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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156269/autotrophic-denitrification-supported-by-biotite-dissolution-in-crystalline-aquifers-2-transient-mixing-and-denitrification-dynamic-during-long-term-pumping
#1
Clément Roques, Luc Aquilina, Alexandre Boisson, Virginie Vergnaud-Ayraud, Thierry Labasque, Laurent Longuevergne, Marc Laurencelle, Alexis Dufresne, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Hélène Pauwels, Olivier Bour
We investigated the mixing and dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (Brittany, France). Hydrological and geochemical parameters have been continuously recorded over 15 boreholes in 5km(2) on a 25-year period. This extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of conservative as well as reactive compounds is a key opportunity to identify aquifer-scale transport and reactive processes in crystalline aquifers. Time series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer on the basis of a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148715/ultrafast-long-range-charge-separation-in-nonfullerene-organic-solar-cells
#2
Yasunari Tamai, Yeli Fan, Vincent O Kim, Kostiantyn Ziabrev, Akshay Rao, Stephen Barlow, Seth R Marder, Richard H Friend, S Matthew Menke
Rapid, long-range charge separation in polymer-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) enables electrons and holes to move beyond their Coulomb capture radius and overcome geminate recombination. Understanding the nature of charge generation and recombination mechanisms in efficient, nonfullerene-acceptor-based OSCs are critical to further improve device performance. Here we report charge dynamics in an OSC using a perylene diimide (PDI) dimer acceptor. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to track the time evolution of electroabsorption caused by the dipolar electric field generated between electron-hole pairs as they separate after ionization at the donor-acceptor interface...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148106/epidemiology-of-donors-and-recipients-lessons-from-the-scandat-database
#3
REVIEW
G Edgren, H Hjalgrim
With the development of several 'vein-to-vein' databases, which capture data on the entire donor-recipient continuum and link this data to health outcomes, there has been an increasing number of studies investigating the health effects of all aspects of the practice of transfusion medicine. The Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database is one of several such databases, which includes all electronically available data on blood donors, donations and transfusions since the late 1960s in Sweden and the early 1980s in Denmark...
November 16, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144762/enhancement-of-co-evolution-by-modification-of-ga2o3-with-rare-earth-elements-for-the-photocatalytic-conversion-of-co2-by-h2o
#4
Hiroyuki Tatsumi, Kentaro Teramura, Zeai Huang, Zheng Wang, Hiroyuki Asakura, Saburo Hosokawa, Tsunehiro Tanaka
Modification of the surface of Ga2O3 with rare-earth elements enhanced the evolution of CO as a reduction product in the photocatalytic conversion of CO2 using H2O as an electron donor under UV irradiation in aqueous NaHCO3 as a pH buffer, with the rare-earth species functioning as a CO2 capture and storage material. Isotope experiments using (13)CO2 as a substrate clearly revealed that CO was generated from the introduced gaseous CO2. In the presence of the NaHCO3 additive, the rare-earth (RE) species on the Ga2O3 surface are transformed into carbonate hydrates (RE2(CO3)3•nH2O) and/or hydroxycarbonates (RE2(OH)2(3-x)(CO3)x) which are decomposed upon photoirradiation...
November 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140828/biomimetic-nanoparticles-for-transplantation-tolerance
#5
Silvia Minardi, Sahil Shah, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the inability to safely induce robust donor-specific immunological tolerance makes it difficult to achieve immunosuppression-free graft survival. Despite progresses in the development of nanotherapeutics for antigen-specific immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases and in cancer treatments, few have been proposed and tested in transplantation with success...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123518/human-primary-macrophages-derived-in-vitro-from-circulating-monocytes-comprise-adherent-and-non-adherent-subsets-with-differential-expression-of-siglec-1-and-cd4-and-permissiveness-to-hiv-1-infection
#6
Ousman Jobe, Jiae Kim, Eric Tycksen, Sayali Onkar, Nelson L Michael, Carl R Alving, Mangala Rao
Macrophages are a major target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, macrophages are largely heterogeneous and may exhibit differences in permissiveness to HIV-1 infection. This study highlights the interplay of macrophage heterogeneity in HIV-1 pathogenesis. We show that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) could be divided into two distinct subsets: CD14(+)Siglec-1(hi)CD4(+) (non-adherent MDM) and CD14(+)Siglec-1(Lo)CD4(-) (adherent MDM). The CD14(+)Siglec-1(hi)CD4(+)MDM subset represented the smaller proportion in the macrophage pool, and varied among different donors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091396/donor-acceptor-conjugated-macrocycles-synthesis-and-host-guest-coassembly-with-fullerene-toward-photovoltaic-application
#7
Si-Qi Zhang, Zhen-Yu Liu, Wei-Fei Fu, Feng Liu, Chuan-Ming Wang, Chun-Qi Sheng, Yi-Fei Wang, Ke Deng, Qing-Dao Zeng, Li-Jin Shu, Jun-Hua Wan, Hong-Zheng Chen, Thomas P Russell
Electron-rich (donor) and electron-deficient (acceptor) units to construct donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated macrocycles were investigated to elucidate their interactions with electron-deficient fullerene. Triphenylamine and 4,7-bisthienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole were alternately linked through acetylene, as the donor and acceptor units, respectively, for pentagonal 3B2A and hexagonal 4B2A macrocycles. As detected by scanning tunneling microscopy, both D-A macrocycles were found to form an interesting concentration-controlled nanoporous monolayer on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which could effectively capture fullerene...
November 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083854/applications-of-photogating-and-time-resolved-spectroscopy-to-mechanistic-studies-of-hydrogenases
#8
Brandon L Greene, Gregory E Vansuch, Bryant C Chica, Michael W W Adams, R Brian Dyer
Rapid and facile redox chemistry is exemplified in nature by the oxidoreductases, the class of enzymes that catalyze electron transfer (ET) from a donor to an acceptor. The key role of oxidoreductases in metabolism and biosynthesis has imposed evolutionary pressure to enhance enzyme efficiency, pushing some toward the diffusion limit. Understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms of these highly optimized enzymes would provide an important foundation for the rational design of catalysts for multielectron chemistry, including fuel production...
October 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078333/rat-embryonic-stem-cells-produce-fertile-offspring-through-tetraploid-complementation
#9
Tian-Da Li, Gui-Hai Feng, Yu-Fei Li, Mei Wang, Jun-Jie Mao, Jia-Qiang Wang, Xin Li, Xue-Peng Wang, Bin Qu, Le-Yun Wang, Xin-Xin Zhang, Hai-Feng Wan, Tong-Tong Cui, Cong Wan, Lei Liu, Xiao-Yang Zhao, Bao-Yang Hu, Wei Li, Qi Zhou
Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be functionally assessed according to the developmental potency. Tetraploid complementation, through which an entire organism is produced from the pluripotent donor cells, is taken as the most stringent test for pluripotency. It remains unclear whether ESCs of other species besides mice can pass this test. Here we show that the rat ESCs derived under 2i (two small molecule inhibitors) conditions at very early passages are able to produce fertile offspring by tetraploid complementation...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076164/nonhemolytic-passenger-lymphocyte-syndrome
#10
S Gerald Sandler, Suhua Han, Albert Langeberg, Cal Matsumoto, Thomas M Fishbein
BACKGROUND: An 8-month-old recipient of a liver segment transplant had anti-D detected for the first time in her Day 5 posttransplant plasma and anti-C detected for the first time in her Day 55 posttransplant plasma. The donor's plasma contained anti-C and anti-D. Clinical and laboratory findings established a diagnosis of passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS). Hemolysis did not occur, because the recipient's blood group phenotype was, by chance, D- C-. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To evaluate contemporary practice for diagnosing PLS, we conducted a retrospective 10-year literature review...
October 26, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055804/high-homology-is-not-required-at-the-site-of-strand-invasion-during-recombinational-double-strand-break-repair-in-mammalian-chromosomes
#11
Kristina M Chapman, Megan M Wilkey, Kendall E Potter, Barbara C Waldman, Alan S Waldman
We investigated the impact of sequence divergence on DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurring via recombination in cultured thymidine kinase deficient mouse fibroblasts. We stably transfected cells with a DNA construct harboring a herpes thymidine kinase (tk) gene (the "recipient") rendered nonfunctional by insertion of an oligonucleotide containing the recognition site for endonuclease I-SceI. The construct also contained a closely linked truncated "donor" tk sequence. The donor could potentially restore function to the recipient gene via recombination provoked by induction of a DSB at the I-SceI site in the recipient...
December 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049896/fabrication-and-photoelectric-properties-of-bio-inspired-honeycomb-film-based-on-semiconducting-polymer
#12
Xiaofeng Fang, Xiaoju Men, Haobin Chen, Yu-Mo Zhang, Hang Sun, Shengyan Yin, Weiping Qin
Organic semiconducting materials have attracted significant attention for use in optoelectronic devices, as they can significantly improve device performance. Herein, a donor-acceptor conjugated polymer (poly(isoindigo-thiopheneylbenzothiadiazole, PID-TBT) was synthesized, which has strong and broad absorption in the visible region (400-800nm). The band gap of PID-TBT is 1.65eV. The PID-TBT honeycomb film with a porous structure was easily fabricated by the breath figure method. Compared with the smooth PID-TBT film, the honeycomb film shows significant enhancement in light capture capability and the efficiency of photoelectric conversion...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032017/editorial-next-generation-sequencing-technology-a-new-tool-for-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-allele-typing-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
B Maniangou, C Retière, K Gagne
Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes are a family of genes located together within the leukocyte receptor cluster on human chromosome 19q13.4. To date, 17 KIR genes have been identified including nine inhibitory genes (2DL1/L2/L3/L4/L5A/L5B, 3DL1/L2/L3), six activating genes (2DS1/S2/S3/S4/S5, 3DS1) and two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) classified into group A (KIR A) and group B (KIR B) haplotypes. The number and the nature of KIR genes vary between the individuals. In addition, these KIR genes are known to be polymorphic at allelic level (907 alleles described in July 2017)...
October 11, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030010/lps-priming-in-early-life-decreases-antigen-uptake-of-dendritic-cells-via-no-production
#14
Natsumi Mizuno, Yusuke Sasaki, Ryosuke Segawa, Sanki Asakawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka, Noriyasu Hirasawa
Immunological mechanisms of hygiene hypothesis are expected to develop a novel strategy for allergy prevention. Although a large number of studies has investigated the relation between allergies and infection, little is known about the influence of the exposure to infections on antigen uptake by dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) priming in early life on the antigen uptake ability of DCs by using an original mouse model. LPS priming in juvenile mice decreased the migration of antigen-capturing CD11c(+) cells in the lymph nodes, but not in aged mice...
October 9, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024924/assessing-heteroplasmic-variant-drift-in-the-mtdna-control-region-of-human-hairs-using-an-mps-approach
#15
Jamie M Gallimore, Jennifer A McElhoe, Mitchell M Holland
Resolution of mitochondrial (mt) DNA heteroplasmy is possible when applying a massively parallel sequencing (MPS) approach. However, interpretation criteria for matching heteroplasmic sequences will need to be established that address a number of important topics, including the drift of variants in sample types such as human hair shafts. Prior to MPS analysis, we compared three different DNA extraction methods for hair using a custom mtDNA quantitative PCR (mtqPCR) assay, and found that a method involving bead capture significantly outperformed methods currently in place in forensic laboratories...
October 2, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019654/transition-metal-free-radical-c-sp-3-c-sp-2-and-c-sp-3-c-sp-3-coupling-enabled-by-2-azaallyls-as-super-electron-donors-and-coupling-partners
#16
Minyan Li, Simon Berritt, Lucas Matuszewski, Guogang Deng, Ana Pascual-Escudero, Grace B Panetti, Michal Poznik, Xiaodong Yang, Jason J Chruma, Patrick J Walsh
The past decade has witnessed the rapid development of radical generation strategies and their applications in C-C bond-forming reactions. Most of these processes require initiators, transition metal catalysts, or organometallic reagents. Herein, we report the discovery of a simple organic system (2-azaallyl anions) that enables radical coupling reactions under transition-metal-free conditions. Deprotonation of N-benzyl ketimines generates semistabilized 2-azaallyl anions that behave as "super-electron-donors" (SEDs) and reduce aryl iodides and alkyl halides to aryl and alkyl radicals...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991162/characterizing-the-performance-of-gas-permeable-membranes-as-an-ammonia-recovery-strategy-from-anaerobically-digested-dairy-manure
#17
Melanie Fillingham, Andrew VanderZaag, Jessica Singh, Stephen Burtt, Anna Crolla, Chris Kinsley, J Douglas MacDonald
Capturing ammonia from anaerobically digested manure could simultaneously decrease the adverse effects of ammonia inhibition on biogas production, reduce reactive nitrogen (N) loss to the environment, and produce mineral N fertilizer as a by-product. In this study, gas permeable membranes (GPM) were used to capture ammonia from dairy manure and digestate by the diffusion of gaseous ammonia across the membrane where ammonia is captured by diluted acid, forming an aqueous ammonium salt. A lab-scale prototype using tubular expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) GPM was used to (1) characterize the effect of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration, temperature, and pH on the ammonia capture rate using GPM, and (2) to evaluate the performance of a GPM system in conditions similar to a mesophilic anaerobic digester...
October 7, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989619/efficient-photocatalytic-carbon-monoxide-production-from-ammonia-and-carbon-dioxide-by-the-aid-of-artificial-photosynthesis
#18
Zeai Huang, Kentaro Teramura, Hiroyuki Asakura, Saburo Hosokawa, Tsunehiro Tanaka
Ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) was generated by the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) into an aqueous solution of ammonia (NH3). NH4HCO3 was successfully used to achieve highly efficient photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO). NH3 and/or ammonium ions (NH4(+)) derived from NH4HCO3 in aqueous solution were decomposed into nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2). Stoichiometric amounts of the N2 oxidation product and the CO and H2 reduction products were generated when the photocatalytic reaction was carried out in aqueous NH4HCO3 solution...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966901/measuring-transplant-center-performance-the-goals-are-not-controversial-but-the-methods-and-consequences-can-be
#19
Colleen Jay, Jesse D Schold
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Risks of regulatory scrutiny has generated widespread concern about increasingly risk averse transplant center behaviors regarding both donor and candidate acceptance patterns. To address potential unintended consequences threatening access to care, we discuss recent changes in regulatory metrics and potential improvements in quality oversight of transplant centers. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite many recent changes to one-year patient and graft survival regulatory criteria, the capacity to accurately identify true underperforming centers and avoiding false positive flagging remains an area of great concern...
March 2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963547/efficient-adsorption-of-sulfamethazine-onto-modified-activated-carbon-a-plausible-adsorption-mechanism
#20
Ying Liu, Xiaohui Liu, Wenping Dong, Lingli Zhang, Qiang Kong, Weiliang Wang
Activated carbon (AC) was modified by FeCl3. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of Sulfamethazine adsorption onto original and modified AC. The results showed that Fe(3+) treatment changed the surface area, pore volume and surface zeta potential and increased the number of surface oxygenic functional groups. The adsorption of Sulfamethazine on modified activated carbon (MAC) was significantly improved. Isotherm test results revealed that the adsorption isotherms of Sulfamethazine on MAC fit the Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equations well...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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