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Review of Alzheimer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339396/modulation-of-a%C3%AE-pp-and-gsk3%C3%AE-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-involvement-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Xin-Jun Liu, Jun Wei, Ying-Hui Shang, Han-Chang Huang, Feng-Xue Lao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementia disease with neuronal loss and synaptic impairment. This impairment is caused, at least partly, by the generation of two main AD hallmarks, namely the hyperphosphorylated tau protein comprising neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques containing amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. The amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) are two main proteins associated with AD and are closely correlated with these hallmarks. Recently, both of the proteins were reported to be modulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and are involved in the pathogenesis of AD...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335462/therapeutic-potentials-of-microalgae-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Tosin A Olasehinde, Ademola O Olaniran, Anthony I Okoh
Current research is geared towards the discovery of new compounds with strong neuroprotective potential and few or no side effects compared to synthetic drugs. This review focuses on the potentials of extracts and biologically active compounds derived from microalgal biomass for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microalgal research has gained much attention recently due to its contribution to the production of renewable fuels and the ability of alga cells to produce several secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polysaccharides...
March 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333077/an-overview-of-the-protective-effects-of-chitosan-and-acetylated-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-neuronal-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Cui Hao, Wei Wang, Shuyao Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Yunliang Guo
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is mainly comprised of a marine invertebrate, consisting of repeating β-1,4 linked N-acetylated glucosamine units, whereas its N-deacetylated product, chitosan, has broad medical applications. Interestingly, chitosan oligosaccharides have therapeutic effects on different types of neuronal disorders, including, but not limited to, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and nerve crush injury. A common link among neuronal disorders is observed at a sub-cellular level, such as atypical protein assemblies and induced neuronal death...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332351/metabolism-centric-overview-of-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Somang Kang, Yong Ho Lee, Jong Eun Lee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia. AD is characterized by the extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal deposits of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, as aging has become a familiar phenomenon around the world, patients with AD are increasing in number. Thus, many researchers are working toward finding effective therapeutics for AD focused on Aβ hypothesis, although there has been no success yet. In this review paper, we suggest that AD is a metabolic disease and that we should focus on metabolites that are affected by metabolic alterations to find effective therapeutics for AD...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332150/dynamic-nature-of-presenilin1-%C3%AE-secretase-implication-for-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Katarzyna Marta Zoltowska, Oksana Berezovska
Presenilin 1 (PS1) is a catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex, responsible for the intramembraneous cleavage of more than 90 type I transmembrane proteins, including Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related amyloid precursor protein (APP). The γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the APP C-terminal membrane stub leads to the production of various amyloid β (Aβ) species. The assembly of Aβ into neurotoxic oligomers, which causes synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration, is influenced by the relative ratio of the longer (Aβ42/43) to shorter Aβ (Aβ40) peptides...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328043/csf-tau-and-the-csf-tau-abeta-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#6
REVIEW
Craig Ritchie, Nadja Smailagic, Anna H Noel-Storr, Obioha Ukoumunne, Emma C Ladds, Steven Martin
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that measurable change in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers occurs years in advance of the onset of clinical symptoms (Beckett 2010). In this review, we aimed to assess the ability of CSF tau biomarkers (t-tau and p-tau) and the CSF tau (t-tau or p-tau)/ABeta ratio to enable the detection of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These biomarkers have been proposed as important in new criteria for Alzheimer's disease dementia that incorporate biomarker abnormalities...
March 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327916/multilayer-modeling-and-analysis-of-human-brain-networks
#7
Manlio De Domenico
Understanding how the human brain is structured, and how its architecture is related to the function, is of paramount importance for a variety of applications, including, but not limited to, new ways to prevent, deal with and cure brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, and psychiatric disorders, such as Schizophrenia. The recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, together with the increasing attitude to interdisciplinary approaches involving computer science, mathematics and physics, are fostering interesting results from computational neuroscience, that are quite often based on the analysis of complex network representation of human brain...
February 6, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322921/linking-deregulation-of-non-coding-rna-to-the-core-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-integrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Mark J Millan
The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons...
March 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#9
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321196/connected-speech-in-neurodegenerative-language-disorders-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Veronica Boschi, Eleonora Catricalà, Monica Consonni, Cristiano Chesi, Andrea Moro, Stefano F Cappa
Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320296/biological-basis-for-amyloidogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
T V Andreeva, W J Lukiw, E I Rogaev
Certain cellular proteins normally soluble in the living organism under certain conditions form aggregates with a specific cross-β sheet structure called amyloid. These intra- or extracellular insoluble aggregates (fibers or plaques) are hallmarks of many neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion disease, and other progressive neurological diseases that develop in the aging human central nervous system. Amyloid diseases (amyloidoses) are widespread in the elderly human population, a rapidly expanding demographic in many global populations...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319243/association-of-antioxidant-supplement-use-and-dementia-in-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-vitamin-e-and-selenium-trial-preadvise
#12
Richard J Kryscio, Erin L Abner, Allison Caban-Holt, Mark Lovell, Phyllis Goodman, Amy K Darke, Monica Yee, John Crowley, Frederick A Schmitt
Importance: Oxidative stress is an established dementia pathway, but it is unknown if the use of antioxidant supplements can prevent dementia. Objective: To determine if antioxidant supplements (vitamin E or selenium) used alone or in combination can prevent dementia in asymptomatic older men. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease by Vitamin E and Selenium (PREADViSE) trial began as a double-blind randomized clinical trial in May 2002, which transformed into a cohort study from September 2009 to May 2015...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318914/systemic-and-network-functions-of-the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau-implications-for-tau-based-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Lidia Bakota, Abdala Ussif, Gunnar Jeserich, Roland Brandt
Tau is a microtubule-associated neuronal protein, whose primary role was long thought to regulate axonal microtubule assembly. Tau is subject to many posttranslational modifications and can aggregate into neurofibrillary tangles, which are considered to be a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases collectively called "tauopathies". The most common tauopathy is Alzheimer's disease, where tau pathology correlates with sites of neurodegeneration. Tau belongs to the class of intrinsically disordered proteins, which are known to interact with many partners and are considered to be involved in various signaling, regulation and recognition processes...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317651/clinical-validity-of-presynaptic-dopaminergic-imaging-with%C3%A2-123-i-ioflupane%C3%A2-and-noradrenergic-imaging-with-123-i-mibg-in-the-differential-diagnosis-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development
#14
REVIEW
Ida Sonni, Osman Ratib, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Karl Herholz, Flavio Nobili, Andrea Varrone
The use of biomarkers (BMs) for accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed by recent diagnostic criteria; however, their maturity is not sufficient to grant implementation in the clinical routine. A proper diagnostic process requires not only confirmation of the disease but also the exclusion of similar disorders entering differential diagnosis, like dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This review is aimed at evaluating the clinical validity of (123)I-ioflupane brain single photon emission tomography and (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy as imaging BMs for DLB...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317650/clinical-validity-of-increased-cortical-uptake-of-amyloid-ligands-on-pet-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#15
REVIEW
Konstantinos Chiotis, Laure Saint-Aubert, Marina Boccardi, Anton Gietl, Agnese Picco, Andrea Varrone, Valentina Garibotto, Karl Herholz, Flavio Nobili, Agneta Nordberg
The use of biomarkers has been proposed for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease in recent criteria, but some biomarkers have not been sufficiently investigated to justify their routine clinical use. Here, we evaluate in a literature review the clinical validity of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using a structured framework developed for the assessment of oncological biomarkers. Homogenous criteria have been addressed in reviews of other Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. There is adequate evidence that the main aims of phases 1 (rationale for use) and 2 (discriminative ability) have been achieved...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317648/clinical-validity-of-brain-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#16
REVIEW
Valentina Garibotto, Karl Herholz, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Andrea Varrone, Agneta Nordberg, Flavio Nobili, Osman Ratib
The use of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers is supported in diagnostic criteria, but their maturity for clinical routine is still debated. Here, we evaluate brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), a measure of cerebral glucose metabolism, as a biomarker to identify clinical and prodromal AD according to the framework suggested for biomarkers in oncology, using homogenous criteria with other biomarkers addressed in parallel reviews. FDG PET has fully achieved phase 1 (rational for use) and most of phase 2 (ability to discriminate AD subjects from healthy controls or other forms of dementia) aims...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317647/clinical-validity-of-medial-temporal-atrophy-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#17
REVIEW
Mara Ten Kate, Frederik Barkhof, Marina Boccardi, Pieter Jelle Visser, Clifford R Jack, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Giovanni B Frisoni, Philip Scheltens
Research criteria for Alzheimer's disease recommend the use of biomarkers for diagnosis, but whether biomarkers improve the diagnosis in clinical routine has not been systematically assessed. The aim is to evaluate the evidence for use of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage in routine clinical practice, with an adapted version of the 5-phase oncology framework for biomarker development. A literature review on visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumetry was conducted with other biomarkers addressed in parallel reviews...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317646/clinical-validity-of-delayed-recall-tests-as-a-gateway-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#18
REVIEW
Chiara Cerami, Bruno Dubois, Marina Boccardi, Andreas U Monsch, Jean Francois Demonet, Stefano F Cappa
Although Alzheimer's disease criteria promote the use of biomarkers, their maturity in clinical routine still needs to be assessed. In the light of the oncology framework, we conducted a literature review on measures used to assess delayed recall impairment due to medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e., free and cued word list recall tests). Ample evidence is available for phases 1 (rationale for use), 2 (discriminative ability), and 3 (early detection ability) for many of the tests in routine use. Evidence about phase 4 (performance in real world) and phase 5 (quantify impact and costs) is yet to come...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317487/impact-of-cytokines-and-chemokines-on-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathological-hallmarks
#19
Catarina Domingues, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Ana Gabriela Henriques
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of β-amyloid peptides, which deposit as senile plaques, and of TAU protein, which forms neurofibrillary tangles. It is now widely accepted that neuroinflammation is implicated in AD pathogenesis. Indeed, inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) can impact on the Alzheimer´s amyloid precursor protein by affecting its expression levels and amyloidogenic processing and/or β-amyloid aggregation...
March 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317485/defective-insulin-signalling-mediated-by-inflammation-connects-obesity-to-alzheimer-disease-relevant-pharmacological-therapies-and-preventive-dietary-interventions
#20
Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo Toledano
Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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