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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340097/s-adenosyl-methionine-sam-alters-the-transcriptome-and-methylome-and-specifically-blocks-growth-and-invasiveness-of-liver-cancer-cells
#1
Yan Wang, ZhongSheng Sun, Moshe Szyf
S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) is a ubiquitous methyl donor that was reported to have chemo- protective activity against liver cancer, however the molecular footprint of SAM is unknown. We show here that SAM selectively inhibits growth, transformation and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines but not normal primary liver cells. Analysis of the transcriptome of SAM treated and untreated liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and SKhep1 and primary liver cells reveals pathways involved in cancer and metastasis that are upregulated in cancer cells and are downregulated by SAM...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334893/high-sensitivity-hla-typing-by-saturated-tiling-capture-sequencing-stc-seq
#2
Yang Jiao, Ran Li, Chao Wu, Yibin Ding, Yanning Liu, Danmei Jia, Lifeng Wang, Xiang Xu, Jing Zhu, Min Zheng, Junling Jia
BACKGROUND: Highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are responsible for fine-tuning the adaptive immune system. High-resolution HLA typing is important for the treatment of autoimmune and infectious diseases. Additionally, it is routinely performed for identifying matched donors in transplantation medicine. Although many HLA typing approaches have been developed, the complexity, low-efficiency and high-cost of current HLA-typing assays limit their application in population-based high-throughput HLA typing for donors, which is required for creating large-scale databases for transplantation and precision medicine...
January 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329426/a-practical-guide-to-estimating-the-heritability-of-pathogen-traits
#3
Venelin Mitov, Tanja Stadler
Pathogen traits, such as the virulence of an infection, can vary significantly between patients. A major challenge is to measure the extent to which genetic differences between infecting strains explain the observed variation of the trait. This is quantified by the trait's broad-sense heritability, H2. A recent discrepancy between estimates of the heritability of HIV-virulence has opened a debate on the estimators' accuracy. Here, we show that the discrepancy originates from model limitations and important lifecycle differences between sexually reproducing organisms and transmittable pathogens...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277012/photoelectrochemical-biosensor-for-hen1-rna-methyltransferase-detection-using-peroxidase-mimics-ptcu-nfs-and-poly-u-polymerase-mediated-rna-extension
#4
Haiyan Wang, Libang Zhu, Junling Duan, Minghui Wang, Huanshun Yin, Po Wang, Shiyun Ai
2'-O-methyl group on the 3' terminal nucleotide in plant microRNAs, as one kind of RNA methylations, is caused by HEN1 RNA methyltransferase (HENMT1), which is thought to be crucial for ribosome biogenesis and function. Herein, a simple and label-free PEC biosensing method was proposed for assay of HENMT1 activity and inhibitor screening based on peroxidase mimic PtCu nanoframes (PtCu NFs) catalytic signal amplification. In this work, MoS2@Graphene quantum dots/Phosphorus-doped rodlike carbon nitride (MoS2@GQDs/P-RCN) heterojunction was used as photoactive materials...
December 21, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#5
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242164/rapid-allopolyploid-radiation-of-moonwort-ferns-botrychium-ophioglossaceae-revealed-by-pacbio-sequencing-of-homologous-and-homeologous-nuclear-regions
#6
Benjamin Dauphin, Jason R Grant, Donald R Farrar, Carl J Rothfels
Polyploidy is a major speciation process in vascular plants, and is postulated to be particularly important in shaping the diversity of extant ferns. However, limitations in the availability of bi-parental markers for ferns have greatly limited phylogenetic investigation of polyploidy in this group. With a large number of allopolyploid species, the genus Botrychium is a classic example in ferns where recurrent polyploidy is postulated to have driven frequent speciation events. Here, we use PacBio sequencing and the PURC bioinformatics pipeline to capture all homeologous or allelic copies of four long (∼1kb) low-copy nuclear regions from a sample of 45 specimens (25 diploids and 20 polyploids) representing 37 Botrychium taxa, and three outgroups...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206349/mood-body-image-fear-of-kidney-failure-life-satisfaction-and-decisional-stability-following-living-kidney-donation-findings-from-the-kdoc-study
#7
J R Rodrigue, J D Schold, P Morrissey, J Whiting, J Vella, L K Kayler, D Katz, J Jones, B Kaplan, A Fleishman, M Pavlakis, D A Mandelbrot
Prior studies demonstrate that most living kidney donors (LKDs) report no adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, changes in psychosocial functioning at the individual donor level have not been routinely captured. We studied psychosocial outcomes predonation and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months postdonation in 193 LKDs and 20 healthy controls (HCs). There was minimal to no mood disturbance, body image concerns, fear of kidney failure, or life dissatisfaction, indicating no incremental changes in these outcomes over time and no significant differences between LKDs and HCs...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185012/systems-biology-of-the-imidia-biobank-from-organ-donors-and-pancreatectomised-patients-defines-a-novel-transcriptomic-signature-of-islets-from-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Michele Solimena, Anke M Schulte, Lorella Marselli, Florian Ehehalt, Daniela Richter, Manuela Kleeberg, Hassan Mziaut, Klaus-Peter Knoch, Julia Parnis, Marco Bugliani, Afshan Siddiq, Anne Jörns, Frédéric Burdet, Robin Liechti, Mara Suleiman, Daniel Margerie, Farooq Syed, Marius Distler, Robert Grützmann, Enrico Petretto, Aida Moreno-Moral, Carolin Wegbrod, Anke Sönmez, Katja Pfriem, Anne Friedrich, Jörn Meinel, Claes B Wollheim, Gustavo B Baretton, Raphael Scharfmann, Everson Nogoceke, Ezio Bonifacio, Dorothée Sturm, Birgit Meyer-Puttlitz, Ugo Boggi, Hans-Detlev Saeger, Franco Filipponi, Mathias Lesche, Paolo Meda, Andreas Dahl, Leonore Wigger, Ioannis Xenarios, Mario Falchi, Bernard Thorens, Jürgen Weitz, Krister Bokvist, Sigurd Lenzen, Guy A Rutter, Philippe Froguel, Manon von Bülow, Mark Ibberson, Piero Marchetti
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic islet beta cell failure causes type 2 diabetes in humans. To identify transcriptomic changes in type 2 diabetic islets, the Innovative Medicines Initiative for Diabetes: Improving beta-cell function and identification of diagnostic biomarkers for treatment monitoring in Diabetes (IMIDIA) consortium ( www.imidia.org ) established a comprehensive, unique multicentre biobank of human islets and pancreas tissues from organ donors and metabolically phenotyped pancreatectomised patients (PPP)...
November 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178242/deceased-organ-donor-screening-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-viruses-discordant-serology-and-nucleic-acid-testing-results
#9
Nicole Theodoropoulos, Marek J Nowicki, Claudia Chinchilla-Reyes, Sara Dionne, Andrés Jaramillo, Tom Mone, Richard Hasz, Martin D Jendrisak, Daniela P Ladner, Michael G Ison
BACKGROUND: Before the 2014 policy change pertaining to infectious disease screening, many organ procurement organizations (OPOs) were supplementing serologic screening of deceased organ donors with nucleic acid testing (NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The number of seronegative, NAT-positive donors has not been directly measured. METHODS: HIV, HBV, and HCV screening results of 11 229 donor referrals evaluated from 2010 to 2013 were obtained from three OPO-affiliated laboratories, capturing 35% of all donors in the United States...
November 27, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164135/a-protocol-for-improved-precision-and-increased-confidence-in-nanoparticle-tracking-analysis-concentration-measurements-between-50-and-120%C3%A2-nm-in-biological-fluids
#10
Martin E M Parsons, Damien McParland, Paulina B Szklanna, Matthew Ho Zhi Guang, Karen O'Connell, Hugh D O'Connor, Christopher McGuigan, Fionnuala Ní Áinle, Amanda McCann, Patricia B Maguire
Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) can be used to quantitate extracellular vesicles (EVs) in biological samples and is widely considered a useful diagnostic tool to detect disease. However, accurately profiling EVs can be challenging due to their small size and heterogeneity. Here, we aimed to provide a protocol to facilitate high-precision particle quantitation by NTA in plasma, the supernatant of activated purified platelets [the platelet releasate (PR)] and in serum, to increase confidence in NTA particle enumeration...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162835/a-signal-amplifiable-biochip-quantifies-extracellular-vesicle-associated-rnas-for-early-cancer-detection
#11
Jiaming Hu, Yan Sheng, Kwang Joo Kwak, Junfeng Shi, Bohao Yu, L James Lee
Detection of extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated RNAs with low expression levels in early-stage cancer remains a challenge and is highly valuable. Here, we report a nanoparticle-based biochip that could capture circulating EVs without isolation, brighten encapsulated RNAs, and amplify fluorescence signals in situ in a single step. We confine catalyzed hairpin DNA circuit (CHDC) in cationic lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNs) that are tethered on a chip. LPHN features a core-shell-corona structure that facilitates the transfer and mixing of CHDC with EV-associated RNAs when forming the LPHN-EV nanocomplex...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157295/single-cell-multiplexed-cytokine-profiling-of-cd19-car-t-cells-reveals-a-diverse-landscape-of-polyfunctional-antigen-specific-response
#12
Qiong Xue, Emily Bettini, Patrick Paczkowski, Colin Ng, Alaina Kaiser, Timothy McConnell, Olja Kodrasi, Máire F Quigley, James Heath, Rong Fan, Sean Mackay, Mark E Dudley, Sadik H Kassim, Jing Zhou
BACKGROUND: It remains challenging to characterize the functional attributes of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cell product targeting CD19 related to potency and immunotoxicity ex vivo, despite promising in vivo efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies. METHODS: We employed a single-cell, 16-plex cytokine microfluidics device and new analysis techniques to evaluate the functional profile of CD19 CAR-T cells upon antigen-specific stimulation. CAR-T cells were manufactured from human PBMCs transfected with the lentivirus encoding the CD19-BB-z transgene and expanded with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 coated beads...
November 21, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156269/autotrophic-denitrification-supported-by-biotite-dissolution-in-crystalline-aquifers-2-transient-mixing-and-denitrification-dynamic-during-long-term-pumping
#13
Clément Roques, Luc Aquilina, Alexandre Boisson, Virginie Vergnaud-Ayraud, Thierry Labasque, Laurent Longuevergne, Marc Laurencelle, Alexis Dufresne, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Hélène Pauwels, Olivier Bour
We investigated the mixing and dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (Brittany, France). Hydrological and geochemical parameters have been continuously recorded over 15 boreholes in 5km(2) on a 25-year period. This extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of conservative as well as reactive compounds is a key opportunity to identify aquifer-scale transport and reactive processes in crystalline aquifers. Time series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer on the basis of a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148715/ultrafast-long-range-charge-separation-in-nonfullerene-organic-solar-cells
#14
Yasunari Tamai, Yeli Fan, Vincent O Kim, Kostiantyn Ziabrev, Akshay Rao, Stephen Barlow, Seth R Marder, Richard H Friend, S Matthew Menke
Rapid, long-range charge separation in polymer-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) enables electrons and holes to move beyond their Coulomb capture radius and overcome geminate recombination. Understanding the nature of charge generation and recombination mechanisms in efficient, nonfullerene-acceptor-based OSCs are critical to further improve device performance. Here we report charge dynamics in an OSC using a perylene diimide (PDI) dimer acceptor. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to track the time evolution of electroabsorption caused by the dipolar electric field generated between electron-hole pairs as they separate after ionization at the donor-acceptor interface...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148106/epidemiology-of-donors-and-recipients-lessons-from-the-scandat-database
#15
REVIEW
G Edgren, H Hjalgrim
With the development of several 'vein-to-vein' databases, which capture data on the entire donor-recipient continuum and link this data to health outcomes, there has been an increasing number of studies investigating the health effects of all aspects of the practice of transfusion medicine. The Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database is one of several such databases, which includes all electronically available data on blood donors, donations and transfusions since the late 1960s in Sweden and the early 1980s in Denmark...
November 16, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144762/enhancement-of-co-evolution-by-modification-of-ga2o3-with-rare-earth-elements-for-the-photocatalytic-conversion-of-co2-by-h2o
#16
Hiroyuki Tatsumi, Kentaro Teramura, Zeai Huang, Zheng Wang, Hiroyuki Asakura, Saburo Hosokawa, Tsunehiro Tanaka
Modification of the surface of Ga2O3 with rare-earth elements enhanced the evolution of CO as a reduction product in the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 using H2O as an electron donor under UV irradiation in aqueous NaHCO3 as a pH buffer, with the rare-earth species functioning as a CO2 capture and storage material. Isotope experiments using (13)CO2 as a substrate clearly revealed that CO was generated from the introduced gaseous CO2. In the presence of the NaHCO3 additive, the rare-earth (RE) species on the Ga2O3 surface are transformed into carbonate hydrates (RE2(CO3)3•nH2O) and/or hydroxycarbonates (RE2(OH)2(3-x)(CO3)x) which are decomposed upon photoirradiation...
November 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140828/biomimetic-nanoparticles-for-transplantation-tolerance
#17
Silvia Minardi, Sahil Shah, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the inability to safely induce robust donor-specific immunological tolerance makes it difficult to achieve immunosuppression-free graft survival. Despite progresses in the development of nanotherapeutics for antigen-specific immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases and in cancer treatments, few have been proposed and tested in transplantation with success...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123518/human-primary-macrophages-derived-in-vitro-from-circulating-monocytes-comprise-adherent-and-non-adherent-subsets-with-differential-expression-of-siglec-1-and-cd4-and-permissiveness-to-hiv-1-infection
#18
Ousman Jobe, Jiae Kim, Eric Tycksen, Sayali Onkar, Nelson L Michael, Carl R Alving, Mangala Rao
Macrophages are a major target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, macrophages are largely heterogeneous and may exhibit differences in permissiveness to HIV-1 infection. This study highlights the interplay of macrophage heterogeneity in HIV-1 pathogenesis. We show that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) could be divided into two distinct subsets: CD14(+)Siglec-1(hi)CD4(+) (non-adherent MDM) and CD14(+)Siglec-1(Lo)CD4(-) (adherent MDM). The CD14(+)Siglec-1(hi)CD4(+)MDM subset represented the smaller proportion in the macrophage pool, and varied among different donors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091396/donor-acceptor-conjugated-macrocycles-synthesis-and-host-guest-coassembly-with-fullerene-toward-photovoltaic-application
#19
Si-Qi Zhang, Zhen-Yu Liu, Wei-Fei Fu, Feng Liu, Chuan-Ming Wang, Chun-Qi Sheng, Yi-Fei Wang, Ke Deng, Qing-Dao Zeng, Li-Jin Shu, Jun-Hua Wan, Hong-Zheng Chen, Thomas P Russell
Electron-rich (donor) and electron-deficient (acceptor) units to construct donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated macrocycles were investigated to elucidate their interactions with electron-deficient fullerene. Triphenylamine and 4,7-bisthienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole were alternately linked through acetylene, as the donor and acceptor units, respectively, for pentagonal 3B2A and hexagonal 4B2A macrocycles. As detected by scanning tunneling microscopy, both D-A macrocycles were found to form an interesting concentration-controlled nanoporous monolayer on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which could effectively capture fullerene...
November 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083854/applications-of-photogating-and-time-resolved-spectroscopy-to-mechanistic-studies-of-hydrogenases
#20
Brandon L Greene, Gregory E Vansuch, Bryant C Chica, Michael W W Adams, R Brian Dyer
Rapid and facile redox chemistry is exemplified in nature by the oxidoreductases, the class of enzymes that catalyze electron transfer (ET) from a donor to an acceptor. The key role of oxidoreductases in metabolism and biosynthesis has imposed evolutionary pressure to enhance enzyme efficiency, pushing some toward the diffusion limit. Understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of these highly optimized enzymes would provide an important foundation for the rational design of catalysts for multielectron chemistry, including fuel production...
October 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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