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Alzheimer Revision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912299/the-test-your-memory-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-tym-mci
#1
Jeremy M Brown, Claire J Lansdall, Julie Wiggins, Kate E Dawson, Kristina Hunter, James B Rowe, Richard A Parker
BACKGROUND: To validate a short cognitive test: the Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI) in the diagnosis of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD). METHODS: Two hundred and two patients with mild memory problems were recruited. All had 'passed' the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients completed the TYM-MCI, the Test Your Memory test (TYM), MMSE and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), had a neurological examination, clinical diagnostics and multidisciplinary team review...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901834/association-between-gait-and-dual-task-with-cognitive-domains-in-older-people-with-cognitive-impairment
#2
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Mariana Luciano Almeida, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale, José Rubens Rebelatto
The authors investigated whether impaired gait and dual-task performances are associated with specific cognitive domains among older people with preserved cognition (PC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The sample comprised 40 older adults with PC, 40 with MCI, and 38 with mild AD. The assessment consisted of gait (measured by 10-m walk test and Timed Up and Go Test [TUGT]), dual task (measured by TUGT associated with a cognitive-motor task of calling a phone number), and cognition (domains of the Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination-Revised and Frontal Assessment Battery [FAB])...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899416/alzheimer-s-disease-prevention-from-risk-factors-to-early-intervention
#3
REVIEW
Marta Crous-Bou, Carolina Minguillón, Nina Gramunt, José Luis Molinuevo
Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892572/deconstructing-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-ventriculomegaly-as-early-sign-of-neurodegeneration
#4
REVIEW
Alberto J Espay, Gustavo A Da Prat, Alok K Dwivedi, Federico Rodriguez-Porcel, Jennifer E Vaughan, Michela Rosso, Johnna L Devoto, Andrew P Duker, Mario Masellis, Charles D Smith, J George T Mandybur, Aristide Merola, Anthony E Lang
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) remains both over-suspected on clinical grounds and under-confirmed when based on immediate and sustained response to cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Poor long-term post-shunt benefits and findings of neurodegenerative pathology in most patients with adequate follow up suggests that hydrocephalic disorders appearing in late adulthood may often result from initially unapparent parenchymal abnormalities. We critically review the NPH literature, highlighting the near universal lack of blinding and controls, the absence of specific clinical, imaging, or pathologic features, and the ongoing dependence for diagnostic confirmation on variable cutoffs of gait response to bedside fluid-drainage testing...
September 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884752/alzheimer-disease-revising-the-risk-of-alzheimer-disease-in-women
#5
Mitesh Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869481/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-relies-on-a-twofold-clinical-biological-algorithm-three-memory-clinic-case-reports
#6
Marcel Levy Nogueira, Dalila Samri, Stéphane Epelbaum, Simone Lista, Per Suppa, Lothar Spies, Harald Hampel, Bruno Dubois, Marc Teichmann
The International Working Group recently provided revised criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposing that the diagnosis of typical amnesic AD should be established by a clinical-biological signature, defined by the phenotype of an "amnesic syndrome of the hippocampal type" (ASHT) combined with positive in vivo evidence of AD pathophysiology in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or on amyloid PET imaging. The application and clinical value of this refined diagnostic algorithm, initially intended for research purposes, is explored in three memory clinic cases presenting with different cognitive profiles including an ASHT, hippocampal atrophy, and CSF AD-biomarker data...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806917/study-protocol-pragmatic-randomized-control-trial-of-an-internet-based-intervention-my-tools-4-care-for-family-carers
#7
Wendy Duggleby, Jenny Ploeg, Carrie McAiney, Kathryn Fisher, Jenny Swindle, Tracey Chambers, Sunita Ghosh, Shelley Peacock, Maureen Markle-Reid, Jean Triscott, Allison Williams, Dorothy Forbes, Lori Pollard
BACKGROUND: Family carers of older persons with Alzheimer's' disease and related dementia (ADRD) and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) experience significant, complex, and distressing transitions such as changes to their environment, roles and relationships, physical health, and mental health. An online intervention (My Tools 4 Care) was developed for family carers of persons with ADRD and MCC living at home, with the aim of supporting these carers through transitions and increasing their self-efficacy, hope, and health related quality of life (HRQoL)...
August 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793933/can-cognitive-assessment-really-discriminate-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-and-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-at-initial-clinical-presentation
#8
Sophia Reul, Hubertus Lohmann, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Duning, Andreas Johnen
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological testing is considered crucial for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In-depth neuropsychological assessment revealed specific dysfunctions in the two dementia syndromes. However, a significant overlap of cognitive impairments exists in early disease stages. We questioned whether a standard neuropsychological assessment at initial clinical presentation can delineate patients with AD versus bvFTD...
August 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731443/accuracy-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-versus-neuropathology
#9
Ragnhild Skogseth, Tibor Hortobágyi, Hogne Soennesyn, Luiza Chwiszczuk, Dominic Ffytche, Arvid Rongve, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
BACKGROUND: The first consensus criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) published in 1996 were revised in 2005, partly because the original clinical criteria had suboptimal sensitivity. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of the 2005 criteria applied prospectively in newly diagnosed patients who have been followed longitudinally. OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between clinical and pathological diagnoses in patients with DLB and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711402/beneficial-effects-of-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-in-brain-disorders
#10
REVIEW
J M Saavedra
A canonical brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), like the canonical peripheral RAS, has long been proposed as a major regulator of brain function. Because of methodological limitations, however, this system is in urgent need of critical revision. The Angiotensin II AT1 receptors have been confirmed as key factors in the regulation of brain function, and AT1 receptor over activity has been established as a major and early injury factor in the development of many brain diseases. Consequently, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), compounds widely used to treat cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, are excellent candidates for repurposing for the treatment of brain disorders...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629965/%C3%A2-cortical-atrophy-is-associated-with-accelerated-cognitive-decline-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-subsyndromal-depression
#11
Mitzi M Gonzales, Philip S Insel, Craig Nelson, Duygu Tosun, Niklas Mattsson, Susanne G Mueller, Simona Sacuiu, David Bickford, Michael W Weiner, R Scott Mackin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cognitive decline and cortical atrophy in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and chronic subsyndromal symptoms of depression (SSD) over a 4-year period. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter, clinic-based. PARTICIPANTS: Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to identify individuals with MCI and stable endorsement (SSD group N = 32) or no endorsement (non-SSD group N = 69) of depressive symptoms across time points...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604669/structural-and-mechanistic-basis-of-differentiated-inhibitors-of-the-acute-pancreatitis-target-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase
#12
Jonathan P Hutchinson, Paul Rowland, Mark R D Taylor, Erica M Christodoulou, Carl Haslam, Clare I Hobbs, Duncan S Holmes, Paul Homes, John Liddle, Damian J Mole, Iain Uings, Ann L Walker, Scott P Webster, Christopher G Mowat, Chun-Wa Chung
Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a key FAD-dependent enzyme of tryptophan metabolism. In animal models, KMO inhibition has shown benefit in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's. Most recently it has been identified as a target for acute pancreatitis multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (AP-MODS); a devastating inflammatory condition with a mortality rate in excess of 20%. Here we report and dissect the molecular mechanism of action of three classes of KMO inhibitors with differentiated binding modes and kinetics...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592453/diagnosis-and-management-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-fourth-consensus-report-of-the-dlb-consortium
#13
REVIEW
Ian G McKeith, Bradley F Boeve, Dennis W Dickson, Glenda Halliday, John-Paul Taylor, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland, James Galvin, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Ashley Bayston, Thomas G Beach, Frédéric Blanc, Nicolaas Bohnen, Laura Bonanni, Jose Bras, Patrik Brundin, David Burn, Alice Chen-Plotkin, John E Duda, Omar El-Agnaf, Howard Feldman, Tanis J Ferman, Dominic Ffytche, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Douglas Galasko, Jennifer G Goldman, Stephen N Gomperts, Neill R Graff-Radford, Lawrence S Honig, Alex Iranzo, Kejal Kantarci, Daniel Kaufer, Walter Kukull, Virginia M Y Lee, James B Leverenz, Simon Lewis, Carol Lippa, Angela Lunde, Mario Masellis, Eliezer Masliah, Pamela McLean, Brit Mollenhauer, Thomas J Montine, Emilio Moreno, Etsuro Mori, Melissa Murray, John T O'Brien, Sotoshi Orimo, Ronald B Postuma, Shankar Ramaswamy, Owen A Ross, David P Salmon, Andrew Singleton, Angela Taylor, Alan Thomas, Pietro Tiraboschi, Jon B Toledo, John Q Trojanowski, Debby Tsuang, Zuzana Walker, Masahito Yamada, Kenji Kosaka
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these. Substantial new information has been incorporated about previously reported aspects of DLB, with increased diagnostic weighting given to REM sleep behavior disorder and (123)iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy...
July 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591195/hyponatremia-and-increased-risk-of-dementia-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Mu-Chi Chung, Tung-Min Yu, Kuo-Hsiung Shu, Ming-Ju Wu, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chi-Jung Chung
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder and also a predictor of mild cognition impairment. However, the association between hyponatremia and dementia in long follow up periods is rarely investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed using the claims data of all insured residents who were covered by Taiwan's universal health insurance from 2000 to 2011. A total of 4900 hyponatremia patients and 19545 matched comparisons were recruited for the analysis. The incidences of hyponatremia and dementia were diagnosed with clinical protocol and defined using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589565/detailed-analysis-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-rapid-dementia-screening-test-revised-version
#15
Yasushi Moriyama, Aihide Yoshino, Taro Muramatsu, Masaru Mimura
AIM: The number-transcoding task on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test (RDST-J) requires mutual conversion between Arabic and Chinese numerals (209 to , 4054 to , to 681, to 2027). In this task, question and answer styles of Chinese numerals are written horizontally. We investigated the impact of changing the task so that Chinese numerals are written vertically. METHODS: Subjects were 211 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and 42 normal controls...
June 6, 2017: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499012/resistance-to-alzheimer-disease-neuropathologic-changes-and-apparent-cognitive-resilience-in-the-nun-and-honolulu-asia-aging-studies
#16
Caitlin S Latimer, C Dirk Keene, Margaret E Flanagan, Laura S Hemmy, Kelvin O Lim, Lon R White, Kathleen S Montine, Thomas J Montine
Two population-based studies key to advancing knowledge of brain aging are the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the Nun Study. Harmonization of their neuropathologic data allows cross comparison, with findings common to both studies likely generalizable, while distinct observations may point to aging brain changes that are dependent on sex, ethnicity, environment, or lifestyle factors. Here, we expanded the neuropathologic evaluation of these 2 studies using revised NIA-Alzheimer's Association guidelines and compared directly the neuropathologic features of resistance and apparent cognitive resilience...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498720/protein-misfolding-amyloid-formation-and-human-disease-a-summary-of-progress-over-the-last-decade
#17
REVIEW
Fabrizio Chiti, Christopher M Dobson
Peptides and proteins have been found to possess an inherent tendency to convert from their native functional states into intractable amyloid aggregates. This phenomenon is associated with a range of increasingly common human disorders, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, type II diabetes, and a number of systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we describe this field of science with particular reference to the advances that have been made over the last decade in our understanding of its fundamental nature and consequences...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441058/protein-misfolding-diseases
#18
F Ulrich Hartl
The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386925/vagus-nerve-stimulation-surgical-technique-of-implantation-and-revision-and-related-morbidity
#19
REVIEW
Flavio Giordano, Anna Zicca, Carmen Barba, Renzo Guerrini, Lorenzo Genitori
Indications for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy include focal, multifocal epilepsy, drop attacks (tonic/atonic seizures), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related multifocal epilepsy, and unsuccessful resective surgery. Surgical outcome is about 50-60% for seizures control, and may also improve mood, cognition, and memory. On this basis, VNS has also been proposed for the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's' disease. The vagus nerve stimulator must be implanted with blunt technique on the left side to avoid cardiac side effects through the classic approach for anterior cervical discectomy...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375705/the-solution-assembly-of-biological-molecules-using-ion-mobility-methods-from-amino-acids-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein
#20
REVIEW
Christian Bleiholder, Michael T Bowers
Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) methods are increasingly used to study noncovalent assemblies of peptides and proteins. This review focuses on the noncovalent self-assembly of amino acids and peptides, systems at the heart of the amyloid process that play a central role in a number of devastating diseases. Three different systems are discussed in detail: the 42-residue peptide amyloid-β42 implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, several amyloid-forming peptides with 6-11 residues, and the assembly of individual amino acids...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
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