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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913647/diversity-of-antiviral-igg-effector-activities-observed-in-hiv-infected-and-vaccinated-subjects
#1
Yunda Huang, Guido Ferrari, Galit Alter, Donald N Forthal, John C Kappes, George K Lewis, J Christopher Love, Bhavesh Borate, Linda Harris, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, Tran B Phan, Gary Landucci, Brittany A Goods, Karen G Dowell, Hao D Cheng, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, David C Montefiori, Margaret E Ackerman
Diverse Ab effector functions mediated by the Fc domain have been commonly associated with reduced risk of infection in a growing number of nonhuman primate and human clinical studies. This study evaluated the anti-HIV Ab effector activities in polyclonal serum samples from HIV-infected donors, VAX004 vaccine recipients, and healthy HIV-negative subjects using a variety of primary and cell line-based assays, including Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition, and Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#2
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897284/ytterbium-erbium-ion-doped-strontium-molybdate-srmoo4-synthesis-characterization-photophysical-properties-and-application-in-solar-cells
#3
Weifu Sun, Zihan Chen, Junli Zhou, Dongyu Li, Zhen Huang, Xiao Jin, Qin Zhang, Feng Li, Qinghua Li
In this work, ytterbium-erbium co-doped strontium molybdate (SrMoO4, SMO) nanophosphors (NPs), denoted as SMO:Yb/Er, have been successfully prepared. These NPs were then incorporated into TiO2 acceptor films in hybrid solar cells to enhance light harvesting by virtue of an up-conversion process where low energy photons can be converted into high energy photons through multi-photon processes. The results showed that the SMO:Yb/Er single crystal NPs are capable of turning near infrared photons into visible ones that can be easily captured by poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene) (PTB7)...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895179/thymic-dendritic-cell-subsets-display-distinct-efficiencies-and-mechanisms-of-intercellular-mhc-transfer
#4
Charles J Kroger, Nicholas A Spidale, Bo Wang, Roland Tisch
Thymic dendritic cells (DC) delete self-antigen-specific thymocytes, and drive development of Foxp3-expressing immunoregulatory T cells. Unlike medullary thymic epithelial cells, which express and present peripheral self-antigen, DC must acquire self-antigen to mediate thymic negative selection. One such mechanism entails the transfer of surface MHC-self peptide complexes from medullary thymic epithelial cells to thymic DC. Despite the importance of thymic DC cross-dressing in negative selection, the factors that regulate the process and the capacity of different thymic DC subsets to acquire MHC and stimulate thymocytes are poorly understood...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884010/less-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-term-newborns-than-in-adults
#5
Patrick Lipp, Johanna Ruhnau, Anja Lange, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Newborns are prone to infections, which are independent predictors of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of chromatin and antimicrobial molecules that capture and kill pathogens. NETs may play an important role in the innate immune system and, thus, might be associated with impaired neonatal immune function. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare NET formation between term neonates and healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862636/a-novel-method-for-a-high-enrichment-of-human-corneal-epithelial-stem-cells-for-genomic-analysis
#6
Jhansi Rani Kasinathan, Venkatesh Prajna Namperumalsamy, Muthukkaruppan Veerappan, Gowri Priya Chidambaranathan
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) in maintaining corneal homeostasis remains elusive largely due to the lack of a specific marker for their isolation. This study aims to enrich CESCs from human donor limbal epithelium and to evaluate the level of enrichment based on expression of ΔNp63α, a putative CESC marker. A two-stage enrichment of CESCs was carried out. (a) The limbal basal epithelial cells were isolated by differential enzymatic treatment and five-fold enrichment was achieved from 2% of CESCs present in the total limbal epithelium...
December 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845569/the-experience-of-receiving-a-kidney-transplant-from-a-deceased-donor-implications-for-renal-services
#7
Diarmaid Ó Lonargáin, Dawn Brannigan, Craig Murray
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the psychological experiences of receiving a kidney transplant from a deceased donor and to examine resulting implications for renal services. DESIGN: A qualitative design was utilised within an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) framework. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six adults (male = 5, mean age = 45 yrs) on their experiences of receiving a kidney transplant from a deceased donor...
November 15, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796087/periodic-mesoporous-organosilica-with-a-basic-urea-derived-framework-for-enhanced-carbon-dioxide-capture-and-conversion-under-mild-conditions
#8
Mengshuai Liu, Xingyuan Lu, Lei Shi, Fangxiao Wang, Jianmin Sun
A periodic mesoporous organosilica with a basic urea-derived framework (PMO-UDF) was prepared and characterized thoroughly. The PMO-UDF showed an enhanced CO2 capture capacity at low pressure (≤1 atm) and an exceptional catalytic activity in CO2 coupling reactions with various epoxides to yield the corresponding cyclic carbonates under mild conditions because of the presence of a high surface area, basic pyridine units, and multiple hydrogen-bond donors. The highly stable catalyst could be reused at least six successive times without a significant decrease of the catalytic efficiency or structural deterioration, thus the PMO-UDF composite is considered as a promising material for CO2 capture and conversion...
October 31, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779340/tris-imidazolin-2-ylidenamino-phosphine-a-crystalline-phosphorus-iii-superbase-that-splits-carbon-dioxide
#9
Paul Mehlmann, Christian Mück-Lichtenfeld, Tristan T Y Tan, Fabian Dielmann
We report the synthesis and remarkable properties of the phosphine P(NIiPr)3 (NIiPr=1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidenamino), a crystalline solid accessible through a short and scalable route. Evaluation of the electron-donor properties reveals a Tolman electronic parameter (TEP) value of 2029.7 cm(-1) for the new phosphine that is significantly lower than those of all known phosphines or even N-heterocyclic carbenes. Moreover, P(NIiPr)3 is more basic [pKBH(+) (MeCN)=38.8] than Verkade's proazaphosphatranes, thus being the strongest reported nonionic phosphorus(III) superbase...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775315/volumetric-physics-of-polypeptide-coil-helix-transitions
#10
Heinrich Krobath, Tao Chen, Hue Sun Chan
Volumetric properties of proteins bear directly on their biological functions in hyperbaric environments and are useful in general as a biophysical probe. To gain insight into conformation-dependent protein volume, we developed an implicit-solvent atomic chain model that transparently embodies two physical origins of volume. First, a fundamental geometric term capturing the van der Waals volume of the protein and the particulate, finite-size nature of the water molecules, modeled together by the volume encased by the protein's molecular surface...
October 24, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774530/microscopic-investigations-of-site-and-functional-selectivity-of-triazole-for-co2-capture-and-catalytic-applications
#11
Reda Boulmène, Muthuramalingam Prakash, Majdi Hochlaf
Ab initio and DFT studies on CO2 interacting with different tautomers and isomers of triazole (TZ) are carried out to understand the adsorption mechanism and their mutual preferential sites. We used post Hartree-Fock methods (MP2, CCSD(T), and CCSD(T)-F12) and various DFTs (PBE, PBE0, M05-2X, and M11) with and without considering the dispersion correction for comparison. We determined hence the equilibrium structures, vibrational frequencies and binding energies of TZ-CO2 clusters and mapped their potential energy surfaces along the intermonomer coordinates...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771811/constitutive-description-of-human-femoropopliteal-artery-aging
#12
Alexey Kamenskiy, Andreas Seas, Paul Deegan, William Poulson, Eric Anttila, Sylvie Sim, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart
Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) mechanics play a paramount role in pathophysiology and the artery's response to therapeutic interventions, but data on FPA mechanical properties are scarce. Our goal was to characterize human FPAs over a wide population to derive a constitutive description of FPA aging to be used for computational modeling. Fresh human FPA specimens ([Formula: see text]) were obtained from [Formula: see text] predominantly male (80 %) donors 54±15 years old (range 13-82 years). Morphometric characteristics including radius, wall thickness, opening angle, and longitudinal pre-stretch were recorded...
October 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746781/comparative-analysis-of-clinical-scale-ifn-%C3%AE-positive-t-cell-enrichment-using-partially-and-fully-integrated-platforms
#13
Christoph Priesner, Ruth Esser, Sabine Tischer, Michael Marburger, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Britta Maecker-Kolhoff, Hans-Gert Heuft, Lilia Goudeva, Rainer Blasczyk, Lubomir Arseniev, Ulrike Köhl, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Stephan Klöß
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The infusion of enriched CMV-specific donor T-cells appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of drug-resistant CMV reactivation or de novo infection after both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Antiviral lymphocytes can be selected from apheresis products using the CliniMACS Cytokine-Capture-System(®) either with the well-established CliniMACS(®) Plus (Plus) device or with its more versatile successor CliniMACS Prodigy(®) (Prodigy)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743777/antigen-presentation-in-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Maria-Luisa Alegre, Fadi G Lakkis, Adrian E Morelli
Transplantation of solid organs between genetically distinct individuals leads, in the absence of immunosuppression, to T cell-dependent transplant rejection. Activation of graft-reactive T cells relies on the presentation of transplant-derived antigens (intact donor MHC molecules or processed peptides on host MHC molecules) by mature dendritic cells (DCs). This review focuses on novel insights regarding the steps for maturation and differentiation of DCs that are necessary for productive presentation of transplant antigens to host T cells...
December 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743083/free-versus-pedicled-tram-flaps-cost-utilization-and-complications
#15
Samuel Golpanian, David J Gerth, Jun Tashiro, Seth R Thaller
INTRODUCTION: Conventionally, free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (fTRAM) flap breast reconstruction has been associated with decreased donor site morbidity and improved flap inset. However, clinical success depends upon more sophisticated technical expertise and facilities. This study aims to characterize postoperative outcomes undergoing free versus pedicled TRAM (pTRAM) flap breast reconstruction. METHODS: Nationwide inpatient sample database (2008-2011) was reviewed for cases of fTRAM (ICD-9-CM 85...
December 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738257/the-discourse-of-gifting-in-embryo-donation-the-understandings-of-donors-recipients-and-counselors
#16
Sonja Goedeke, Ken Daniels
In New Zealand, embryo donation (ED) is "open," allowing offspring to access genetic information. Donors and recipients meet prior to donation. Drawing on interviews with 15 recipients, 22 donors, and nine counselors, this article discusses how ED may be constructed as a form of gifting. This discourse may evoke expectations that recipients will express gratitude for the gift, including through honoring contact agreements. Donation becomes a relational practice of obligations and counter-obligations. However, the gift discourse may not adequately capture the emotional sacrifice experienced by donors...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722690/kinetically-constrained-ring-polymer-molecular-dynamics-for-non-adiabatic-chemistries-involving-solvent-and-donor-acceptor-dynamical-effects
#17
Joshua S Kretchmer, Thomas F Miller Iii
We investigate the performance of the recently developed kinetically-constrained ring polymer molecular dynamics (KC-RPMD) method for the description of model condensed-phase electron transfer (ET) reactions in which solvent and donor-acceptor dynamics play an important role. Comparison of KC-RPMD with results from Golden-Rule rate theories and numerically exact quantum dynamics calculations demonstrates that KC-RPMD accurately captures the combination of electronic- and nuclear-dynamical effects throughout the Marcus (intermediate solvent friction) and Zusman (large solvent friction) regimes of ET...
October 7, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718464/validation-of-a-novel-and-rapid-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-some-phenolic-organohalogens-in-human-serum-by-gc-ms
#18
Patrice Dufour, Catherine Pirard, Corinne Charlier
Over the last decades, more and more studies focused on the impact of endocrine disruptors on the environment and human health. Among them, phenolic organohalogens (POHs) are a particular concern because of their structural resemblance with natural hormones. There are different methods that are known to quantify these compounds in human serum, however, the current extraction techniques are long, fastidious and using harmfull chemicals such as diazomethane and sulfuric acid. Consequently, we developed an alternative, sensitive and faster method to simultaneously quantify pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 4 bromophenols, 7 hydroxypolychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and 3 hydroxy-polybrominated diphenyl ether (OH-PBDEs) in human serum sample...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703480/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-and-sickle-cell-trait-among-prospective-blood-donors-a-cross-sectional-study-in-berekum-ghana
#19
Patrick Adu, David Larbi Simpong, Godfred Takyi, Richard K D Ephraim
Background. Blood transfusion is a therapeutic procedure usually undertaken in patients with severe anaemia. In Ghana, severe anaemia is mostly due to malaria caused by severe Plasmodium falciparum infection, road traffic accidents, and haemoglobinopathy-induced acute haemolysis. Method. This cross-sectional study evaluated coinheritance of sickle cell haemoglobin variant and G6PD enzymopathy among individuals that donated blood at the Holy Trinity Hospital, Berekum, in the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana. Demographic data and other pertinent information were captured using questionnaire...
2016: Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683631/genetic-barriers-in-transplantation-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Hisham A Edinur, Siti M Manaf, Nor F Che Mat
The successful of transplantation is determined by the shared human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and ABO blood group antigens between donor and recipient. In recent years, killer cell receptor [i.e., killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)] and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene molecule (i.e., MICA) were also reported as important determinants of transplant compatibility. At present, several different genotyping techniques (e.g., sequence specific primer and sequence based typing) can be used to characterize blood group, HLA, MICA and KIR and loci...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
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