouse experimental model. IFN-α is a widely used cytokine meeting the standard of care (SOC) for HCV infection and plays various immunoregulatory roles...
January 23, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104239/cd8-t-cells-of-chronic-hcv-infected-patients-express-multiple-negative-immune-checkpoints-following-stimulation-with-hcv-peptides
#20
Muttiah Barathan, Rosmawati Mohamed, Jamuna Vadivelu, Li Yen Chang, Ramachandran Vignesh, Jayalakshmi Krishnan, Panneer Sigamani, Alireza Saeidi, M Ravishankar Ram, Vijayakumar Velu, Marie Larsson, Esaki M Shankar
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)...
December 16, 2016: Cellular Immunology
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