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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339063/viral-and-host-factors-associated-with-outcomes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-review
#1
Zehui Yan, Yuming Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health issue globally. Owing to the progress made in host genetics and HCV molecular virology, emerging data have suggested that the natural course and treatment response in patients with HCV infection are largely determined by complex host‑viral interactions. HCV genotype is the most important viral factor predicting the response to pegylated interferon‑α plus ribavirin therapy. The subtype of HCV genotype 1 is the key viral factor that predicts the efficacy of direct‑acting antiviral therapy...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321272/future-of-liver-disease-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c
#2
REVIEW
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Francesca Mangiola, Cecilia Binda, Maria Assunta Zocco, Massimo Siciliano, Antonio Grieco, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been a global health problem for decades, due to the high number of infected people and to the lack of effective and well-tolerated therapies. In the last 3 years, the approval of new direct acting antivirals characterized by high rates of virological clearance and excellent tolerability has dramatically improved HCV infection curability, especially for patients with advanced liver disease and for liver transplant recipients. Long-term data about the impact of the new direct acting antivirals on liver fibrosis and liver disease-related outcomes are not yet available, due to their recent introduction...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320588/herpes-zoster-reactivation-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-under-treatment-with-directly-acting-antiviral-agents-a-case-series
#3
Mohamed El Kassas, Mohamed Naguib Wifi, Reem Mahdy, Shimaa Afify, Enas Hafez, Yasmeen Abd El Latif, Marwa Ezzat, Adel El Tahan, Naglaa Youssef, Gamal Esmat
We report a series of cutaneous Herpes Zoster (HZ) reactivation cases in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA) agents. Five cases were detected among 2133 treated patients with DAAs at one of the specialized viral hepatitis treatment centers in Egypt. A control group including 2300 age and sex matched HCV patients who were previously treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin did not show any HZ reactivation reports while on treatment. None of cases had an evidence of immunosuppression or a risk factor for HZ reactivation...
March 17, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291241/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia
#4
Joel S Emery, Magdalena Kuczynski, Danie La, Saeed Almarzooqi, Matthew Kowgier, Hemant Shah, David Wong, Harry L A Janssen, Jordan J Feld
OBJECTIVES: Mixed cryoglobulinemia is strongly associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and ranges from being asymptomatic to causing life-threatening vasculitis. In those with symptoms, treatment with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV) reduces mortality. However, few data are available on the safety and efficacy of antiviral therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in the treatment of HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. METHODS: Patients treated for HCV-related cryoglobulinemia with DAA±pegIFN were retrospectively evaluated at a tertiary care center...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288791/efficacy-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-plus-daclatasvir-for-treatment-of-hcv-associated-cryoglobulinemia-vasculitis
#5
David Saadoun, Stanislas Pol, Yasmina Ferfar, Laurent Alric, Christophe Hezode, Si Nafa Si Ahmed, Luc de Saint Martin, Cloé Comarmond, Anne Sophie Bouyer, Lucile Musset, Thierry Poynard, Matthieu Resche Rigon, Patrice Cacoub
Circulating mixed cryoglobulins are detected in 40%-60% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and overt cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas) develops in about 15% of patients. Remission of vasculitis has been associated with viral clearance, but few studies have reported the effectiveness of direct acting antiviral drugs in these patients. We performed open-label, prospective, multi-center study of the effectiveness and tolerance of an all-oral, interferon- and ribavirin-free regimen of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir in patients with HCV-associated CryoVas...
March 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288626/hepatitis-c-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-new-generation-antivirals
#6
REVIEW
Thomas F Baumert, Frank Jühling, Atsushi Ono, Yujin Hoshida
Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Interferon has been the major antiviral treatment, yielding viral clearance in approximately half of patients. New direct-acting antivirals substantially improved the cure rate to above 90%. However, access to therapies remains limited due to the high costs and under-diagnosis of infection in specific subpopulations, e.g., baby boomers, inmates, and injection drug users, and therefore, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is predicted to increase in the next decades even in high-resource countries...
March 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275093/immune-protection-against-reinfection-with-nonprimate-hepacivirus
#7
Stephanie Pfaender, Stephanie Walter, Elena Grabski, Daniel Todt, Janina Bruening, Inés Romero-Brey, Theresa Gather, Richard J P Brown, Kerstin Hahn, Christina Puff, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Florian Hansmann, Alexander Postel, Paul Becher, Volker Thiel, Ulrich Kalinke, Bettina Wagner, Ralf Bartenschlager, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Karsten Feige, Thomas Pietschmann, Jessika M V Cavalleri, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays a restricted host species tropism and only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible to infection. A robust immunocompetent animal model is still lacking, hampering mechanistic analysis of virus pathogenesis, immune control, and prophylactic vaccine development. The closest homolog of HCV is the equine nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV), which shares similar features with HCV and thus represents an animal model to study hepacivirus infections in their natural hosts. We aimed to dissect equine immune responses after experimental NPHV infection and conducted challenge experiments to investigate immune protection against secondary NPHV infections...
March 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267900/augmentation-of-hcv-specific-immunity-and-sustained-virological-response-svr
#8
Shikha Shrivastava, E Wilson, B Poonia, L Tang, A Osinusi, A Kohli, Shyam Kottilil
BACKGROUND: Treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has rapidly evolved into interferon-free directly acting antiviral regimens (DAA) that result in high sustained-virologic-response. DAAs primarily work by suppressing HCV replication and rely less on the immune system than interferon-based therapies. However it is unclear whether the immune system recovers with suppression of HCV replication and contributes to HCV clearance with DAA therapy. We previously demonstrated HCV clearance is associated with increased HCV-specific-immunity in CHCV-GT-1 infected patients during treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)+ribavirin (RBV)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267407/the-evolving-relationship-between-adiponectin-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-hepatitis-c-patients-during-viral-clearance
#9
Ming-Ling Chang, Chia-Jung Kuo, Li-Heng Pao, Chen-Ming Hsu, Cheng-Tang Chiu
BACKGROUND: The evolution of the relationship between adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients during viral clearance is unclear and warrants investigation. METHODS: A prospective study including 747 consecutive chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, of whom 546 had completed a course of anti-HCV therapy and underwent pre-, peri- and post-therapy surveys for anthropomorphic, viral, metabolic and hepatic profiles and adiponectin levels, was conducted in a tertiary care center...
March 7, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263460/asunaprevir-an-hcv-protease-inhibitor-with-preferential-liver-distribution
#10
Timothy Eley, Tushar Garimella, Wenying Li, Richard J Bertz
Asunaprevir is an inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease, demonstrating efficacy in clinical studies in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4, with either peginterferon/ribavirin or combinations of direct-acting antivirals. Because of preferential distribution of asunaprevir to the liver via organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated transport, asunaprevir demonstrates high apparent oral clearance and very low plasma concentrations. Asunaprevir plasma concentrations are markedly increased by single-dose rifampin (an OATP inhibitor) and in subjects with moderate to severe hepatic impairment...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261910/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-hcv-clearance
#11
REVIEW
Emeline Gauthiez, Ines Habfast-Robertson, Sina Rüeger, Zoltan Kutalik, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Berg, Andreas Cerny, Meri Gorgievski, Jacob George, Markus H Heim, Raffaele Malinverni, Darius Moradpour, Beat Müllhaupt, Francesco Negro, David Semela, Nasser Semmo, Jean Villard, Stéphanie Bibert, Pierre-Yves Bochud
BACKGROUND & AIMS: While hepatitis C exemplifies the role of host genetics in infectious diseases outcomes, there is no comprehensive overview of polymorphisms influencing spontaneous and/or treatment-induced HCV clearance. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of host polymorphisms associated with these phenotypes. METHODS: Litterature search was conducted by using combinations of keywords in 3 databases. Studies were reviewed and relevant data systematically extracted for subsequent meta-analyses...
March 6, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247302/an-update-on-the-genetic-polymorphism-of-hla-b-27-with-213-alleles-encompassing-160-subtypes-and-still-counting
#12
REVIEW
Muhammad A Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This publication updates an earlier review on the ever increasing knowledge about genetic polymorphism of HLA-B*27 and discusses its clinical relevance. RECENT FINDINGS: As of January 1, 2017, there are 213 known alleles of HLA-B*27 at nucleotide sequence level, while at the translated protein level, there are 160 known subtypes based on one or more amino acid sequence differences. Some of these subtypes exhibit differential association with ankylosing spondylitis, and there may even be some level of hierarchy in this regard...
February 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225833/influence-of-hla-class-i-hla-class-ii-and-kirs-on-vertical-transmission-and-chronicity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-children
#13
A Ruiz-Extremera, E J Pavón-Castillero, M Florido, P Muñoz de Rueda, J A Muñoz-Gámez, J Casado, A Carazo, R Quiles, S M Jiménez-Ruiz, A Gila, J D Luna, J León, J Salmerón
BACKGROUND & AIM: There is evidence that maternal viral load of HCV during delivery influences the risk for Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), but this does not explain all cases. We study the role of the immunogenetic profile (HLA, KIRs and KIR-ligand binding) of mothers and children in HCV-MTCT and in chronicity in the children. METHODOLOGY: 79 HCV-RNA (+) mothers and their 98 children were included. 24 children were infected, becoming chronic in 8 cases and clearing in 16...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211910/link-between-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance
#14
Ming-Ling Chang, Yu-Sheng Lin, Li-Heng Pao, Hsin-Chih Huang, Cheng-Tang Chiu
The pathophysiological implications of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in HCV infection remain obscure. This prospective study evaluated 669 HCV patients, of whom 536 had completed a course of anti-HCV therapy and had pre-, peri- and post-therapy measurements of various profiles, including PAI-1 levels. Multivariate analysis demonstrated, before anti-HCV-therapy, platelet count and PAI-1-rs1799889 genotype were associated with PAI-1 levels. Among patients with a sustained virological response (SVR, n = 445), platelet count was associated with PAI-1 level at 24 weeks post-therapy...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193657/preclinical-pharmacokinetics-and-first-in-human-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-velpatasvir-a-pangenotypic-hcv-ns5a-inhibitor-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Erik Mogalian, Polina German, Brian P Kearney, Cheng Yong Yang, Diana Brainard, John Link, John McNally, LingLing Han, John Ling, Anita Mathias
Preclinical characterization of velpatasvir (VEL; GS-5816), an inhibitor of HCV NS5A protein, demonstrated favourable in vitro and in vivo properties, including potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 to 6 replicon, good metabolic stability, low systemic clearance, and adequate bioavailability and physicochemical properties to warrant clinical evaluation. The Phase 1 (first-in-human) study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of VEL in healthy human subjects following administration of single and multiple (7) once-daily ascending doses and of VEL in the presence and absence of food...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193102/identification-of-predictors-for-treatment-failure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#16
Jeffrey W Jansen, Gillian M Powderly, Travis W Linneman
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187979/hcv-clearance-by-direct-antiviral-therapy-and-occurrence-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-true-or-false-game
#17
EDITORIAL
Francesco Paolo Russo, Savino Bruno, Fabio Farinati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186161/genetic-variants-in-interferon-%C3%AE-4-influences-hcv-clearance-in-chinese-han-population
#18
Peng Huang, Yinan Yao, Ming Yue, Ting Tian, Hongbo Chen, Mingzhu Chen, Jie Wang, Yun Zhang, Rongbin Yu
Recent many studies indicated a novel dinucleotide variant in ss469415590 (TT vs. ΔG) of interferon-λ 4 (IFNL4) gene strongly associated with hepatitis C virus clearance. To evaluate the impact and clinical usefulness of IFNL4 ss469415590 genotype on predicting both spontaneous HCV clearance and response to therapy in Chinese population, we genotyped 795 chronic HCV carriers, 460 subjects with HCV natural clearance and 362 patients with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG IFN-α/RBV) treatment. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant genotypes significantly decreased host HCV clearance, both spontaneous (dominant model: OR = 0...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185946/decreased-tacrolimus-plasma-concentrations-during-hcv-therapy-a-drug-drug-interaction-or-is-there-an-alternative-explanation
#19
E J Smolders, S Pape, C T M M de Kanter, A P van den Berg, J P H Drenth, D M Burger
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause severe liver cirrhosis, for which liver transplantation is the only therapy. To prevent organ rejection, transplanted patients are treated with immunosuppressive agents. We describe two transplanted patients treated with tacrolimus who were simultaneously treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for their chronic HCV infection. No pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were expected between tacrolimus and the selected DAAs. However, in both patients, tacrolimus plasma concentrations decreased during HCV treatment...
March 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185943/hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-co-infection-impact-on-liver-disease-virological-markers-and-neurological-outcomes
#20
Otávio M Espíndola, Alexandre G Vizzoni, Elisabeth Lampe, Maria José Andrada-Serpa, Abelardo Q C Araújo, Ana Claudia C Leite
OBJECTIVES: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with neurological abnormalities, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and causes PN in approximately 9% of patients. Because the interplay between these potentially neuropathogenic viruses in the same individual is still poorly understood, the clinical and laboratory outcomes of co-infected patients were evaluated and compared with those of controls...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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