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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544308/use-of-a-new-end-stage-kidney-disease-risk-calculator-in-the-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-guideline-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-different-living-kidney-donor-candidate-assessments
#1
Darren Lee, Momena Manzoor, Geoff Harley, John Whitlam, Natasha Cook, Suet-Wan Choy, Megan Sandiford, Charlotte Gibson, Lawrence P McMahon, Matthew A Roberts
AIM: The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline recommends the incorporation of a new risk calculator that quantifies the end stage kidney disease (ESKD) risk based on a composite profile of risk factors in living kidney donor candidates (LKDCs). We compared the ESKD risk estimates in previously declined versus accepted LKDCs to evaluate the predictive capacity and potential impact of this tool. METHODS: Baseline 15-year and lifetime ESKD risk estimates without donation were calculated using the risk calculator for LKDCs assessed from two centres between 2007 and 2015...
May 20, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539926/gene-specific-substitution-profiles-describe-the-types-and-frequencies-of-amino-acid-changes-during-antibody-somatic-hypermutation
#2
Zizhang Sheng, Chaim A Schramm, Rui Kong, James C Mullikin, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong, Lawrence Shapiro
Somatic hypermutation (SHM) plays a critical role in the maturation of antibodies, optimizing recognition initiated by recombination of V(D)J genes. Previous studies have shown that the propensity to mutate is modulated by the context of surrounding nucleotides and that SHM machinery generates biased substitutions. To investigate the intrinsic mutation frequency and substitution bias of SHMs at the amino acid level, we analyzed functional human antibody repertoires and developed mGSSP (method for gene-specific substitution profile), a method to construct amino acid substitution profiles from next-generation sequencing-determined B cell transcripts...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520526/kir3dl1-hl-a-b-subtypes-govern-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-relapse-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#3
Jeanette E Boudreau, Fabio Giglio, Ted A Gooley, Philip A Stevenson, Jean-Benoît Le Luduec, Brian C Shaffer, Raja Rajalingam, Lihua Hou, Carolyn Katovich Hurley, Harriet Noreen, Elaine F Reed, Neng Yu, Cynthia Vierra-Green, Michael Haagenson, Mari Malkki, Effie W Petersdorf, Stephen Spellman, Katharine C Hsu
Purpose Disease relapse remains a major challenge to successful outcomes in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Donor natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity in HCT can control leukemic relapse, but capturing alloreactivity in HLA-matched HCT has been elusive. HLA expression on leukemia cells-upregulated in the post-HCT environment-signals for NK cell inhibition via inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like (KIR) receptors and interrupts their antitumor activity. We hypothesized that varied strengths of inhibition among subtypes of the ubiquitous KIR3DL1 and its cognate ligand, HLA-B, would titrate NK reactivity against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520506/urinary-nanovesicles-captured-by-lectins-or-antibodies-demonstrate-variations-in-size-and-surface-glycosylation-profile
#4
Jared Q Gerlach, Ciaran M Maguire, Anja Krüger, Lokesh Joshi, Adriele Prina-Mello, Matthew D Griffin
AIM: The use of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) to isolate urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) was investigated and the captured subpopulations were characterized. METHODS: Pooled uEVs from multiple healthy donors were exposed to lectin-conjugated or antibody-conjugated beads. Recovered uEVs were evaluated by protein estimation, transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and lectin microarray profiling. RESULTS: uEVs isolated by lectin- and antibody-based affinity capture exhibited distinct variations in size and surface content...
May 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518051/red-blood-cells-ageing-markers-a-multi-parametric-analysis
#5
Manon Bardyn, Benjamin Rappaz, Keyvan Jaferzadeh, David Crettaz, Jean-Daniel Tissot, Inkyu Moon, Gerardo Turcatti, Niels Lion, Michel Prudent
BACKGROUND: Red blood cells collected in citrate-phosphate-dextrose can be stored for up to 42 days at 4 °C in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol additive solution. During this controlled, but nevertheless artificial, ex vivo ageing, red blood cells accumulate lesions that can be reversible or irreversible upon transfusion. The aim of the present study is to follow several parameters reflecting cell metabolism, antioxidant defences, morphology and membrane dynamics during storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five erythrocyte concentrates were followed weekly during 71 days...
May 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511094/isolation-and-genetic-analysis-of-pure-cells-from-forensic-biological-mixtures-the-precision-of-a-digital-approach
#6
F Fontana, C Rapone, G Bregola, R Aversa, A de Meo, G Signorini, M Sergio, A Ferrarini, R Lanzellotto, G Medoro, G Giorgini, N Manaresi, A Berti
Latest genotyping technologies allow to achieve a reliable genetic profile for the offender identification even from extremely minute biological evidence. The ultimate challenge occurs when genetic profiles need to be retrieved from a mixture, which is composed of biological material from two or more individuals. In this case, DNA profiling will often result in a complex genetic profile, which is then subject matter for statistical analysis. In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types (e...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510355/the-national-landscape-of-living-kidney-donor-follow-up-in-the-united-states
#7
Macey L Henderson, Alvin G Thomas, Ashton Shaffer, Allan B Massie, Xun Luo, Courtenay M Holscher, Tanjala S Purnell, Krista Lentine, Dorry L Segev
In 2013, OPTN/UNOS mandated that transplant centers collect data on living kidney donors (LKDs) at 6-months, 1-year, and 2-years post-donation, with policy-defined thresholds for the proportion of complete living donor follow-up (LDF) data submitted in a timely manner (60 days before or after the expected visit date). While mandated, it was unclear how centers across the country would perform in meeting thresholds, given potential donor and center-level challenges of LDF. To better understand the impact of this policy, we studied SRTR data for 31,615 LKDs between 1/2010-6/2015, comparing proportions of complete and timely LDF form submissions pre- and post-policy implementation...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505150/a-question-of-fate
#8
Mirjana Maletic-Savatic
Ever since the discovery of neural stem cells in the mammalian brain, the possibility of brain tissue regeneration has captured the minds of scientists, clinicians, and the public. Neural stem cells have been envisioned as a source of donor cells for transplantation and vectors for the delivery of gene therapy. Over the past decade, many researchers have contributed to characterizing these cells and their lineages, providing the foundation for their utilization as therapeutic devices. In a new study, Azim and colleagues took a different approach: using pharmacogenomics to focus on neural stem cell lineage, they identified specific compounds that can direct neural stem cell fate toward a specific lineage in vivo, both in physiological and pathological conditions...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503357/how-bad-is-it-usefulness-of-the-7eed-model-for-scoring-severity-and-level-of-need-in-complex-emergencies
#9
Anneli Eriksson, Martin Gerdin, Richard Garfield, Thorkild Tylleskar, Johan von Schreeb
BACKGROUND: Humanitarian assistance is designated to save lives and alleviate suffering among people affected by disasters. In 2014, close to 25 billion USD was allocated to humanitarian assistance, more than 80% of it from governmental donors and EU institutions. Most of these funds are devoted to Complex Emergencies (CE). It is widely accepted that the needs of the affected population should be the main determinant for resource allocations of humanitarian funding. However, to date no common, systematic, and transparent system for needs-based allocations exists...
June 28, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493637/single-molecule-photoactivation-fret-a-general-and-easy-to-implement-approach-to-break-the-concentration-barrier
#10
Sijia Peng, Ruirui Sun, Wenjuan Wang, Chunlai Chen
Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) has become a widely used tool to reveal dynamic processes and molecule mechanisms hidden under ensemble measurements. However, the upper limit of fluorescent species used in sm-FRET is still orders of magnitude lower than the association affinity of many biological processes under physiological conditions. Herein, we introduce single-molecule photoactivation FRET (sm-PAFRET), a general approach to break the concentration barrier by using photoactivatable fluorophores as donors...
May 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488439/a-high-efficient-electrochemiluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-system-in-one-nanostructure-its-application-for-ultrasensitive-detection-of-microrna-in-cancer-cells
#11
Zhaoyang Li, Zongfan Lin, Xiaoyu Wu, Haotian Chen, Yaqin Chai, Ruo Yuan
The electrochemiluminesce (ECL) efficiency of luminous emitter can be enhanced by the means of electrochemiluminesce resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) with a matched donor. However, generally, the donor and acceptor pairs were separated in different independent nanostructures, experiencing the challenging issues of limited energy transfer efficiency and luminous stability. Herein, we designed novel ECL-RET model within one nanostructure containing the donor of Tris (4,4'-dicarboxylicacid-2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) dichloride (Ru(dcbpy)32+) and the acceptor of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) for acting as the ECL emitter (QDs-Ru(dcbpy)32+), which significantly reduced the energy loss and improved the ECL efficiency of QDs because of the short path of energy transmission...
May 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474602/a-highly-sensitive-biosensing-platform-based-on-upconversion-nanoparticles-and-graphene-quantum-dots-for-the-detection-of-ag
#12
Lu He, Lin Yang, Hao Zhu, Wenkui Dong, Yujie Ding, Jun-Jie Zhu
A novel luminescence 'Turn-On' nanoplatform for the sensitive sensing of Ag(+) was fabricated based on luminescence resonance energy transfer technique between sodium citrate functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (Cit-UCNPs, energy donor) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs, energy acceptor). Amino-labeled single-stranded DNA (NH2-ssDNA) containing a number of cytosine (C) was conjugated on the surface of the Cit-UCNPs to capture Ag(+) ions. Due to the π-π stacking interaction between NH2-ssDNA and GQDs, the upconversion luminescence can be quenched...
May 5, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439930/detection-and-identification-of-platelet-antibodies-using-a-sensitive-multiplex-assay-system-platelet-antibody-bead-array
#13
Krista Metzner, Julie Bauer, Heather Ponzi, Allison Ujcich, Brian R Curtis
BACKGROUND: Tests for platelet-specific antibodies are important in the diagnosis of immune platelet disorders. Monoclonal antibody glycoprotein capture assays have been the gold standards in platelet antibody detection for almost 30 years. However, such assays are complex and cumbersome to perform, which limits their routine use. We report the performance of a newly developed, easy to perform platelet antibody bead array (PABA) for the detection of platelet-specific antibodies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PABA is the equivalent of the monoclonal antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (MACE) on a bead and instead with fluorescent detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)G platelet antibodies by Luminex...
April 25, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421672/a-transplant-specific-quality-initiative-introducing-transqip-a-joint-effort-of-the-asts-and-acs
#14
J Parekh, C Ko, J Lappin, S Greenstein, R Hirose
In an attempt to improve surgical quality in the field of transplantation, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and American Society of Transplant Surgeons have initiated a national quality improvement program in transplantation. This transplant-specific quality improvement program, called TransQIP, has been built from the ground up by transplant surgeons and captures detailed information on donor and recipient factors as well as transplant-specific outcomes. It is built upon the existing ACS/National Surgical Quality Improvement Program infrastructure and is designed to capture 100% of liver and kidney transplants performed at participating sites...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412553/native-and-solubilized-decellularized-extracellular-matrix-a-critical-assessment-of-their-potential-for-improving-the-expansion-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Andrea J O'Connor, Shaun P Brennecke, Bill Kalionis, Daniel E Heath
Capturing the promise of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatments is currently limited by inefficient production of cells needed for clinical therapies. During conventional ex vivo expansion, a large portion of MSCs lose the properties that make them attractive for use in cell therapies. Decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has recently emerged as a promising substrate for the improved expansion of MSCs. MSCs cultured on these surfaces exhibit improved proliferation capacity, maintenance of phenotype, and increased differentiation potential...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391866/nano-encapsulant-of-ascorbic-acid-loaded-apoferritin-assisted-photoelectrochemical-sensor-for-protease-detection
#16
Jiexia Chen, Guang-Chao Zhao
A signal-on photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on nano-encapsulant of ascorbic acid-loaded apoferritin-assisted for protease detection is described. The loaded ascorbic acid could be released from the central cavity of apoferritin into the buffer solution as sacrificial electron donor to capture the photo-generated holes of CdTe quantum dots when light is turned on. In this system, the biosensor relied on monitoring the photocurrent intensity as a result of enzymatic substrate proteolysis in the homogeneous aqueous solution...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388032/a-microporous-amic-acid-polymer-for-enhanced-ammonia-capture
#17
Ji-Woong Lee, Gokhan Barin, Gregory W Peterson, Jun Xu, Kristen A Colwell, Jeffrey R Long
Amic acids, consisting of carboxylic acids and amides, are often utilized as intermediates that can further undergo a dehydration-cyclization step to yield polymeric cyclic imides. Compared with imide-based materials, the presence of Brønsted acidic groups and multiple hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors in materials incorporating amic acids opens up the possibility for a variety of host-guest interactions. Here we report a facile and catalyst-free synthesis of a Brønsted acidic porous poly(amic acid) (PAA) and present its NH3 uptake properties using gas adsorption and breakthrough measurements...
April 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381242/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-15-24-edited-by-chinese-journal-of-cancer
#18
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
To accelerate our endeavors to overcome cancer, Chinese Journal of Cancer has launched a program of publishing 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as follows. Question 15: Can tumor-induced erythrogenesis provide qualified red blood cells for carrying oxygen to distant organs? Question 16: Can we overcome tumor resistance to platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs by activating the sensitivity factors in the tumor? Question 17: How can a cancer cell stay dormant for years? Question 18: Why do cancer cells use distinct transcriptomic and proteomic programs to reach the same metastatic phenotype? Question 19: Why do some cancers regress spontaneously? Question 20: What are the regulatory mechanisms occurring in donor cells that determine selective sorting of biological content into vesicles and their biological consequences in recipient cells? Are the genetic transfer and exchange of biological messages between cells transient? Is the phenotypic manipulation of recipient cells temporary or prolonged and persistent? If extracellular vesicles possess immune-modulatory potential, how could they be exploited for immune interventions and cancer immunotherapy? Presumably the cargo of extracellular vesicles reflects the cells of their origin and can be used for cancer diagnosis, how could the uniform/stringent capture criteria be met universally for applying EVs in point-of-care diagnostics for cancer patients? Question 21: Can we use self-sampling technologies to monitor the tumor genetic alterations for more precise targeted therapy? Can we cure a heterogeneous tumor by sequentially targeting the driver molecules? Question 22: Can we postpone the onset of non-infection-related cancers? Question 23: How many types of cells can jointly form the tumor vasculature to provide blood supply for tumor progression? Question 24: How tumor cells transmit their epigenetic features to daughter cells and maintain the malignant phenotype?...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374831/isolation-of-circulating-plasma-cells-in-multiple-myeloma-using-cd138-antibody-based-capture-in-a-microfluidic-device
#19
Mohammad A Qasaimeh, Yichao C Wu, Suman Bose, Anoop Menachery, Srikanth Talluri, Gabriel Gonzalez, Mariateresa Fulciniti, Jeffrey M Karp, Rao H Prabhala, Rohit Karnik
The necessity for bone marrow aspiration and the lack of highly sensitive assays to detect residual disease present challenges for effective management of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell cancer. We show that a microfluidic cell capture based on CD138 antigen, which is highly expressed on plasma cells, permits quantitation of rare circulating plasma cells (CPCs) in blood and subsequent fluorescence-based assays. The microfluidic device is based on a herringbone channel design, and exhibits an estimated cell capture efficiency of ~40-70%, permitting detection of <10 CPCs/mL using 1-mL sample volumes, which is difficult using existing techniques...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364926/transforming-vaccines-supply-chains-in-nigeria
#20
David Sarley, Mustafa Mahmud, Jide Idris, Modele Osunkiyesi, Onome Dibosa-Osadolor, Peter Okebukola, Owens Wiwa
Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and in 2012 was suffering some of the lowest vaccination rates in the World. A combination of factors had resulted in a dysfunctional immunization cold chain and supply chain. Recognizing that the number of unimmunized children contributed to high levels of under-5-mortality, and that health MDGs would not be attained, Minister of State for Health Mohammed Pate launched a vaccines transformation project in 2013. In partnership with BMGF, GAVI, UNICEF, WHO, other donors and implementing partners the transformation journey has so far taken three years and achieved impressive results...
April 19, 2017: Vaccine
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