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Review of Alzheimer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911915/targeting-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910746/brain-stimulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Chun-Hung Chang, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Brain stimulation techniques can modulate cognitive functions in many neuropsychiatric diseases. Pilot studies have shown promising effects of brain stimulations on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain stimulations can be categorized into non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) and invasive brain stimulation (IBS). IBS includes deep brain stimulation (DBS), and invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), whereas NIBS includes transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), cranial electrostimulation (CES), and non-invasive VNS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910709/a-complex-relationship-between-suicide-dementia-and-amyloid-a-narrative-review
#3
Ismael Conejero, Sophie Navucet, Jacques Keller, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet, Audrey Gabelle
Background: Suicide rates are high among older adults and many conditions have been related to suicide in this population: chronic illnesses, physical disabilities, cancer, social isolation, mental disorders and neurocognitive disorders. Objectives: Among neurocognitive disorders, analysis of the relationships between dementia and suicidal behaviors led to conflicting results and some questions are still without answer. Particularly, it is not known whether (i) Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (SA) or the frequency of death by suicide; (ii) the presence of suicidal ideation or SA in people older than 65 years of age is an early dementia sign; and (iii) amyloid load in frontal areas facilitates SA by modifying the decision-making pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909448/neural-functions-of-bisecting-glcnac
#4
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Bisecting GlcNAc, a branch structure in N-glycan, has unique functions and is involved in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an overview of the biosynthesis of bisecting GlcNAc and its physiological and pathological functions, particularly in the nervous system where bisecting GlcNAc is most highly expressed. The biosynthetic enzyme of bisecting GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III). Overexpression, knockdown, and knockout of GnT-III have so far revealed various functions of bisecting GlcNAc, which are mediated by regulating the functions of key carrier proteins...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909178/the-effect-of-apoe-genotype-on-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-is-influenced-by-sex-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-status
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Pontifex, David Vauzour, Anne-Marie Minihane
An apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE-ε4) genotype is the strongest common genetic determinant of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pleiotropic nature of apolipoprotein E has made elucidation of the aetiological basis difficult to establish, which is further complicated by the fact that the penetrance of the APOE-ε4 allele is modulated by sex, age, and nutrition. A greater metabolic consequence of the APOE-ε4 allele is likely to contribute to the fact that two-thirds of AD patients are female. A higher tissue status of the marine n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with a lower AD risk...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908972/bidirectional-relationships-between-sleep-and-amyloid-beta-in-the-hippocampus
#6
Julien Dufort-Gervais, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive hippocampal-dependent explicit memory deficits that begin at the onset of the illness. An early hallmark of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) proteins in brain structures involved in encoding and consolidation of memory, like the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Aß neurotoxicity is known to induce synaptic dysfunctions and neuronal death leading to cognitive decline. Another recurrent event observed in AD is sleep disturbances...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907423/understanding-the-impact-of-sex-and-gender-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-call-to-action
#7
Rebecca A Nebel, Neelum T Aggarwal, Lisa L Barnes, Aimee Gallagher, Jill M Goldstein, Kejal Kantarci, Monica P Mallampalli, Elizabeth C Mormino, Laura Scott, Wai Haung Yu, Pauline M Maki, Michelle M Mielke
INTRODUCTION: Precision medicine methodologies and approaches have advanced our understanding of the clinical presentation, development, progression, and management of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, sex and gender have not yet been adequately integrated into many of these approaches. METHODS: The Society for Women's Health Research Interdisciplinary Network on AD, comprised of an expert panel of scientists and clinicians, reviewed ongoing and published research related to sex and gender differences in AD...
May 31, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905953/mass-spectrometry-is-a-multifaceted-weapon-to-be-used-in-the-battle-against-alzheimer-s-disease-amyloid-beta-peptides-and-beyond
#8
REVIEW
Giuseppe Grasso
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation and aggregation have been considered for many years the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and therefore have been the principal target of investigation as well as of the proposed therapeutic approaches (Grasso [2011] Mass Spectrom Rev. 30: 347-365). However, the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which considers Aβ accumulation the only causative agent of the disease, has proven to be incomplete if not wrong. In recent years, actors such as metal ions, oxidative stress, and other cofactors have been proposed as possible co-agents or, in some cases, main causative factors of AD...
June 15, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904888/olfactory-dysfunction-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Concepció Marin, Dolores Vilas, Cristóbal Langdon, Isam Alobid, Mauricio López-Chacón, Antje Haehner, Thomas Hummel, Joaquim Mullol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The sense of smell is today one of the focuses of interest in aging and neurodegenerative disease research. In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, the olfactory dysfunction is one of the initial symptoms appearing years before motor symptoms and cognitive decline, being considered a clinical marker of these diseases' early stages and a marker of disease progression and cognitive decline. Overall and under the umbrella of precision medicine, attention to olfactory function may help to improve chances of success for neuroprotective and disease-modifying therapeutic strategies...
June 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904334/sleep-disorders-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Anna Brzecka, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maria Ejma, Marco F Ávila-Rodriguez, Nagendra S Yarla, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Anna N Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902934/update-on-biomarkers-for-amyloid-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Nicholas J Ashton, Michael Schöll, Kerstin Heurling, Eleni Gkanatsiou, Erik Portelius, Kina Höglund, Gunnar Brinkmalm, Abdul Hye, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
At the center of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is the aberrant aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) into oligomers, fibrils and plaques. Effective monitoring of Aβ deposition directly in patients is essential to assist anti-Aβ therapeutics in target engagement and participant selection. In the advent of approved anti-Aβ therapeutics, biomarkers will become of fundamental importance in initiating treatments having disease modifying effects at the earliest stage. Two well-established Aβ biomarkers are widely utilized: Aβ-binding ligands for positron emission tomography and immunoassays to measure Aβ42 in cerebrospinal fluid...
June 15, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898857/pharmacogenetic-studies-in-alzheimer-disease
#12
T Zúñiga Santamaría, P Yescas Gómez, I Fricke Galindo, M González González, A Ortega Vázquez, M López López
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is considered one of the main causes of disability and dependence affecting quality of life in elderly people and their families. Current pharmacological treatment includes acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) and memantine; however, only one-third of patients respond to treatment. Genetic factors have been shown to play a role in this inter-individual variability in drug response...
June 10, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898422/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-the-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896987/a-review-of-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-noninvasive-samples
#14
Samuel Hartmann, Tarso B Ledur Kist
The discovery of biomarkers that confer high confidence of presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis would be a valuable tool to study the etiology of the disease, to find risk factors, to discover more treatments and medicines. The present work reviews the potential biomarkers of AD based on the concentration changes of small molecules and chemical elements in noninvasive samples (urine, saliva, hair and others). An updated table with 74 target compounds is produced and ranked. Until the present date, there are a few biomarkers, present in urine, with the most promising potential: isoprostane 8,12-iso-iPF2a-VI, total free amino acids, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, glycine and enzymatic activity of NaCl-stimulated PON1...
June 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896439/bdnf-polymorphism-a-review-of-its-diagnostic-and-clinical-relevance-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Ting Shen, Yuyi You, Chitra Joseph, Mehdi Mirzaei, Alexander Klistorner, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a unique role in the neuronal development, differentiation, and survival in the developing and adult nervous system. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the pro-region of the human BDNF gene, resulting in a valine to methionine substitution (Val66Met), has been associated with the susceptibility, incidence, and clinical features of several neurodegenerative disorders. Much research has been dedicated to evaluating the effects of polymorphism in the past decade, and functional effects of this genetic variation...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896105/anti-neuroinflammatory-potential-of-natural-products-in-attenuation-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Bushra Shal, Wei Ding, Hussain Ali, Yeong S Kim, Salman Khan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia and cognitive impairment most common in elderly population. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed by numerous researcher, although, exact mechanism is not yet elucidated. Several studies have been indicated that neuroinflammation associated with deposition of amyloid- beta (Aβ) in brain is a major hallmark toward the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. So, there is a need to unravel the link of inflammatory process in neurodegeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896085/deep-brain-stimulation-a-potential-treatment-for-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-pdd
#17
REVIEW
Qing Lv, Ailian Du, Wenshi Wei, Yuanyuan Li, Gailing Liu, Xiao Ping Wang
Damage to memory circuits may lead to dementia symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a novel means of memory neuromodulation when critical nodes in the memory circuit are targeted, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and fornix. Potential memory improvements have been observed after DBS in patients with AD and PDD. DBS for the treatment of AD and PDD may be feasible and safe, but it is still preliminary...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895964/tau-targeting-therapies-for-alzheimer-disease
#18
REVIEW
Erin E Congdon, Einar M Sigurdsson
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Pathologically, AD is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, with associated loss of synapses and neurons, resulting in cognitive deficits and eventually dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and tau protein are the primary components of the plaques and tangles, respectively. In the decades since Aβ and tau were identified, development of therapies for AD has primarily focused on Aβ, but tau has received more attention in recent years, in part because of the failure of various Aβ-targeting treatments in clinical trials...
June 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895784/molecular-mechanisms-of-oligodendrocyte-regeneration-in-white-matter-related-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ryo Ohtomo, Atsushi Iwata, Ken Arai
Even in adult brains, restorative mechanisms are still retained to maintain the microenvironment. Under the pathological conditions of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, several immature cells in the brain would be activated as a compensative response. As the concept of the neurovascular unit emphasizes, cell-cell interactions play important roles in this restorative process. White matter damage and oligodendrocyte loss are representative characteristics for many neurodegenerative diseases. In response to oligodendrocyte damage, residual oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) initiate their proliferation and differentiation for the purpose of remyelination...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895249/strategies-for-continued-successful-treatment-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-switching-between-pharmacological-agents
#20
Rafael Blesa, Kazuhiro Toriyama, Kengo Ueda, Sean Knox, George Grossberg
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, characterized by a progressive decline in cognition and function. Current treatment options for AD include the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, as well as the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine. Treatment guidelines recommend the use of ChEIs as standard of care first-line therapy. Several randomized clinical studies have demonstrated the benefits of ChEIs on cognition, global function, behavior and activities of daily living...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
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