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Jin-Jin Chen, Peng-Fei Gong, Yi-Lan Liu, Bo-Yan Liu, Dawn Eggert, Yuan-Heng Guo, Ming-Xia Zhao, Qing-Sheng Zhao, Bing Zhao
A novel technique of ultrasound-assisted freeze-thaw pretreatment (UFP) was developed to improve the drying efficiency of maca and bioactive amide synthesis in maca. The optimal UFP conditions are ultrasonic processing 90 min at 30 °C with 6 freeze-thaw cycles. Samples with freeze-thaw pretreatment (FP), ultrasound pretreatment (UP), and UFP were prepared for further comparative study. A no pretreatment (NP) sample was included as a control. The results showed that UFP improved the drying efficiency of maca slices, showing the highest effective moisture diffusivity (1...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Sahabettin Selek, Ismail Koyuncu, Hifa Gulru Caglar, Ibrahim Bektas, Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz, Ataman Gonel, Enes Akyuz
In recent years, there is an increased research interest for plants which are natural sources of antioxidants. Lepidium sativum Subsp spinescens L., commonly found in South West Asia, is a plant known as a healthy nutritional source containing bio-molecules that carry anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, hepato-protective, chemoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antioxidant content and activity of Lepidium sativum Subsp spinescens L...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Marek Tarnawski, Agnieszka Baran
This study is was designed to assess the ecological risk associated with chemical pollution caused by heavy metals and PAHs on the basis of their ecotoxicological properties in sediments collected from the Rzeszów dam reservoir (Poland). The sediment samples were collected from three sampling stations: S1-inlet, backwater station, S2-middle of reservoir, S3 outlet, near the dam. The sediments' toxicity was evaluated using a battery of bioassays (Phytotoxkit, Phytotestkit, Ostracodtoxkit F, and Microtox). The highest content of metals (120...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Deepak Kadam, Shanooba Palamthodi, S S Lele
Lepidium sativum is widely used as a culinary and medicinal herb and is claimed to cure many diseases. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the biochemical composition and functional properties of L. sativum ethanolic extract. The extract contained a total phenolic content of 11.03 ± 0.75 (mg GAE/g dw plant material) and a flavonoid content of 4.79 ± 0.24 (mg QE/100 g dw plant material). Further, the extract was characterized by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS profiling and the results showed that the ethanolic fraction contains many important phenolics such as Kaempferol, Coumaroylquinic acid, p -Coumaroyl glycolic acid, Caffeic acid...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Pooran Golkar, Fatemeh Hadian, Mehrana Koohi Dehkordi
The mucilage in Lepidium sativum L. is considered a biologically active compound with diverse medicinal properties. Different explants (hypocotyls and leaf) were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with twelve different plant growth regulator combinations under two different incubations (light and dark). The best mucilage production from callus (36.76% g g -1 dry weight) was obtained in the MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L -1 of 2, 4-D and 2 mg L -1 of BAP under the light condition...
February 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Bernd Reichl, Markus Himmelsbach, Lisa Emhofer, Christian W Klampfl, Wolfgang Buchberger
Environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals has received growing attention in recent years. Several studies describe the presence of traces of drugs in water bodies and soils and their impacts on non-target organisms including plants. Due to these facts investigations of the uptake and metabolism of pharmaceuticals in organisms is an emerging research area. The present study demonstrates the analysis of three selected antidepressants (sertraline, clomipramine and trazodone) as well as metabolites and transformation products in a cress model (Lepidium sativum)...
February 10, 2018: Electrophoresis
Valeria Tigini, Federico Bevione, Valeria Prigione, Anna Poli, Lucrezia Ranieri, Francesco Spennati, Giulio Munz, Giovanna Cristina Varese
Fungi are known to be present in the activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Their study should be at the base of an overall vision of the plant effectiveness and of effluents sanitary impact. Moreover, it could be fundamental for the implementation of successful bioaugmentation strategies aimed at the removal of recalcitrant or toxic compounds. This is one of the first studies on the cultivable autochthonous mycoflora present in the mixed liquors of two WWTP treating either vegetable or chromium tannery effluents...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
C Del Prete, S Tafuri, F Ciani, M P Pasolini, F Ciotola, S Albarella, D Carotenuto, V Peretti, N Cocchia
Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity...
January 22, 2018: Andrology
Zhengqi Zha, Su-Yan Wang, Weihua Chu, Yang Lv, Hongjin Kan, Qiuli Chen, Lili Zhong, Long Yue, Jinna Xiao, Ying Wang, Hongping Yin
A water-soluble polysaccharide LMP-1 was isolated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). LMP-1 has a molecular weight of 1.01 × 104 Da, and is composed of glucose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 7.03:1.08. Methylation and the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy of LMP-1 revealed that it is mainly composed of →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, and β-D-Araf-(1→, with branching at O-6 of →4,6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → . LMP-1 showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)...
January 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
Yujuan Li, Fangxue Xu, Mengmeng Zheng, Xiaozhi Xi, Xiaowei Cui, Chunchao Han
Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kelly Johnson-Arbor, Kathy Vo, Flavia Wong, Ryszard Gajek
Although the incidence of lead poisoning has decreased in the USA over the last 30 years, human exposures to lead-containing products are still reported. We present a case of unintentional lead exposure from a store-bought ceramic mug and a nutritional supplement. A 32-year-old female was found to have a whole blood lead concentration of 44 μg/dL. Evaluation of her home, occupation, and hobbies initially did not identify a source of lead exposure. Further investigation revealed that the likely etiology of the exposure was lead leaching from a ceramic mug used by the patient to drink hot lemon water while she was pregnant...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Kuljeet S Gugnani, Nguyen Vu, Alejandro N Rondón-Ortiz, Mark Böhlke, Timothy J Maher, Alejandro J Pino-Figueroa
Macamides are a distinct class of secondary metabolites, benzylamides of long chain fatty acids, which were isolated from the Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca). As structural analogues of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA), they have demonstrated neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the neuroprotective activity of the macamides: N-(3-methoxybenzyl)oleamide (MAC 18:1), N-(3-methoxybenzyl)linoleamide (MAC 18:2) and N-(3-methoxybenzyl)linolenamide (MAC 18:3) in a neurotoxic environment caused by exposure of U-87 MG glioblastoma cells to manganese chloride (MnCl2)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Magdalena Kończak, Patryk Oleszczuk
The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the physicochemical properties and toxicity of soil amended with sewage sludge (10tdw/ha) or sewage sludge (10tdw/ha) with biochar addition (2.5, 5 or 10% of sewage sludge). The study was carried out as a field experiment over a period of 18months. Samples for analysis were taken at the beginning of the experiment as well as after 6, 12 and 18months. The study investigated toxicity of the unamended soil, sewage sludge-amended soil and sewage sludge-amended soil with biochar addition towards Folsomia candida (collembolan test) and Lepidium sativum (Phytotoxkit F)...
December 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lisa Emhofer, Markus Himmelsbach, Wolfgang Buchberger, Christian W Klampfl
The metabolization of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by cress ((Lepidium sativum) was investigated using a HPLC-MS2 method. Cress was grown hydroponically in water containing 0.1 mg L-1 of each drug for investigations on the kinetics of drug uptake and metabolization over a growing period of 12 days. It could be shown that the parent drugs are metabolized and the abundance of both the parent drug and the metabolites formed, varies over time. Furthermore the distribution of the investigated substances within the different plant parts changed throughout the duration of the experiment due to translocation...
December 18, 2017: Electrophoresis
An Xiao, Hai-Ying He, Qing Chen, Shi-Wu Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
Eman S Attia, Afaf H Amer, Manal A Hasanein
The hypoglycemic and antioxidants activities of the methanol extract of Lepidium sativum seeds was tested in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Thirty male albino rats weighing 190-200 g were divided into five groups as follows: negative control, positive control and three diabetic groups treated with three concentrations of L. sativum methanol extract for four weeks. Induction of hyperglycemia in the positive control group increased blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, immunoglobulins, liver enzyme, lipid peroxide and kidney function, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins and decreased antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins compared with the negative control...
December 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Shu-Xiao Chen, Ke-Ke Li, Duoji Pubu, Si-Ping Jiang, Bin Chen, Li-Rong Chen, Zhen Yang, Chao Ma, Xiao-Jie Gong
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using petroleum ether as the solvent, was systematically applied to extract main macamides and macaenes from Maca hypocotyls. Extraction yield was related with four variables, including ratio of solution to solid, extraction temperature, extraction time, and extraction power. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal conditions were determined to be the ratio of solution to solid as 10:1 (mL/g), the extraction temperature of 40 °C, the extraction time of 30 min, and the extraction power of 200 W...
December 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Abdul Samad, Livio Antonielli, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Compant, Friederike Trognitz
Microbes produce a variety of secondary metabolites to be explored for herbicidal activities. We investigated an endophyte Pseudomonas viridiflava CDRTc14, which impacted growth of its host Lepidium draba L., to better understand the possible genetic determinants for herbicidal and host-interaction traits. Inoculation tests with a variety of target plants revealed that CDRTc14 shows plant-specific effects ranging from beneficial to negative. Its herbicidal effect appeared to be dose-dependent and resembled phenotypically the germination arrest factor of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katja Sperber, Tina Steinbrecher, Kai Graeber, Gwydion Scherer, Simon Clausing, Nils Wiegand, James E Hourston, Rainer Kurre, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Klaus Mummenhoff
The biomechanical and ecophysiological properties of plant seed/fruit structures are fundamental to survival in distinct environments. Dispersal of fruits with hard pericarps (fruit coats) encasing seeds has evolved many times independently within taxa that have seed dispersal as their default strategy. The mechanisms by which the constraint of a hard pericarp determines germination timing in response to the environment are currently unknown. Here, we show that the hard pericarp of Lepidium didymum controls germination solely by a biomechanical mechanism...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
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