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Review of Alzheimer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444280/prevalence-of-dementia-in-mainland-china-hong-kong-and-taiwan-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Yu-Tzu Wu, Gemma-Claire Ali, Maëlenn Guerchet, A Matthew Prina, Kit Yee Chan, Martin Prince, Carol Brayne
Background: There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset. Methods: Twenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011-March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015-February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440986/reconsideration-of-amyloid-hypothesis-and-tau-hypothesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Fuyuki Kametani, Masato Hasegawa
The so-called amyloid hypothesis, that the accumulation and deposition of oligomeric or fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been the mainstream concept underlying AD research for over 20 years. However, all attempts to develop Aβ-targeting drugs to treat AD have ended in failure. Here, we review recent findings indicating that the main factor underlying the development and progression of AD is tau, not Aβ, and we describe the deficiencies of the amyloid hypothesis that have supported the emergence of this idea...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439342/circulatory-levels-of-toxic-metals-aluminum-cadmium-mercury-lead-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-quantitative-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#3
Lin Xu, Wenchao Zhang, Xianchen Liu, Cuili Zhang, Pin Wang, Xiulan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposure to toxic metals has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the circulatory levels of toxic metals in AD patients are not consistent in previous studies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess levels of toxic metals (aluminum, mercury, cadmium, lead) in the circulation (blood, serum/plasma) of AD patients and controls. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were systematically searched to identify studies published up to January 1, 2017...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439247/mutual-relationship-between-tau-and-central-insulin-signalling-consequences-for-ad-and-tauopathies
#4
Maud Gratuze, Aurélie Joly-Amado, Didier Vieau, Luc Buée, David Blum
<br>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by cognitive deficits and neuropathological changes such as Tau lesions and amyloid plaques, but also associated with non-cognitive symptomatology. Metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as alterations in body weight, brain insulin impairments and lower brain glucose metabolism, that often precede clinical diagnosis, have been extensively reported in AD patients. However, the origin of these symptoms and their relation to pathology and cognitive impairments remain misunderstood...
February 13, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439085/idea-intervention-to-prevent-depressive-symptoms-and-promote-well-being-in-early-stage-dementia-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#5
Remco Tuijt, Gill Livingston, Rebecca L Gould, Rebecca Jones, Elisabet Sole Verdaguer, Vasiliki Orgeta
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among people with dementia, impacting quality of life and cognitive and functional decline. Currently, little is known about the acceptability and feasibility of psychological interventions for people with mild dementia, with recent reviews identifying the need for further evidence. Developing and evaluating psychological interventions to prevent and treat these symptoms is, therefore, an important clinical and research priority. This protocol describes a study testing the acceptability and feasibility of a manual-based behavioural activation (BA) intervention for preventing and treating depressive symptoms in people with mild dementia...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438778/gamma-oscillations-in-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-circuit-underlying-memory-and-dementia
#6
REVIEW
Tomoaki Nakazono, Heechul Jun, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Kim N Green, Kei M Igarashi
Gamma oscillations that occur within the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal circuitry play important roles in the formation and retrieval of memory in healthy brains. Recent studies report that gamma oscillations are impaired in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and AD animal models. Here we review the latest advancements in studies of entorhinal-hippocampal gamma oscillations in healthy memory and dementia. This review is especially salient for readers in Alzheimer's research field not familiar with in vivo electrophysiology...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436440/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-statins-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Marta Mejías-Trueba, María Antonia Pérez-Moreno, María Ángeles Fernández-Arche
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Recent studies have assessed the possibility of using statins as treatment for AD. However, their efficacy is not clear. In this study, we collected the most relevant information about the efficacy of statins for the treatment of AD. We conducted a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. We included clinical trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews that analysed the efficacy of statins in AD. We also extracted the characteristics and efficacy results of the studies selected...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#8
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433387/pharmacological-effects-of-scutellarin-an-active-component-of-genus-scutellaria-and-erigeron-a-systematic-review
#9
Sebastian Chledzik, Jakub Strawa, Katarzyna Matuszek, Jolanta Nazaruk
Flavonoid compound scutellarin (Scu) is quite frequently met in the plant kingdom, particularly in the genus Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae). The extract of the herb of Erigeron breviscapus, containing this component in high amount, has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, studies have made great progress on the usefulness of Scu for treating various diseases by testing its mechanism of action. They support the traditional use of Scu rich plant in heart and cerebral ischemia...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432505/the-use-of-eeg-biofeedback-neurofeedback-in-psychiatric-rehabilitation
#10
REVIEW
Renata Markiewcz
The aim of the systematic review was to evaluate the use of EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback in patients treated for mental disorders. The review covered publications analyzing influences and effects of therapy in patients receiving psychiatric treatment based on EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback. Selection of publications was made by searching PubMed and Scopus databases. 328 records concerning applications of the presented method were identified in total, including 84 records for patients diagnosed with mental disorders...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432500/large-animals-as-potential-models-of-human-mental-and-behavioral-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Michał Danek, Janusz Danek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427657/the-evolving-dialogue-of-microglia-and-neurons-in-alzheimer-s-disease-microglia-as-necessary-transducers-of-pathology
#12
REVIEW
E Simon, J Obst, D Gomez-Nicola
The understanding of the contribution of microglial cells to the onset and/or progression chronic neurodegenerative diseases is key to identify disease-modifying therapies, given the strong neuroimmune component of these disorders. In this review, we dissect the different pathways by which microglia can affect, directly or indirectly, neuronal function and dysfunction associated with diseases like Alzheimer's. We here present the rationale for proposing a model to explain the contribution of microglia to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, defining microglial cells as necessary transducers of pathology and ideal targets for intervention...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426395/research-opportunities-in-the-area-of-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-neurocognitive-disorders
#13
(no author information available yet)
The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities for adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, clinicians, and students can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field...
March 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425965/the-small-heat-shock-proteins-especially-hspb4-and-hspb5-are-promising-protectants-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425728/synaptic-plasticity-modulation-by-circulating-peptides-and-metaplasticity-involvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Stéphane Peineau, Kevin Rabiant, Olivier Pierrefiche, Brigitte Potier
Synaptic plasticity is a cellular process involved in learning and memory whose alteration in its two main forms (Long Term Depression (LTD) and Long Term Potentiation (LTP)), is observed in most brain pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In humans, AD is associated at the cellular level with neuropathological lesions composed of extracellular deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein aggregates and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, cellular loss, neuroinflammation and a general brain homeostasis dysregulation...
February 6, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424298/flavonoids-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
Cristina Airoldi, Barbara La Ferla, Giuseppe D'Orazio, Carlotta Ciaramelli, Alessandro Palmioli
Flavonoids are phytochemicals present in almost all terrestrial plants and, as a consequence, in plant-based foods, and thus consumed by humans through the diet. Recent evidences suggest that several flavonoids have positive effects against dementia and Alzheimer's disease, reversing age-related declines in neurocognitive performances. In this review, we provide a general classification of natural and synthetic flavonoids, a description of their physico-chemical properties, in particular their redox properties and stability, and an extensive overview about their biological activities and structure-activity relationship in the field of neurodegenerative diseases...
February 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423384/perspectives-in-lipocalin-2-emerging-biomarker-for-medical-diagnosis-and-prognosis-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Juhyun Song, Oh Yoen Kim
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the lipocalin superfamily was reported to participate in various biological processes including cell migration, cell survival, inflammatory responses, and insulin sensitivity. LCN2 is expressed in the multiple tissues such as kidney, liver, uterus, and bone marrow. The receptors for LCN2 were additionally found in microglia, astrocytes, epithelial cells, and neurons, but the role of LCN2 in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been fully understood yet...
January 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423193/alzheimer-s-disease-hypothesis-and-related-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Xiaoguang Du, Xinyi Wang, Meiyu Geng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause for dementia. There are many hypotheses about AD, including abnormal deposit of amyloid β (Aβ) protein in the extracellular spaces of neurons, formation of twisted fibers of tau proteins inside neurons, cholinergic neuron damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc., and many anti-AD drugs based on these hypotheses have been developed. In this review, we will discuss the existing and emerging hypothesis and related therapies...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422410/tissue-engineering-3d-neurovascular-units-a-biomaterials-and-bioprinting-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Geoffrey Potjewyd, Samuel Moxon, Tao Wang, Marco Domingos, Nigel M Hooper
Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multicellular neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an important interface whose correct functioning is critical to maintain brain health. Tissue engineering is now offering new tools and insights to advance our understanding of NVU function. Here, we review how the use of novel biomaterials to mimic the mechanical and functional cues of the ECM, coupled with precisely layered deposition of the different cells of the NVU through 3D bioprinting, is revolutionising the study of neurovascular function and dysfunction...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422009/oxidation-of-potassium-channels-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Junsheng Yang, Xueni Yan
Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a hallmark of common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). ROS can oxidize macromolecules including DNA, lipids and proteins and cause oxidative damage to the cell. Emerging evidence indicate that potassium channels in the central nervous system (CNS) are no exceptions to these oxidative modifications. In this mini-review, we summarized recent reports on the oxidation of potassium channels in the CNS and the consequently resulted changes in cell functions and viability, with focus on its implications in neurodegenerative diseases...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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