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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915405/hepatic-immunopathology-during-occult-hepacivirus-re-infection
#1
Cordelia Manickam, Amanda J Martinot, Rhianna A Jones, Valerie Varner, R Keith Reeves
Despite drug advances for Hepatitis C virus (HCV), re-infections remain prevalent in high-risk populations. Unfortunately, the role of preexisting viral immunity and how it modulates re-infection is unclear. GBV-B infection of common marmosets is a useful model to study tissue immune responses in hepacivirus infections, and in this study we re-challenged 4 animals after clearance of primary viremia. Although only low-to-absent viremia was observed following re-challenge, GBV-B viral RNA was detectable in liver, confirming re-infection...
September 12, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903504/spontaneous-viral-load-decline-and-subsequent-clearance-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-in-postpartum-women-correlates-with-favorable-interleukin-28b-gene-allele
#2
Mohamed Hashem, Ravi Jhaveri, Doa'a A Saleh, Sahar A Sharaf, Fatma El-Mougy, Lobna Abdelsalam, Michelle D Shardell, Hesham El-Ghazaly, Samer S El-Kamary
Background: Postpartum hepatitis C viral (HCV) load decline followed by spontaneous clearance has been previously described. Herein we identify predictors for viral decline in a cohort of HCV-infected postpartum women. Methods: Pregnant women at Cairo University were screened for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA, and viremic women were tested for quantitative HCV RNA at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum. Spontaneous clearance was defined as undetectable viremia twice at least 6-months apart...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893653/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ips-cell-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells
#3
Fuminori Sakurai, Takemaru Kunito, Kazuo Takayama, Rina Hashimoto, Masashi Tachibana, Naoya Sakamoto, Takaji Wakita, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. In order to develop effective remedies for hepatitis C, it is important to understand the HCV infection profile and host-HCV interaction. HCV-induced innate immune responses play a crucial role in spontaneous HCV clearance; however, HCV-induced innate immune responses have not been fully evaluated in hepatocytes, partly because there are few in vitro models of HCV-induced innate immunity. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have received much attention as an in vitro model of infection with various pathogens, including HCV...
September 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881052/asunaprevir-and-daclatasvir-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplantation-a-japanese-multicenter-experience
#4
Toru Ikegami, Yoshihide Ueda, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Kohei Ishiyama, Ryoichi Goto, Akihiko Soyama, Kaori Kuramitsu, Masaki Honda, Masahiro Shinoda, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Hideaki Okajima, Yuko Kitagawa, Yukihiro Inomata, Yonson Ku, Susumu Eguchi, Akinobu Taketomi, Hideki Ohdan, Norihiro Kokudo, Mitsuo Shimada, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Shinji Uemoto, Yoshihiko Maehara
The safety and efficacy of an IFN-free regimen using asunaprevir (ASV) and daclatasvir (DCV) for recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation (LT) have not been evaluated in Japan. A multicenter study of LT recipients (n = 74) with recurrent HCV genotype 1b infection treated with ASV-DCV for 24 weeks was performed. Medical history was positive for pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in 40 (54.1%) patients, and for simeprevir (SMV) with Peg-IFN/RBV in 12 (16.2%) patients...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877177/an-in-vitro-diagnostic-certified-point-of-care-single-nucleotide-test-for-il28b-polymorphisms
#5
Darragh Duffy, Estelle Mottez, Shaun Ainsworth, Tan-Phuc Buivan, Aurelie Baudin, Muriel Vray, Ben Reed, Arnaud Fontanet, Alexandra Rohel, Ventzislava Petrov-Sanchez, Laurent Abel, Ioannis Theodorou, Gino Miele, Stanislas Pol, Matthew L Albert
Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been identified as associated with disease or treatment outcome, but the routine implementation of genotyping into actionable medical care remains limited. Point-of-care (PoC) technologies enable rapid and real-time treatment decisions, with great potential for extending molecular diagnostic approaches to settings with limited medical infrastructure (e.g., CLIA certified diagnostic laboratories). With respect to resource-limited settings, there is a need for simple devices to implement biomarker guided treatment strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864951/time-course-of-cellular-hiv-dna-and-low-level-hiv-viremia-in-hiv-hcv%C3%A2-co-infected-patients-whose-hcv-infection-had-been-successfully-treated-with-directly-acting-antivirals
#6
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Monica Basso, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Marzia Franzetti, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Anna Maria Cattelan
This longitudinal study described cellular HIV-DNA changes and their correlation with HIV low-level plasma viremia (LLV) in HIV-HCV co-infected patients on successful antiretroviral and anti-HCV therapy by treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA). Thirty-nine patients were examined prior to the start of DAA (T0), after week 12 (T1) and 24 weeks (T2) of anti-HCV therapy. Cellular PBMC HIV-DNA was analysed as an absolute value and as the percentage of increase or decrease from T0 to T2. Patients were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or LLV in the year before the start of anti-HCV treatment and within the T0-T2 study period...
September 1, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864279/hbv-recurrence-after-hcv-clearance-on-daas-sometimes-they-come-back
#7
EDITORIAL
Vincenza Calvaruso, Antonio Craxì
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856289/recommendations-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-2017
#8
REVIEW
Robert Flisiak, Waldemar Halota, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Jacek Juszczyk, Piotr Małkowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Anna Piekarska, Krzysztof Simon, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
The therapeutic goal which is currently unfrequent but realistic in HBV infected patients is sustained HBsAg clearance. It is preceded by the loss or significant suppression of HBV replication and leads to inhibition of the progression of liver fibrosis, normalization of biochemical indicators of liver damage, reduction in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, prolongation of survival, prevention of HBV infection in the transplanted organ in post-transplant patients, enhancement of the quality of life, inhibition or reversal of extrahepatic changes associated with HBV infection, and halting of the spread of HBV infections...
June 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838464/clearance-of-hepatitis-c-virus-prior-to-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#9
A E Shafii, D D Harris, M Baz
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to be considered a relative contraindication to lung transplantation due to concerns of progression of liver disease with the introduction of immunosuppression. Since the recent introduction of effective antiviral therapy for HCV, new approaches in the management of the HCV-positive recipient are being utilized in liver transplantation to clear HCV pre- and post-transplant. Herein, we report use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for HCV clearance prior to lung transplantation in a patient with usual interstitial pneumonia...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835697/activation-of-perk-nrf2-oncogenic-signaling-promotes-mdm2-mediated-rb-degradation-in-persistently-infected-hcv-culture
#10
Yucel Aydin, Milad Chedid, Srinivas Chava, Donkita Danielle Williams, Shuanghu Liu, Curt H Hagedorn, Suchitra Sumitran-Holgersson, Krzysztof Reiss, Krzysztof Moroz, Hua Lu, Luis A Balart, Srikanta Dash
The mechanism of how chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to such a high rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. We found that the PERK axis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicited prominent nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in 100% of HCV infected hepatocytes. The sustained nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in chronically infected culture induces Mdm2-mediated retinoblastoma protein (Rb) degradation. Silencing PERK and Nrf2 restored Mdm2-mediated Rb degradation, suggesting that sustained activation of PERK/Nrf2 axis creates oncogenic stress in chronically infected HCV culture model...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#11
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815296/autoantibodies-against-rods-and-rings-related-impdh2-in-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-and-daa-therapy-in-a-real-life-cohort
#12
Werner Dammermann, Susanne Polywka, Inga Dettmann, Swantje Mindorf, Lars Komorowski, Malte Wehmeyer, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Winfried Stöcker, Stefan Lüth
Autoantibodies against inosine-5'-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-2 (IMPDH2; "rods and rings" pattern) develop in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients under treatment with peg-interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), an inhibitor of IMPDH2. We investigated the influence of the alternative therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAA)/ribavirin on anti-IMPDH2 autoantibody generation and the use of anti-IMPDH2 development as a marker for therapy outcome (sustained virologic response, SVR). We analyzed a "real life" cohort of 104 unselected CHC genotype 1 (GT1) patients treated with IFN/first-generation DAA/RBV prospectively compared to a historic cohort of 59 IFN/RBV-treated CHC GT1 patients...
August 16, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#13
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810602/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cryoglobulinemia-with-membrano-proliferative-glomerulonephritis-treated-with-prednisolone-and-interferon-a-case-report
#14
Qiao-Yan Guo, Man Wu, Yang-Wei Wang, Guang-Dong Sun
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver-associated morbidity and has an increasing prevalence worldwide. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. However, it is also associated with a wide range of extra-hepatic complications, such as cryoglobulinemia, an immune complex disease associated with cryoglobulin leading to multiple organ damage and, while the major symptom is vasculitis. The present study reported on a-58-year-old woman who was diagnosed with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia with skin, kidney and blood system damage and biopsy-proven cryoglobulinemia membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805329/editorial-good-news-to-patients-with-thalassaemia-hcv-clearance-made-easy-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#15
EDITORIAL
R D'Ambrosio, P Lampertico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805326/editorial-good-news-to-patients-with-thalassaemia-hcv-clearance-made-easy-with-direct-acting-antivirals-authors-reply
#16
EDITORIAL
A Mangia, V Piazzolla, R Santoro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795982/treatment-of-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-genotype-4-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-the-liver-transplant-setting
#17
Faisal Abaalkhail, Hussein Elsiesy, Hany Elbeshbeshy, Mohamed Shawkat, Sarra Yousif, Waheed Ullah, Saleh Alabbad, Ahmed Al-Jedai, Aziza Ajlan, Dieter Broering, Sammy Saab, Mohammed Al Sebayel, Waleed Al-Hamoudi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and the leading indication for liver transplantation. In the Middle East, genotype 4 HCV infection is the most common genotype. However, limited data exists on the treatment of genotype-4 in the liver transplant setting. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in treating HCV genotype-4 infected patients with cirrhosis or postliver transplantation. METHODS: This prospective, single-arm, observational study includes cohort of patients with cirrhosis before liver transplantation (Cohort A) and a cohort of postliver transplantation patients (Cohort B)...
August 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752959/genetic-variations-in-toll-like-receptors-7-and-8-modulate-natural-hepatitis-c-outcomes-and-liver-disease-progression
#18
Fatima-Zohra Fakhir, Mustapha Lkhider, Wafaa Badre, Rhimou Alaoui, Eliane F Meurs, Pascal Pineau, Sayeh Ezzikouri, Soumaya Benjelloun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The natural outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as well as the progression of the liver disease are highly variable and depend primarily on an efficient immune response. As Toll-like receptors 7 (TLR7) and 8 (TLR8) are important effectors of the innate immunity, the present study aims to evaluate the association between TLR7 and TLR8 polymorphisms and the HCV infection outcomes in Moroccan subjects. METHODS: In this case-control study, 643 subjects including 293 mild chronic hepatitis patients, 119 with advanced liver disease (AdLD), 93 with HCV spontaneous clearance and 138 healthy controls were genotyped using TaqMan SNPs assays...
July 28, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741898/development-of-a-new-structural-class-of-broadly-acting-hcv-non-nucleoside-inhibitors-leading-to-the-discovery-of-mk-8876
#19
Casey C McComas, Anandan Palani, Wei Chang, M Katharine Holloway, Charles A Lesburg, Peng Li, Nigel Liverton, Peter T Meinke, David B Olsen, Xuanjia Peng, Richard M Soll, Ajay Ummat, Jie Wu, Jin Wu, Nicolas Zorn, Steven W Ludmerer
Studies directed at developing a broadly acting non-nucleoside inhibitor of HCV NS5B led to the discovery of a novel structural class of 5-aryl benzofurans that simultaneously interact with both the palm I and palm II binding regions. An initial candidate was potent in vitro against HCV GT1a and GT1b replicons, and induced multi-log reductions in HCV viral load when orally dosed to chronic GT1 infected chimpanzees. However, in vitro potency losses against clinically relevant GT1a variants prompted a further effort to develop compounds with sustained potency across a broader array of HCV genotypes and mutants...
September 7, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732143/ifnl4-rs368234815-and-rs117648444-variants-predict-off-treatment-hbsag-seroclearance-in-ifn-treated-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#20
Enrico Galmozzi, Floriana Facchetti, Glenda Grossi, Alessandro Loglio, Mauro Viganò, Giovanna Lunghi, Massimo Colombo, Pietro Lampertico
BACKGROUND & AIM: Robust baseline predictors of interferon (IFN) response in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not currently available. The recently described rs368234815 TT/ΔG dinucleotide and rs117648444 nonsynonymous P70S polymorphisms in IFN lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene, which are strongly associated with response to IFN in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, could be also useful in IFN-treated CHB patients. Here we assessed whether IFNL4 rs368234815 and rs117648444 polymorphisms predict IFN-induced HBsAg clearance in CHB patients...
July 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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